Fitri Sepviyanti Sumardi
Bagian Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif Rumah Sakit Bayukarta Karawang, Jl. Lesmana No. 10 Bandung

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Perbandingan Efek Pemberian Norepinefrin Bolus Intravena dengan Norepinefrin Infus Kontinu dalam Tatalaksana Hipotensi, Laju Nadi, dan Nilai APGAR pada Seksio Sesarea dengan Anestesi Spinal

Jurnal Anestesi Perioperatif Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Vasopresor sering digunakan dalam tatalaksana hipotensi anestesi spinal pada seksio sesarea. Penelitian bertujuan membandingkan efek pemberian norepinefrin bolus intravena dengan norepinefrin infus kontinu dalam tatalaksana hipotensi pada anestesi spinal pasien seksio sesarea dan pengaruh pada laju nadi serta nilai APGAR. Penelitian bersifat eksperimental acak tersamar ganda pada 44 ibu hamil status fisik American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II yang menjalani seksio sesarea dengan anestesi spinal di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada September–November 2013. Subjek penelitian dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok  norepinefrin bolus intravena 4 µg (NB) dan kelompok norepinefrin infus kontinu 8 µg/menit (NK). Data dianalisis dengan uji-t, Uji Mann-Whitney, chi-kuadrat dan uji-t analysis of variance (ANOVA), nilai p<0,05 dianggap bermakna. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan tekanan darah sistol, diastol, dan rata-rata lebih tinggi pada kelompok NB (p=0,000). Perubahan laju nadi secara umum pada kedua kelompok relatif stabil dan nilai APGAR menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak bermakna (p>0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini adalah kedua cara pemberian norepinefrin ini dapat digunakan dalam tatalaksana hipotensi anestesi spinal tanpa memengaruhi laju nadi dan nilai APGAR.   Kata kunci: Anestesi spinal, hipotensi, nilai APGAR, norepinefrin, seksio sesareaEffect of Intravenous Norepinephrine Bolus and Norepinephrine Continuous Infusion on Hypotension Management, Heart Rate, and APGAR Score in Caesarean Section Patient under Spinal AnesthesiaAbstractVasopresors are commonly used for the treatment of hypotension in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. This research aimed to compare intravenous bolus of norepinephrine to continuous infusion of norepinephrine effectiveness in hypotension management in caesarean section patient under spinal anesthesia and their effect on heart rate and APGAR Score, The experimental study was conducted in a double-blind randomized manner to 44 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status II pregnant women undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung within the period of September to -November 2013. The Study  subjects were grouped into two groups, the first group received 4 µg intravenous bolus of norepinephrine group (NB) and and the second received 8 µg/minute continuous infusion of norepinephrine group (NK).  Data were analyzed by t-test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) t-test with p<0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that the increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were higher in the NB group (p=0.000). Changes in heart rate were generally relatively stable in both groups and APGAR score showed a non-significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion from this study is the administration of norepinephrine in both ways can be used for the treatment of hypotension of spinal anesthesia without affecting the heart rate and APGAR scoreKey words: APGAR score, caesarean section, hypotension, norepinephrine, spinal anaesthesia DOI: 10.15851/jap.v3n1.375  

Tatalaksana Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis dengan Alkoholik dan Perdarahan Intraserebral

