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KEBIJAKAN OPERASI PASAR DAN PASAR BERAS DI NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM ZULHAM, ARMEN; FERIZAL, M.
SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 7, No. 2 Juli 2007
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Rice is a strategic commodity in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Province. The government intervention policy on rice is quite intensive particularly through subsidy policy at farm and off farm levels. During the period of early January 2006 until last February 2006 the price of rice at consumer level keep hiking. Meanwhile at the same time, NAD was allocated 12,000 tons imported rice from central government policy to preserve local stock. This study aimed to get a comprehensive overview about rice market in NAD Province, hence, market operation and rice importing policies will not have negative effect to the producer level even as the government controling rice price at consumer level. The study used survey technique at every level of marketing channel to get input-output data. Secondary data was collected from several institutions. The research finding point out that monthly rice stock availability at district level in NAD Province is very dynamic. On Januari 2006 there was rice defisit on several districts, this explained why NAD Province experiencing a deficit as much as 13.975 tons during that time. Rice market operation policy conducted by BULOG Regional Division NAD on January 2006 had small impact in controling rice price at consumer market. This phenomenon indicates a significant rice deficit in NAD Province and confirmed there is no overstock at the trader during that period as a response of the implementation of the INPRES No. 13, 2005 on rice policy. This study suggested the rice policies should be directed not only to controlling consumer price during high price (rice deficit) but also to avoid the farmer paddy price below the floor price (paddy surplus). Keywords: Rice, Price, Marketing Margin, Market Operation. ABSTRAK Beras merupakan komoditas yang strategis dalam perekonomian NAD. Intervensi pemerintah pada komoditas ini sangat intensive terutama melalui kebijakan subsidi pada level on farm dan off farm. Kajian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengamati gejolak harga beras pada tingkat konsumen di NAD, selama periode awal Januari 2006 sampai awal Februari 2006. Sementara pada periode tersebut pemerintah mengalokasikan beras impor sebanyak 12.000 ton untuk Prov.NAD. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer dikumpulkan dengan tehnik survey untuk memperoleh data input-output dari setiap rantai pemasaran. Data sekunder dikumpulkan dari Dinas Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, Perum Bulog Divre NAD dan beberapa referensi yang terkait dengan perkembangan harga beras. Melalui penelitian ini diharapkan akan diperoleh informasi yang komperhensif tentang pasar beras di NAD. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan operasi pasar dan kebijakan impor beras untuk NAD tidak memberi dampak negatif pada petani, karena stok gabah ditingkat petani sangat kecil, dan harga gabah cukup baik. Pada bulan Januari 2006 hampir seluruh kabupaten di NAD defisit beras, defisit ini mencapai 13.975 ton. Kebijakan operasi pasar yang dilakukan oleh Perum Bulog Divre NAD pada bulan Januari 2006 dampaknya sangat kecil menurunkan harga beras pada tingkat konsumen pada periode itu. Sasaran operasi pasar Perum Bulog tersebut ditujukan untuk masyarakat golongan berpendapatan rendah, padahal masyarakat ini sebagian besar telah mendapat bantuan dari WFP atau raskin. Fenomena pasar beras di Aceh itu menunjukkan juga pada bulan Januari 2006 terjadi defisit beras sangat signifikan di NAD dan tidak ada indikasi penimbunan stok beras pada pedagang sebagai respon dari berlakunya INPRES No. 13 tahun 2005 tentang perberasan. Kebijakan perberasan hendaknya tidak hanya diarahkan untuk mengendalikan harga tingkat konsumen ketika harga tinggi (defisit beras) tetapi juga perlu diarahkan untuk petani ketika harga beras dibawah harga dasar (surplus gabah). Kata kunci: Beras, Harga, Margin Pemasaran, Operasi Pasar.
