Articles

Found 35 Documents
Search

PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KARAGINAN TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK PASTA TEPUNG UWI DAN SAGU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN BIHUN [IN PRESS JANUARI 2014] Budi, Yonatan Prasetyo; Harijono, Harijono
Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.156 KB)

Abstract

Umbi uwi dan tanaman sagu merupakan salah satu potensi besar pangan lokal di Indonesia. Berdasarkan penelitian, umbi uwi dan sagu memiliki kandungan amilosa yang cukup tinggi. Bihun merupakan bentuk divesifikasi pangan dari beras. Umbi uwi dan sagu mengandung kadar amilosa yang tinggi, berpotensi untuk menggantikan beras sebagi bahan baku pembuatan bihun. Karaginan banyak digunakan dalam bidang pangan sebagai penstabil, pengental, pembentuk tekstur dan gel. Kombinasi pati-hidrokoloid dapat memperbaiki sifat fungsional dan reologikal dari pasta pati, serta meningkatkan kualitas dan stabilitas dari produk pangan. Penelitian ini disusun menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) satu faktor yaitu, penambahan konsentrasi karaginan pada campuran tepung uwi : pati sagu (80:20) dan STPP 0.3 % (b/b). Karaginan yang ditambahakan terdapat 7 level (0 ; 0.5 ; 0.6 ; 0.7 ; 0.8 ; 0.9 ; 1) % (b/b). Campuran tepung uwi : pati sagu (80:20) dan STPP 0.3 % (b/b) dengan penambahan karaginan 1 % (b/b) menyerupai karakteristik pasta pada tepung beras.   Kata kunci: Uwi, Sagu, Karaginan, Karakteristik Pasta, Bihun
Some Changes on Enzymic Activities, Compositional and Antinutritional Factors of an Indonesian Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L) Walo) Cultivar undergoes Germination and A Mild Heating Process harijono, Harijono; Mutiara, T.; Rakhmadiono, S.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (132.651 KB)

Abstract

Changes during 48 hours germination at room temperature followed by a mild heating process on the seeds of an Indonesian cowpea cultivar  were evaluated. The results indicated that the activity of amylases and proteases increases until 36 hours of germination and then decreases.  The levels antinutritional factors, namely trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, haemagglutinins were reduced somewhat, while the protein content and the digestibility value increase.  Germination for 36 hours followed by mild heating produces germinated seeds (10% moisture) with 26.27% protein, 9.63% reducing sugars, and relative enzymic activity levels of 37.63 (unit/mL) for amylase, and 78.81 (mmole tyrosine/minute/mg) for proteases.  The levels of phytic acid, haemagglutinins and trypsin inhibitors were reduced to about 50%, 40 % and 70% of their original levels respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility value is 74.79%.   Key words : cowpea, germination, changes, anti nutritional factors
Tepung Bubur Sereal Instan Metode Ekstruksi dari Sorgum dan Kecambah Kacang Tunggak (Kajian Proporsi Bahan dan Penambahan Maltodekstrin) W., Tri Dewanti; Harijono, Harijono; S., Nurma
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (192.33 KB)

Abstract

Breakfast cereal instan merupakan alternatif sarapan yang sudah mulai banyak penggemarnya. Sorgum dan kacang tunggak merupakan bahan pangan yang  sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan di masa mendatang. Pencampuran Sorgum dan kacang tunggak adalah untuk diversifikasi pangan sumber karbohidrat dan protein sehingga mendapatkan produk dengan komposisi gizi yang lebih baik. Permasalahannya tepung bubur sereal instan nampak kurang kental setelah ditambah air panas sehingga mengurangi sifat sensorisnya. Oleh karena itu diperlukan bahan tambahan yang dapat membantu memperbaiki tekstur bubur saat disajikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 2 faktor. Faktor I yaitu proporsi sorgum dengan kacang tunggak terdiri atas 3 level (85:15; 80:20; 75:25). Faktor II adalah penambahan maltodekstrin terdiri atas 3 level (0%; 2% san 4%). Hasil penelitian menunjukan perlakuan proporsi sorgum : kacang tunggak 75 : 25% dan penambahan maltosekstrin 4% paling disukai dengan sifat sebagai berikut :  kadar air 3.26%, kadar protein 15.01%, kadar lemak 0.55%, serat kasar 4.25%, , total karbohidrat 75.74%, total energi 3764.19 kal, Indeks Absorbsi Air 17.06% dan daya serap uap air sebesar 6.63% serta memiliki nilai total rangking kesukaan rasa 144.5, kesukaan aroma 91.5 dan kesukaan kenampakan 123.   Kata kunci: bubur cereal instan, ekstruksi, sorgum dan kacang tunggak
Pencegahan Pencoklatan Umbi Ubi jalar Untuk Pembuatan Tepung: Pengaruh Kombinasi Konsentrasi Asam Askrobat dan Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate Kumalaningsih, Sri; Harijono, Harijono; Amir, Y. F.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 5, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (171.47 KB)