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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AbstrakCerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) adalah suatu sindrom seperti stroke, angka kejadiannya sangat jarang, sehingga dapat menjadi dilema bagi dokter di instalasi gawat darurat dalam menegakkan diagnosis. Seorang lelaki 25 tahun, 50 kg, tinggi badan 165 cm, mengeluh lemah anggota badan sebelah kanan sejak 12 jam sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Keluhan disertai dengan sukar berbicara. Satu hari sebelum masuk rumah sakit, pasien mabuk-mabukan dan mengalami muntah-muntah ± 3–5 x/hari. Riwayat kejang, konsumsi obat-obatan dan trauma sebelumnya disangkal. Tidak ada riwayat demam, hipertensi, diabetes mellitus dan penyakit penyerta lainnya. Dilakukan dekompresi evakuasi perdarahan sebagai tindakan penyelamatan jiwa setelah pasien terehidrasi, operasi dilakukan dalam anestesi umum. Lama operasi selama 2 jam dan lama pasien teranestesi 2 jam 15 menit. Pasien dirawat di ICU selama 2 hari, lalu dipindahkan ke ruang HCU. Pada hari ke-5 pascabedah mulai diberikan enoxaparin sodium 50 mg subcutan selama 6 hari. Lalu pasien dipindahkan ke ruang rawat inap dan pulang ke rumah pada hari ke-15 perawatan. Target pencapaian utama pada pasien CVST adalah untuk rekanalisasi penyumbatan, menjaga venous return, mengurangi risiko hipertensi vena, infark serebral dan emboli paru. Algoritma tatalaksana pasien CVST terkadang harus disesuaikan dengan kondisi klinis pasien saat tiba di rumah sakit. Pemberian low-weightmoleculer heparin (LWMH) tetap diberikan selama tidak terjadi peningkatan tekanan darah yang bermaknaCerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Management with Alkoholic and Intracerebral HemorrhageAbstractCerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a syndrome similar a stroke, the incidence is very rare, so it can be a dilemma for doctors at emergency departments to make the diagnosis. A 25 year old male weighing 50 kg and height 165 cm. Patients complained of right limb wekness since 12 hours before admission. Complaints are accompanied by difficulty speaking. One day before entering the hospital, the patient got drunk and experienced vomiting ± 3–5 times a day. History of seizures, previous consumption of drugs and trauma was denied. No history of fever, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities. Decompression by hematoma evacuation was performed as a life-saving action after the patient was hydrated, surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Operation duration was 2 hours and anesthesia duration was 2 hours 15 minutes. The patient was admitted to the ICU for 2 days, then transferred to the HCU room. On the 5th day post-surgery patient got 50 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin for 6 days. Then the patient was transferred to the ward and returned home on the 15th day of treatment. The main achievement targets in CVST patients were for clotting recanalization, maintaining venous return, reducing the risk of venous hypertension, cerebral infarction and pulmonary embolism. The CVST patient management algorithm sometimes has to be adjusted to the patient's clinical condition upon arrival at the hospital. Provision of LWMH is still given as long as the blood pressure does not increase significantly.

Peranan Index of Consciousness (IoC) dalam Tatalaksana Total Intravenous Anesthesia pada Operasi Mikrovaskular Dekompresi

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan tehnik operasi bedah saraf ini berbanding lurus dengan kemajuan keilmuan anestesi. Tatalaksana anestesi sangat mempengaruhi kualitas hidup dan kesehatan pasien pascabedah. Seorang laki-laki 58 tahun dengan diagnosis trigeminal neuralgia sinistra, berat badan 60 kg dan tinggi badan 165 cm. Pasien mengeluh nyeri wajah sebelah kiri yang terkadang disertai nyeri kepala. Riwayat hipertensi dan penyakit penyerta lain disangkal. Riwayat konsumsi obat-obatan seperti carbamazepine disangkal. Dilakukan induksi anestesi umum dengan tehnik total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) menggunakan teknik target controlled infuse (TCI): propofol, dexmetomidine, fentanyl dan rocuronium, sebagai alat pantau/monitoring digunakan index of consciousness (IoC), lama operasi 2 jam dan lama pasien teranestesi 2 jam 30 menit. Pascabedah pasien dirawat di ICU selama 1 hari, lalu dipindahkan ke ruang rawat inap dan pulang ke rumah pada hari ke-6 perawatan. Mikrovaskular dekompresi merupakan operasi bedah otak yang minimal invasif menuntut para ahli anestesi untuk bertanggung jawab menyokong pascabedah yang lebih optimal, sehingga pasien cepat bangun dan penilaian neurokognitif dilakukan sedini mungkin. Penggunaan IoC sebagai alat pantau pasien/monitoring selama diberikan anestesi TIVA sangatlah berguna. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mencegah timbulnya pasien tetap sadar selama operasi berlangsung, dengan melihat kedalaman anestesi yang diberikan, agar tidak terjadi kekurangan atau kelebihan dosis obat-obatan anestesi yang diberikan.The role of index of consciousness (IoC) Total Intravenous Anesthesia Management for Microvascular Decompression SurgeryThe development of science and engineering neurosurgical operation is directly proportional to the scientific advancement of anesthesia. Management of anesthesia greatly affect quality of life and health of patients postoperatively. A man 58 years old with a diagnosis of the left trigeminal neuralgia, weighing 60 kg and height 165 cm. Patients complain of pain left face is sometimes accompanied by headache. A history of hypertension and other comorbidities denied. A history of consumption of drugs such as carbamazepine denied. Induction of general anesthesia with TIVA technique using TCI: propofol, dexmetomidine, fentanyl and rocuronium, as a means of monitoring / monitoring use IoC (index of consciousness), long operating time of 2 hours and anesthetized patients 2 hours 30 minutes. Postoperative patients admitted to the ICU for 1 day, and then transferred to the wards and go home on the 6th day of treatment. Microvascular decompression is a brain surgery less invasive and requires minimal bleeding anesthesiologists responsible for more optimal postoperative support, so patients quickly get up and neurocognitive assessment done as early as possible. The use IoC as a tool to monitor patients during anesthesia TIVA, it’s very useful. It aims to prevent the patient awareness during surgery, to see the depth of anesthesia is given, in order to avoid under- or overdosing anesthesia agents.