ASSESSMENT KLASTER PERIKANAN (Studi Pengembangan Klaster Rumput Laut Kabupaten Sumenep) ZULHAM, ARMEN
SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 7, No. 3 November 2007
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

Cluster is the strategy for regional development to support local economic potency. Theopinion of fisheries cluster will be developed closed to that strategy, with the aim to establishof fisheries industrial complex. In the fisheries cluster complex, the industrial units encourageto foster the harmonize link among others to increase the economic growth. Researchconcerning seaweed cluster was conducted in Sumenep (Madura) in May 2007. The locationwas choice as the target area for the establishment the fisheries cluster complex. The purposesof this research were: i). to identify and study the fisheries industrial cluster complexcharacteristics related to the development of fisheries industry. ii). To study the characteristicand pattern linkages among industrial units in fisheries center related to institutionaldevelopment. iii). to generate suggested recommendation for seaweed cluster industrialcomplex in Sumenep district. Data were collected through survey in the respected area; therespondents covered the local government officers, seaweed farmers, seaweed processors,local traders, exporters, local transportation services and local leaders. The research findingsare: there are many seaweed industry units in Sumenep which can be use as the maincomponent to organize for the establishment the seaweed industrial cluster complex, thereexist the horizontal conflict among traders and seaweed processors to have the seaweed fromthe farmers. On the other hand the vertical relationship among industrial unit tends to makeasymmetric information on price and product criteria between traders and seaweed farmers.This research recommended the seaweed cluster industrial complex in Sumenep developbased on: consumer oriented, collective and cumulative approach. And the development ofSumenep’s seaweed cluster need three step, namely: preparation step, consolidation step andindependency / transfer step. There are two types of industries which can be as a core of theseaweed clusters in Sumenep, there are the seaweed chip industry or the seaweed chip andpowder industry.
KONTRUKSI SOSIAL DALAM MEMBANGUAN BISNIS LOBSTER DI INDONESIA Zulham, Armen
Jurnal Kebijakan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2018): (Mei 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (202.518 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jkpi.10.1.2018.43-52

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Kontruksi sosial bisnis lobster merupakan fenomena sosial yang berperan menjaga keberlanjutan bisnis lobster. Peran itu telah ditunjukkan melalui berbagai regulasi dan kelembagaan (asosiasi lobster) di Amerika Utara, Australia dan Uni Eropa. Di Indonesia asosiasi atau organisasi yang demikian belum ada. Keberadaan Permen KP No. 56/ 2016, merupakan kontruksi sosial yang penting untuk merintis pengembangan bisnis lobster Indonesia yang berkelanjutan. Tulisan ini mempelajari fenomena kontruksi sosial dari jaringan sosial bisnis lobster pada berbagai kawasan di Indonesia. Bahan tulisan ini, diperoleh dari studi pustaka, hasil survey di Simeulue tahun 2015 – 2016 dan wawancara narasumber yang terkait langsung dengan bisnis lobster pada bulan Juli 2017. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kebijakan terobosan harus dilakukan dalam mengembangkan bisnis lobster di Indonesia dengan membentuk kelembagaan Asosiasi Lobster Indonesia (ALI) atau Konsorsium Lobster Indonesia (KLI). ALI atau KLI berperan tidak hanya untuk berdagang, tetapi membantu pemerintah menjaga stok lobster dan mempromosikan teknik penangkapan/budidaya lobster, serta merancang kebijakan untuk mempengaruhi pasar global.Social construction of lobster business is a social phenomenon to maintain the sustainability of lobster business. The role has been showed by many regulation and institution (lobster associations) in North America, Australia and European Union. Such associations have not been established in Indonesia. The Ministerial Decree of Fisheries & Marine Affair No. 56/2016 is an important social construction as a pioneer to develop sustainable lobster business only in Indonesia. This paper studied the phenomenon of social construction from lobster business network in many areas in Indonesia. The source of data and information were obtained from literature study, survey in Simeulue from 2015-2016, and interview with sources directly related with lobster business in July 2017. Result analysis showed that an innovation in Indonesian lobster business policy should be made by creating Indonesian Lobster Association (ILA) or Indonesian Lobster Consotium (KLI). The role of ILA or KLI are not only related to lobster trading, but also to assist the government in maintaining lobster stock, promoting techniques of lobster cultivation, and designing policy to affect global market.