Abstract

The research was conducted to find out the best combination of  ascorbic acid and SAPP concentration to prevent browning reaction to improve the appearance of sweet potato flour. A Completely Randomized Block Design with two factors was carried out. Ascorbic acid concentration of 1.00;2.00; and 3.00% as the first factor and SAPP (sodium acid poly phosphate) concentration ( 0.001; 0.01; and 0.1%) as the second factor. Both were dissolved in boiling water containing 0.6g/L citric acid. The best result of the combination was used for making sweet potato flour. The results showed that increased concentration of either ascorbic acid or SAPP reduced the browning reaction. But there was no interaction between treatment. The highest effectivity index (5.39) was showed by the addition of 2.00% ascorbic acid and 0.1% SAPP which reduced the rate of browning reaction with an R2 = 0.7997. Conversely, untreated sliced root showed a faster browning reaction with the R2 = 0.8621 after delaying the sliced tuber for 12 hours. There was a significant difference in flour lightness. The treated   root   has    L =   79,67     and untreated root has L = 77,46.   Keyword: sweet potato flour, browning reaction, ascorbic acid
Detoxification of Yam Tuber (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) by Limited Heating in Yam Flour Processing Harijono, Harijono; Sari, Tassa Agustriana; Martati, Erryana
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 9, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (181.115 KB)

Abstract

Yams is one of the tuber crops in Indonesia. Meanwhile, people still unaware to consumed it and its derivative product because of the toxic compound such as alkaloid (dioscorin) and also cyanide. For that, it is necessary to have a detoxification process so we can have any alternative products from yams which is safe to consumed, for example in the production of yams flour. Detoxification in this research using limited heating method. The limited heating in this research adopted curing method which is commonly used in several food commodity, therefore it could give optimized condition for several endogenous enzymes which contain in yams, one of the function of the enzymes is for decomposing cyanide precursor in yams. Result showed that curing time in 50ºC had significant difference on moisture content, free cyanide content in flour, free cyanide content in yams tuber after curing, starch content, total sugar, crude fiber, and color. But for pH parameter of yams tuber after curing, the result did not show any significant difference.  The best treatment based on physicochemical parameters was the yams flour using curing time of 12 hours in 50ºC.  The characteristics of that yams flour are: moisture content 6,30%, free cyanide contents 13,67 ppm, starch contents 56,42%, crude fiber 3,03%, total sugar 4,91%, rendement yield 26,74%, L* colour 72,20, a* 9,90, b* 21,07, hygroscopicity 2,57%, and gelatinization temperature of 81ºCKeyword: detoxification, yams flour, curing, endogenous enzyme
The Study on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L Moench) Soaking and Germination Time to Produce Low Tannin and Phytic Acid Flour Narsih, Narsih; Yunianta, Yunianta; Harijono, Harijono
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 9, No 3 (2008)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (172.018 KB)

Abstract

Flour sorghum has not been exploited widely for food product such as other cereal flour because of the content of phytic acid and tannin in the seed. The modification of flour processing could reduce tannin and phytic content which could increase the flour quality. Time of soaking and seed germination have an important role for the production of high quality flour. The  purpose of this research was to study the appropriate treatments of soaking time and  seed germination to reduce tannin and phytic acid content.This study was carried out using factorial randomized block design with two factors, which were soaking time (24, 48 and 72 hours) and germination time (12, 24 and 36 hours).  Data was analyzed by Anova and continued by Least Significant Difference  or Duncan Multiple Range Test.The result showed that the soaking time of 72 hours and the germination time of 36 hours had the lowest tannin and phytic acid content which were 0.75% and 3.10 mg/g respectively. The low tannin and phyitic acid flour was applied on muffin bread.The sensory test of muffin hedonic scale score showed that the panelist stated like for color and slihtly like for texture.Keywords: sorghum, soaking, germination, tannin, phytic acid
Detoxification of Gadung Tuber (Dioscorea Hispida denst) by Heating and Acidification in Flour Processing Harijono, Harijono; Martati, Erryana
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 10, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (171.284 KB)