Hematoma Subdural pada Bayi dengan Acquired Prothrombine Complex Deficiency (Apcd) Syndrome Di Rs. Hasan Sadikin Dari Juli 2010 Sampai Februari 2011

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 1, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Latar Belakang dan Tujuan: Acquired Prothrombine Complex Deficiency (APCD) adalah salah satu penyakit serius bayi, menyebabkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi, dan gejala sisa neurologis permanen pada penderita dengan hematoma subdural (SDH). Beberapa penelitian menyatakan tentang hubungan APCD dengan tingginya prevalensi menggunakan minuman ramuan tradisional disertai pembatasan asupan makanan pada ibu menyusui. Kadar Vitamin K2MK4 pada air susu ibu (ASI) yang menggunakan minuman ramuan tradisional ditemukan lebih rendah dari dibandingkan ASI dari ibu yang tidak menggunakan minuman ramuan tradisional.Subyek dan Metode: Enam kasus bayi dengan diagnosis SDH spontan karena APCD, ditinjau dari Juli 2010 sampai Februari 2011 di RS Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Data diambil meliputi anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, hasil CT-scan, hasil laboratorium, manajemen dan temuan selama pembedahan serta setelah pembedahan.Hasil: Semua enam bayi menunjukkan bukti memiliki riwayat, tanda dan gejala, dan gangguan perdarahan yang menuju kearah SDH karena APCD. Manajemen pada seluruh kasus di atas termasuk evaluasi awal CT scan, pengobatan intervensi APCD dan bedah menghasilkan hasil keluaran yang baik pada pasca pembedahan dan pemulangan dari rumah sakit.Simpulan: Faktor koagulasi berkepanjangan pada semua kasus menunjukkan risiko lebih tinggi untuk APCD pada bayi. Penatalaksanaan dini APCD prabedah dan pascabedah memberikan hasil yang baik. Tindakan kraniotomi evakuasi kurang dari 3 hari dari interval onset memberikan hasil yang baik pada skor Children Coma Scale (CCS). Subdural Hematoma in Neonates with Acquired Prothrombine Complex Deficiency (Apcd) Syndrome at Hasan Sadikin Hospital from July 2010 till February 2011 Background and Objective: APCD syndrome is one of the most serious diseases affecting infants. It leads to a high mortality rate and permanent neurological sequelae among the survivors when related with SDH. There are reports about high prevalence of using herb-liquor extracts and diet restriction among mothers of infants with the APCD syndrome. Vitamin K2MK4 levels in breast milk obtained from mothers who had used herb-liquor extracts were lower than vitamin K2MK4 levels in breast milk obtained from mothers who had not used herb-liquor extracts.Subject and Method: Six infant cases which diagnosed with spontaneous SDH due to APCD syndrome, reviewed from July 2010 to February 2011 at Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. Data reviewed include history taking, physical examination, CT-scan results, laboratory results, management and findings during operationResult: All six infants showed evidence of having history, sign and symptoms, and bleeding disorder suggesting SDH due to APCD. Management on all cases above included early CT-scan evaluation, the treatment of APCD and immediate surgical intervention resulted on good outcome on post surgery result and hospital disposalConclusions: Prolonged coagulation factors on all cases suggest higher risk for APCD on the infant. Craniotomy evacuation surgery less than 3 days interval from onset immediately gave better outcome on Children Coma Scale (CSS) score.