TINGKAT PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT PERIKANAN DALAM PEMANFAATAN POTENSI DUA DANAU DI KABUPATEN SIMEULUE Zulham, Armen
Jurnal Kebijakan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2017): (Mei 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (264.833 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jkpi.9.1.2017.21-30

Abstract

Danau Laulo dan Danau Lauik Tawar adalah dua danau di Simeulue yang informasinya belum tersedia secara memadai. Akibatnya program pembangunan untuk masyarakat disekitar danau itu belum dapat diwujudkan. Tulisan ini, mempelajari tingkat partisipasi pemangku kepentingan di Desa Amabaan dan Desa Bulu Hadek dalam mengembangkan dan memanfaatkan potensi kedua danau tersebut. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Nopember 2015 dengan mewawancara secara acak 20 responden di Desa Amabaan dan 20 responden di Desa Bulu Hadek. Pengumpulan data kedua dilakukan pada Oktober 2016 melalui diskusi dengan tokoh masyarakat setempat. Hasil penelitian menggungkapkan tingkat partisipasi masyarakat memanfaatkan potensi danau, belum mencapai tingkat partisipasi mandiri. Tingkat partisipasi pedagang hanya pada tingkat partisipasi informatif (di Desa Bulu Hadek) dan tingkat partisipasi interaktif (di Desa Amabaan). Tingkat partisipasi masyarakat membiayaai usaha di Amabaan adalah tingkat partisipasi interaktif dan di Desa Bulu Hadek adalah tingkat partisipasi insentif. Tingkat partisipasi masyarakat dalam pemupukan modal melalui tabungan adalah tingkat partisipasi pasif. Tulisan ini merekomendasikan, untuk peningkatan pemanfaatan potensi danau perlu dilakukan intervensi pemerintah dengan membentuk pasar informal dan mengembangkan inkubator bisnis pada kedua lokasi tersebut. Dampak dari rekomendasi itu akan mendorong perubahan sosial dalam masyarakat, sehingga dapat membuat partisipasi masyarakat dalam pemanfaatan potensi danau, perdagangan dan pemupukan modal menuju tingkat partisipasi mandiri. There is limited information related to Laulo and Lauik Tawar Lakes located in Simeulue. As a consequences, the economic development program for the community cannot be appropriately implemented. This paper aims to investigate the level of participation among stakeholders in the community of Amabaan and Bulu Hadek Villages. Data was collected in November 2015 by interviewing 20 respondents in both villages randomly. The second data collection was conducted in October 2016 by discussing with the local public figures. The results showed that the community has not reached independent level in utilizing the lakes potency. The level of traders’ participation only reached the informative participation and the interactive participation in Bulu Hadek Village and Amabaan Village repectively. The level of participation in community in funding the business in Amabaan and Bulu Hadek Village are interactive and incentive, respectively. The level of participation by community on capital formation by savings is passive. The government intervention needed to increase participation level, such as creating informal market or market day (farmers market) and creating business incubator on both locations. Those activities will encourage social change to make the community participate in utilizing lake potency, trade, and capital growth through independent level of participation. 
PERILAKU SOSIAL BERINVESTASI DAN PROSPEK PENGEMBANGAN PERIKANAN RAKYAT DI WPP 714 Zulham, Armen
Jurnal Kebijakan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 8, No 2 (2016): (November, 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (192.226 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jkpi.8.2.2016.111-122

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Tulisan ini mempelajari perikanan rakyat pada WPP 714 yang berlokasi di Kota Kendari dan di Kota Tual. Data tentang nelayan perikanan rakyat yang digunakan merupakan data hasil survey yang dikumpulkan pada Bulan Mei 2015 dan bulan Oktober 2015. Basis analisis adalah kelompok alat tangkap Pancing, Jaring dan Perangkap. Jumlah responden pada setiap pengambilan data per lokasi masing-masing 100 responden. Hasil analisis menunjukkan: investasi nelayan perikanan rakyat merupakan induced investment karena memanfaatkan dana sendiri. Pada lokasi tertentu telah memaanfaatkan jasa bank dan pedagang. Armada perikanan rakyat pada dua lokasi itu mampu mensubtitusi peran perikanan komersial, jika berbagai infrastruktur (autonomous investment) seperti: Pabrik Es, Cold Storage, pasokan listrik serta sarana transportasi distribusi ikan, pasokan BBM disiapkan oleh pemerintah. Keberhasilan membangun dan memfungsikan infrastruktur dapat mempercepat transformasi armada perikanan rakyat menuju perikanan komersial. Tulisan ini merekomendasikan transformasi armada perikanan rakyat menjadi armada komersial harus segera dilakukan dengan mengganti PTM dan PMT menjadi armada KM dengan tonase kapal >=20 GT. Transformasi harus dikuti dengan pelatihan manajerial