Abstract

Gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst) is a starchy tuber that contains poisoneous compounds, which is cyanide compound.  Therefore its diversification products are limited.  Only crispy fried chip of gadung product is found in the market.  Proper processing should be developed to eliminate the poisoneous compounds and to produce gadung flour which has many applications.  The aim of this research was to find out an optimum pH and duration of heating to eliminate poisoneous compounds in fresh gadung in flour making process.  It was suggested that heating and ph adjustment could activate endogenous enzymes that responsible for hydrolysis of cyanide compounds into free cyanide.  This research used Randomized Block Design with 2 factors.  The first factor was pH (4; 4.5; and 5), and the second factors was incubation time at 450C for 1, 3, and 5 hours.The result showed that incubation time and pH gave significant effect (α = 0.05) on gadung flour.  Incubation time gave significant effect on moisture content, cyanide content, flour yield, sugar total content, hygroscopicity, and ash content.  Meanwhile, pH value gave significant effect on cyanide and fiber content.  Interaction of the two treatments gave significant differences effect on cyanide content.  The best treatment based on physico-chemical parameter of gadung flour was 5 hours of incubation and pH 5.  It had flour characteristics as follows: 11.26% of moisture content; 19.95 ppm of  cyanide content; 67.2% of starch content; 5.35% of sugar total content; 1.85% of fiber content; 3.66% of ash content; 2.59% of hygroscopicity; 9.9% of yield, and 74.91% of brightness valueKeywords: yams flour, cyanide acid, endogenous enzyme
Studi Penggunaan Proporsi Tepung (Sorgum Ketan dengan Beras Ketan) dan Tingkat Kepekatan Santan yang Berbeda Terhadap Kualitas Kue Semprong Harijono, Harijono; Susanto, W. H.; Ismet, F.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (186.105 KB)

Abstract

Kue semprong is one of popular traditional snack foods of Indonesia. The research is performed to examine the effect of substitution of waxy rice flour with that of waxy sorghum (Sorgum bicolor Moench) and the solid concentration of coconut milk on the quality attributes of kue semprong. A random1zed block design experiment was performed employing two factors i.e. ratio of waxy sorghum flour (w.s.f.) to the waxy rice flour (w.r.f) and the total solid content of coconut milk. Two levels of ratio (wsf : wrf) were examined 1 : 3 and 1 : 1, and three different total solid contents of coconut milk, namely 23.93%; 17.04% and 11.42% respectively. The experiment was run in triplicates. The results indicated that the best quality kue semprong was obtained by applying ratio of wsf : wrf of 1 : 3 and the coconut milk total solid content of 23.93%. The product contains (% wb) water 1.83, ash 1.18, protein 7.44, fat 7.32 and crude fiber 1.78 respectively. The respective values of breaking force, bulk density and water absorption index were 0.69 kg/cm2; 5.79 ml/g and 12.47 %wb. The sensory evaluation indicated that in terms of the color, appearance, crispiness and taste, the product was well accepted. It was also shown that the product quality was similar to that which was produced using 100% wrf (no substitution).   Keywords: kue semprong, traditional snack food, waxy rice flour, waxy sorghum flour
Extraction and Characterization of Endogenous Polygalacturonase Enzyme in Cocoa Pulp Gandaputra, G. P.; Harijono, Harijono; Susanto, Tri; Kumalaningsih, Sri
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (311.588 KB)

Abstract

Endogenous polygalacturonase (PG) enzymes in cocoa pulp have not been studied yet. The research, aimed to extract and characterize endogenous PG enzymes in cocoa pulp, was carried in two steps: (i) extraction of endogenous PG enzyme and (ii) enzyme characterization i.e. enzyme activity assay and determination of enzymatic kinetics (Km and Vmax), molecular weight (MW) by electrophoresis, and determination of its optimum temperature and pH. The results showed that the characteristics of endogenous PG in cocoa pulp were as followed: the relative activity of 4,58± 0,06 Units/ml,  Vmax of 6,69 Units/ml, Km of 0,37 %, MW was 32,84 and 63,58 kDa, and the combination of temperature and pH optimum were 42,5oC and 4,6. Key words: endogenous polygalacturonase (PG), cocoa pulp
Effect of Curing Process on Composition of Indonesian Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha Wight.): Components’ Profile and Preference of Flavor Extracted by Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Method Wartini, Ni Made; Harijono, Harijono; Susanto, Tri; Retnowati, Rurini; Yunianta, Yunianta
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (319.483 KB)

Abstract

Bay leaves are widely used as flavouring in Indonesian cuisine, either in the form of fresh ones or after naturally dried, known as curing process. The research was conducted to determine the profile of components of the Indonesian cured bay leaves and to determine the preference of its flavour extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction method. A randomized block design experiment was performed examining three levels of curing time, namely 0, 2 and 4 days. The effects of curing on the change of weight, moisture content, colour, and components profile of the bay leaves were evaluated. The flavour components from all samples were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction method. The hedonic scale scoring was used to evaluate the preference of the flavour of the extract. It was found that the curing process substantially reduced the weight and moisture content, as well as the colour of the leaves. A total of 27, 33 and 23 compounds were resulted from flavour extract of 0, 2, 4 days cured bay leaves, respectively.  The flavour extracts from 0 and 2 days cured bay leaves showed no difference in the preference test.   Key words:  curing, flavour, bay leaf.