Kehilangan Penglihatan Pascabedah Laminektomi dalam Posisi Prone

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 1, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Kehilangan penglihatan pascabedah nonocular sangatlah jarang, akan tetapi, harus dipertimbangkan sebagai komplikasi pascabedah yang tidak diinginkan. Kehilangan penglihatan unilateral atau bilateral secara tiba-tiba yang terjadi pascaanestesia umum telah dilaporkan dan dihubungkan dengan berbagai sebab diantaranya syok haemorhagik, hipotensi, hipotermia, kelainan koagulopathi, trauma langsung, emboli, dan penekanan pada bola mata yang berlangsung lama. Kasus: seorang laki-laki berusia 60 tahun dengan diagnosis radiculopathi setinggi L4 e.c protunded disc L4-5 dan L5-S1 yang menjalani laminektomi dalam anestesi umum. Terjadi komplikasi pascabedah berupa kehilangan penglihatan yang disertai opthalmoplegi total akibat oklusi arteri retina sentralis, sindroma kompartemen orbita akut, dan pseudotumor tipe miositis. Visual Loss after Prone Lumbar Spine SurgeryVisual loss after nonocular surgery is a rare but devastating postoperative complication. Sudden unilateral or bilateral visual loss occurring after general anesthesia has been reported and attributed to various causes including haemorrhagic shock, hypotension, hypothermia, coagulopathic disorders, direct trauma, embolism, and prolonged compression of the eyes. Case: a man, 60 years-old with diagnosis radiculopathy in level L4 e.c. protunded disc L4-5 and L5-S1 who required laminectomy in general anesthesia. An unusual complication of visual loss with total opthalmoplegy was caused by central retina artery occlusion, acute ischemic orbital compartement syndrome, and pseudotumor type myositis.

Tatalaksana Kraniektomi Dekompresif pada Pasien Cedera Otak Traumatik Berat yang Disertai Peningkatan Tekanan Tinggi Intrakranial Menetap

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Tekanan tinggi intrakranial menetap adalah penyebab kematian terbesar pada pasien dengan cedera kepala traumatik berat. Pada cedera kepala berat, tatalaksana secara konservatif dan operatif dilakukan untuk meminimalisir terjadinya cedera otak sekunder. Peningkatan tekanan intrakranial biasanya disebabkan karena edema otak, hal ini sangat penting dan menentukan hasil luaran pasien/Glasgow outcomes scale (GOS) atau Extended GOS (GOSE). Data klinis menunjukkan bahwa kraniektomi dekompresif menurunkan angka kematian, meningkatkan fungsi pemulihan, menurunkan durasi perawatan di ICU dan meningkatkan hasil luaran berdasarkan Barthel Index Score. Kraniektomi dekompresif sering dilakukan sebagai penyelamatan empiris untuk melindungi kerusakan otak lebih lanjut akibat efek edema dan hipertensi intrakranial menetap. Konsep utama tatalaksana pasien dengan tekanan tinggi intrakanial yang menetap adalah menjaga aliran darah otak dan tekanan perfusi otak.Decompressive Craniectomy Management in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries Accompanied by Refractory Intracranial HypertensionRefractory intracranial hypertension is the biggest cause of death in patients with severe traumatic head injury. In severe head injuries, conservative management and surgery are performed to minimize the occurrence of secondary brain injury. The increase in intracranial pressure is usually caused by brain edema, this is very important and determines the outcomes of the Glasgow outcomes scale (GOS) or extended GOS (GOSE). Clinical data show that decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality, improves recovery function, decreases duration of ICU treatment and increases outcome outcomes based on the Barthel Index Score. Decompressive craniectomy is often performed as an empirical salvage to protect further brain damage due to the effects of edema and refractory intracranial hypertension. The main concept of managing patients with refractory intracranial hypertension is to maintain cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure.

Pengelolaan Anestesi untuk Evakuasi Hematoma Epidural pada Wanita dengan Kehamilan 22–24 Minggu