bisnis dan didukung oleh skema pembiayaan yang mudah diakses dengan bunga rendah.This paper studied about artisanal fisheries in Fisheries Management Area of Indonesian Republic (FMAs) 714 located in Kendari City and Tual City. Data in this paper are obtained from survey conducted in May and October 2015. The analysis is based on the group of fishing equipments: line, net, and trap. Total numbers of respondents are 100 on each location. It is found that the fishing investment of artisanal fisheries can be called as induced investment, because it used a personal funding. In some particular locations they used bank and merchant services. Artisanal fishing vessel on both locations are able to substitute the role of commercial fisheries. This could only occur with the presence of various infrastructures (autonomous investement) such as ice factory, cold storage, electrical supply, fish transportation and distribution equipment, and fuel supply fasilities, prepared by the government. The other things are prepared and accessible of the capital support scheme. The success in building and functioning infrastructures mentioned above could accelerate transformation of the artisanal fisheries towards commercial fisheries. This paper recommends the transformation to be immediately implemented by substituting non powered fishing vessels and out board fishing vessels to inboard powered fishing vessels with tonnage >=20 GT. This transformation should be followed by business managerial training and be supported by accessible funding scheme with low interest.
MARJIN PEMASARAN DAN RESIKO PEDAGANG: KASUS PENGEMBANGAN RUMPUT LAUT DI PROPINSI GORONTALO ZULHAM, ARMEN
SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 8, No. 1 Februari 2008
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

Intensive seaweed development program occured during fisheries revitalitation programrealesed by government. The development of this commodity triggred by highly demand ofseaweed raw material and it’s derivative in domestic and export markets. This article writebased on the RRA survey technique on marketing marjin and trade risk face by traders onseaweed trade in Gorontalo. Responden interviewed covered the stakeholders involve inseaweed business in Gorontalo. The primary data were used to analysed the marketing marjinand trader’s risk of seaweed in Gorontalo. The traders who involved in seaweed businessassume to be risk preference, due to profit oriented as long as risk oriented. The researchfinding indicated: the price sharing recive by each stakeholder compared the retail price inSurabaya and Manado quite preferable. Asymetric price information not occured among tradelevels. Marketing marjin at each level and total marjin relatively low. This informationindicated the marketing cost of seaweed more absorbed for transportation cost. As a riskpreference, the trader who sold the seaweed to Manado face highly risk compared to theirpartner who sold sea weed to Surabaya, respectively. The active involvement of governmentin seaweed business need the proper planning and strategy to ignore the disappearing target.
KAPASITAS JARINGAN SOSIAL DAN KEBIJAKAN REVITALISASI PELABUHAN PERIKANAN DI PULAU TERDEPAN (Pelajaran dari Revitalisasi Pangkalan Pendaratan Ikan Lugu, di Kabupaten Simeulue) Zulham, Armen
Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 11, No 2 (2016): DESEMBER (2016)
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Sosial Eonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.626 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jsekp.v11i2.1633

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Pembangunan ekonomi pulau terdepan melalui Program Pembangunan Sentra Kelautan dan Perikanan Terpadu (PSKPT) sedang giat dilakukan. Di Kabupaten Simeulue, program PSKPT merupakan program andalan. Dengan program PSKPT ini, infrastruktur perikanan di Pangkalan Pendaratan Ikan (PPI) Lugu di renovasi, harapannya bisnis Lapangan Usaha  Perikanan di Kabupaten Simeulue dapat berkontribusi  pada PDRB Kabupaten Simeulue lebih dari 11,5 %. Oleh sebab itu, revitalisasi PPI Lugu  merupakan salah satu target dari PSKPT Simeulue. Sejak September 2015 infrastruktur di PPI Lugu di renovasi dan  dilengkapi dengan Pabrik Es, Air Blast Frezer, pertokoan dan perkantoran agar akselerasi perekonomian Simeulue terjadi. Namun, akselerasi itu, belum terwujud, karena pemahaman tentang jaringan sosial, pertukaran sosial dalam bisnis perikanan di Simeulue kurang dicermati. Pengamatan tentang hal ini telah dilakukan sejak Januari 2015, dan kajian mendalam tentang  PPI Lugu dilakukan pada bulan April 2016. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk melengkapi data aspek sosial ekonomi dan bisnis perikanan di Kabupaten Simeulue. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan pelajaran, dalam memfungsikan beberapa pelabuhan perikanan di pulau terdepan. Tulisan ini merekomendasikan, operasional  PPI Lugu, dilakukan dalam dua tahap: jangka pendek dengan memberi konsesi pada perusahaan / pengusaha yang memiliki modal dan jaringan pasar yang luas untuk mengelola Cold Storage dan ABF atau Pabrik Es.   Dalam jangka panjang, setelah konsesi berjalan, pada tahun ketiga operasional PPI Lugu diimplementasikan dengan struktur kelembagaan pelabuhan perikanan yang berlaku. Title: Social Networking Capacity and  The Policy of Revitalization of Fishing Port  in The Frontier Island (A Lesson From Revitalization of Lugu Fishing Port, in Simeulue Regency)The economic development of frontier islands through the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Development Program (SKPT) is intensively being carried out. This program is the main activity of Simeulue Regency by renovation of the cold storage, ice factory, air blast freezer, ship dock as well as building market and offices in the  Lugu Fishing Port. The development of infrastructures is expected to encourage the growth of fisheries business, function (revitalization) of the Lugu Fishing Port, and increase the contribution of fisheries business field in the gross regional domestic product of Simeulue. The aim of this report is to understand social network and to find the strategy of the  Lugu Fishing Port revitalization, field observation for the Lugu Fishing Port revitalization was conducted by a quick survey in January 2015 and deep interview about socio economic aspect and fisheries business was conducted on 30 fishers and 3 fish traders (toke bangku)  in April 2016. Data was analyzed descriptive based on economic theory of Handerson and Quant and the sociology-economy theory of Damsar and Indrayani. Results of this study showed that role and capacity of business, social network, and social exchange in fisheries business in Simeulue not used as a references in arranging the policy of the Lugu Fishing Port revitalization. As a result, the fishing port has not functioned until August  2016. This study recommends the operational of  the Lugu Fishing Port to be conducted in two steps: short-term in giving concession to companies/businessman having the fund and wide market network to manage cold storage or ice factory, and long term starting from the third year by operating the fishing port based on the fishing port  organizational structure applied.
DAMPAK SUBSIDI SOLAR TERHADAP KELESTARIAN SUMBER DAYA IKAN DI BITUNG, SULAWESI UTARA Sari, Yesi Dewita; Luhur, Estu Sri; Zulham, Armen
Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 7, No 1 (2012): Juni (2012)
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Sosial Eonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2577.595 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jsekp.v7i1.5732

Abstract

Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui dampak penetapan subsidi harga solar terhadap kelestarian sumber daya ikan telah dilakukan di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung Kota Bitung pada Bulan April, Agustus dan Oktober 2010. Analisis pendugaan parameter biologi dilakukan dengan menggunakan model surplus produksi berdasarkan metode Clark, Yoshimoto and Pooley (CYP). Adapun analisis dinamika dan hubungan sebab akibat antara eksploitasi sumber daya perikanan dengan usaha penangkapan ikan dilakukan dengan metode analisis sistem dinamik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kondisi baseline (harga solar Rp 4.500 per liter), rata-rata harga ikan Rp 6.200 per kg dan biaya operasional Rp 14.924.373 per trip maka jumlah effort yang diperbolehkan adalah sebanyak 1.601 trip per bulan dan jumlah produksi 982 ton per bulan serta ketersediaan stok ikan 1.306 ton. Tanpa subsidi solar (Rp 7.500 per liter) maka terjadi peningkatan biaya operasional per trip sebesar 36,76% (Rp 20.410.696 per trip), sedangkan jumlah effort yang diperbolehkan relatif tetap (1.600 trip per bulan). Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan subsidi solar tidak memberikan dampak signifikan terhadap kelestarian sumber daya ikan di Bitung. Oleh karena itu, subsidi solar harus tetap diberikan kepada nelayan di Bitung agar mereka dapat melakukan pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan secara berkelanjutan disamping mengurangi potensi pemanfaatannya oleh nelayan negara tetangga secara ilegal.Title: Impact of Fuel Subsidy on Sustainablity to Fishery Resources in Bitung, North SulawesiThe study aims to determine the impact of diesel price fixing subsidy to sustainability of fish resources has been carried out in the port of Ocean Fishery Bitung, Bitung City in April, August and October 2010. Analysis of biological parameter estimation is done using a production surplus model based on the method of Clark, Yoshimoto and Pooley (CYP). The analysis of the dynamics and the causal relationship between the exploitation of fishery resources to fishing effort carried out by the method of dynamical systems analysis. The results showed that in the baseline condition (diesel price of Rp 4,500 per