Jurnal Neuroanestesi Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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Tujuh sampai 8% dari seluruh wanita hamil pernah mengalami trauma yang dapat menyebabkan kematian ibu akibat traumanya, bukan akibat kehamilannya. Pengelolaan anestesi pada wanita hamil yang akan menjalani operasi dengan anestesi umum di luar seksio sesarea, terutama operasi bedah kepala, memberikan tantangan tersendiri kepada para ahli anestesi, karena terdapat 2 orang pasien yang harus dikelola agar menghasilkan nilai luaran klinis yang baik untuk keduanya. Kami akan melaporkan seorang wanita 22 tahun G1P0A0 dengan kehamilan 22–24 minggu, yang akan menjalani operasi evakuasi hematoma epidural akibat kecelakaan motor yang terjadi sebelumnya, tanpa dilakukan seksio sesarea, mengingatkan usia kehamilan masih dalam trimester kedua. Pertimbangan perubahan anatomi dan fisologis pada kehamilan, upaya agar aliran darah uteroplasenta adekuat serta efek teknik dan obat anestesi terhadap otak dan aliran darah uteroplasenta harus dipikirkan secara matang, karena faktor-faktor kritis akan menunjukkan derajat cedera kepala yang lebih berat, sehingga hasil nilai luaran klinis ibu dan janin buruk. Pada kasus ini ini ibu dapat pulang dengan kehamilan yang baik.Management of Anesthesia in Epidural Hematoma Evacuation with Pregnancy 22-24 WeeksSeven to 8% of pregnant women had experienced trauma that can lead to maternal deaths due to trauma not as result of her pregnancy. Management of anesthesia in pregnant women who will undergo surgery with general anesthesia outside caesarean section, especially neurosurgery, providing a challenge to the anesthesiologist, because there are two patients who must be managed in order to have good clinical score outcomes for both patients. We will report a 22-year-old woman who will undergo surgery epidural hematoma evacuation due to a motorcycle accident that occurred previously, without performed caesarean section, reminiscent of gestation is still in the second trimester. Consideration of anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy and effort that uteroplacental blood flow should be considered carefully, because critical factors will indicate the degree of head injury more severe, so that the results of the clinical outcomes of mother and fetus is bad. In this case mother and her pregnancy can discharge from hospital with good condition.

Perbandingan Efek Pemberian Norepinefrin Bolus Intravena dengan Norepinefrin Infus Kontinu dalam Tatalaksana Hipotensi, Laju Nadi, dan Nilai APGAR pada Seksio Sesarea dengan Anestesi Spinal

Jurnal Anestesi Perioperatif Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Vasopresor sering digunakan dalam tatalaksana hipotensi anestesi spinal pada seksio sesarea. Penelitian bertujuan membandingkan efek pemberian norepinefrin bolus intravena dengan norepinefrin infus kontinu dalam tatalaksana hipotensi pada anestesi spinal pasien seksio sesarea dan pengaruh pada laju nadi serta nilai APGAR. Penelitian bersifat eksperimental acak tersamar ganda pada 44 ibu hamil status fisik American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II yang menjalani seksio sesarea dengan anestesi spinal di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada September–November 2013. Subjek penelitian dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok  norepinefrin bolus intravena 4 µg (NB) dan kelompok norepinefrin infus kontinu 8 µg/menit (NK). Data dianalisis dengan uji-t, Uji Mann-Whitney, chi-kuadrat dan uji-t analysis of variance (ANOVA), nilai p<0,05 dianggap bermakna. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan tekanan darah sistol, diastol, dan rata-rata lebih tinggi pada kelompok NB (p=0,000). Perubahan laju nadi secara umum pada kedua kelompok relatif stabil dan nilai APGAR menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak bermakna (p>0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini adalah kedua cara pemberian norepinefrin ini dapat digunakan dalam tatalaksana hipotensi anestesi spinal tanpa memengaruhi laju nadi dan nilai APGAR.   Kata kunci: Anestesi spinal, hipotensi, nilai APGAR, norepinefrin, seksio sesareaEffect of Intravenous Norepinephrine Bolus and Norepinephrine Continuous Infusion on Hypotension Management, Heart Rate, and APGAR Score in Caesarean Section Patient under Spinal AnesthesiaAbstractVasopresors are commonly used for the treatment of hypotension in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. This research aimed to compare intravenous bolus of norepinephrine to continuous infusion of norepinephrine effectiveness in hypotension management in caesarean section patient under spinal anesthesia and their effect on heart rate and APGAR Score, The experimental study was conducted in a double-blind randomized manner to 44 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status II pregnant women undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung within the period of September to -November 2013. The Study  subjects were grouped into two groups, the first group received 4 µg intravenous bolus of norepinephrine group (NB) and and the second received 8 µg/minute continuous infusion of norepinephrine group (NK).  Data were analyzed by t-test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) t-test with p<0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that the increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were higher in the NB group (p=0.000). Changes in heart rate were generally relatively stable in both groups and APGAR score showed a non-significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion from this study is the administration of norepinephrine in both ways can be used for the treatment of hypotension of spinal anesthesia without affecting the heart rate and APGAR scoreKey words: APGAR score, caesarean section, hypotension, norepinephrine, spinal anaesthesia DOI: 10.15851/jap.v3n1.375