liter), the average price of Rp 6,200 per kg of fish and operational costs Rp 14,924,373 per trip allowed the amount of effort that is as much a 1601 trips per month and the amount of production of 982 tons per month, and 1306 tons of fish stocks. Without the solar subsidy (Rp 7,500 per liter), then an increase in operating costs per trip by 36.76% (Rp 20,410,696 per trip), while the amount of effort that allowed relatively fixed (1,600 trips per month). These results indicate that the diesel subsidy policy does not provide a significant impact on the sustainability of fish resources in Bitung. Therefore, solar subsidies should be given to fishermen in Bitung so that they can perform the utilization of fish resources in a sustainable manner as well as reducing the potential for use by fishermen neighboring countries illegally.
ANALISIS POLA MIGRASI DAN KONSUMSI RUMAH TANGGA DI DESA PESISIR TERKAIT KEMISKINAN DAN KERENTANAN PANGAN Zulham, Armen; Saptanto, Subhechanis; Rahmawati, Retno E.; Lindawati, Lindawati; Fauzi, Teuku
Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 4, No 2 (2009): DESEMBER (2009)
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Sosial Eonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (242.919 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jsekp.v4i2.5829

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pola migrasi masyarakat pesisir, mengidentifikasi determinan migrasi, mengkaji keterkaitan antara arus tenaga kerja, uang, barang dan jasa karena migrasi. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan September-Oktober 2009 dengan menggunakan metode survey pada migran di daerah asal dan daerah tujuan migrasi. Responden yang dipilih adalah migran berdasarkan daerah asal dan daerah tujuan migrasi berjumlah 45 responden. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa migrasi dari daerah pesisir didorong oleh kelangkaan potensi ikan di perairan pesisir dan terbatasnya akses masyarakat terhadap perekonomian desa serta tersedianya pekerjaan di daerah tujuan migrasi. Keputusan bermigrasi karena jaminan pekerjaan. Pola migrasi umumnya adalah migrasi sirkulasi: mingguan dan bulanan. Migrasi itu mendorong terjadinya aliran tenaga kerja, uang dan barang antara daerah asal migrasi dan daerah tujuan migrasi. Secara ekonomi migrasi tersebut memberi dampak positif terhadap pertumbuhan perekonomian di desa asal migran dan daerah tujuan migran. Rata-rata jumlah yang bermigrasi per keluarga adalah sekitar 2 orang dan jumlah uang yang dikirim karena migrasi ke desa asal migran mencapai Rp. 500 juta per bulan. Migrasi cenderung mendorong terjadinya pengelompokanmasyarakat menurut pekerjaan dan tempat tinggal di daerah tujuan migrasi, karena adanya hubungan “patron client” antara pemilik modal (patron) dan migran (client). Migrasi merupakan salah satu alternatif masyarakat pesisir untuk keluar dari masalah kemiskinan dan memenuhi kebutuhan pangan rumah tangganya. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan agar program-program bantuan termasuk corporate social responsibility (CSR) yang masuk ke desa pesisir harus dikonsolidasikan dengan modal/aset yang dihimpun oleh para migran untuk menjadi pengungkit perekonomian desa pesisir. Tittle: Analysis of Migration and Household Consumption Pattern in the Coastal Villages Related to Poverty and Food Resiliency.The purpose of this research was to study the migration pattern, to identify the determinant of migration, to investigate the dependency between labor movement, money, good and services. The data were collected in September 2009 and October 2009 by using survey method. Respondents were migrant based on migrant origin and migrant destination accounted for as 45 person. Results of the study showed as the following: migration from coastal villages where due to the depletion of fish in coastal water, limited access in local economic gain, and the availability of occupation in labor destination places. Weekly and monthly migration (periodic) pattern are common in both migrant destination and origin areas. Migration persuades the movement of labor, money, good and services between labor destination and origin places. From economic point of view, migration gives a positive impact to migrant destination and origin areas, respectively. In an average, 2 labors in each household in coastal villages were migrant, and Rp. 500 million were transfer to each respective village. Migration tends to push establishing society group according to type of recepation and residential place in the migration destination due to patron client relationship. Migration for the coastal community seems, to be one alternative to alleviate poverty and provide food for household. Results of the research recommend that aid’s programs including the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in coastal village should be consolidated with the accumulate asset of the migrant in stimulating economic development of their respective village.
ASSESSMENT KLASTER PERIKANAN (STUDI PENGEMBANGAN KLASTER RUMPUT LAUT KABUPATEN SUMENEP) Zulham, Armen; Purnomo, Agus Heri; Apriliani, Tenny; Hikmayani, Yayan
Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 2, No 2 (2007): DESEMBER (2007)
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Sosial Eonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2527.211 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jsekp.v2i2.5870

Abstract

Klaster adalah strategi pengembangan wilayah untuk memanfaatkan potensi ekonomi. Wacana klaster perikanan tidak lepas dari strategi tersebut, tujuannya untuk mendorong pengembangan sentra industri perikanan. Penelitian dilakukan bulan Mei 2007 pada lokasi pengembangan rumput laut di Kabupaten Sumenep yang merupakan contoh daerah sasaran pengembangan klaster rumput laut. Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah: i) mengidentifikasi dan mempelajari berbagai karakteristik konsep klaster dalam hubungannya dengan pengembangan industri perikanan; ii) mempelajari karakteristik dan hubungan unit usaha pada sentra perikanan terkait dengan pengembngan klaster perikanan dan iii) merumuskan strategi pengembangan klaster rumput laut di Sumenep. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survey melalui wawancara dengan responden. Responden yang diwawancara meliputi: pejabat pemerintah, pembudidaya rumput laut, pedagang, pengolah dan eksportir rumput laut, pengusaha jasa transportasi dan tokoh masyarakat setempat. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan di Sumenep telah ada komponen-komponen pembentuk klaster rumput laut. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan tejadi konflik horizontal pada usaha perdagangan dan industri pegolahan produk primer menjadi intermediate product. Pada sisi lain hubungan vertikal antar komponen usaha industri rumput laut cenderung mendorong terjadi asimetris informasi terutama antara pembudidaya rumput laut dengan pedagang. Pengkajian ini merekomendasikan kluster rumput laut di Sumenep harus dibangun berdasarkan prinsip: consumer oriented, klaster harus bersifat kolektif, dan kumulatif. Tittle: Assesment of Fisheries Cluster (Development Case of Seaweed Cluster in Sumenep District).Cluster is a strategy for regional development to support local economic potency. The opinion of fisheries cluster will be developed closed to that strategy, with aiming to establish fisheries industrial complex. Research was conducted in Sumenep (Madura) on May 2007as the target area for the establishment of the fisheries cluster complex. The purposes of this research were: i) to identify and study the fisheries industrial cluster complex characteristics related to the development of fisheries industry, ii) to study the characteristic and pattern linkages among industrial units in fisheries center related to institutional development, and iii) to generate suggested recommendation for seaweed cluster industrial complex in Sumenep district. Data were collected through survey in the respected area; the respondents covered the local government officers, seaweed farmers, seaweed processors, local traders, exporters, local transportation services and local leaders. The research findings were: there were many seaweed industry units in Sumenep which can be used as the main component to organize the establishment of the seaweed industrial cluster complex, in order to get horizontal conflict among traders and seaweed processors were existed the seaweed from the farmers. On the other hand, the vertical relationship among industrial units tend to make asymmetric information on price and product criteria between traders and seaweed farmers. This research recommends the seaweed cluster industrial complex in Sumenep can be developed on the basis of: consumer oriented, collective and cumulative approach.