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PEMANTAUAN EFEKTIVITAS OBAT ANTI TUBERKULOSIS BERDASARAKAN PEMERIKSAAN SPUTUM PADA PENDERITA TUBERKULOSIS PARU

JURNAL KESEHATAN Vol 3, No 1 (2010): Ilmu-Ilmu Kesehatan
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN

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Abstract

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Indonesia is still a major problern and is the third cause of death in the world after Chinq and India. The principle of treatment is given in 2 phases, namely an intensive and advanced stage. Conversion target of at least 80 % in the intensive phase. Monitoring of treatment outcomes in adults conducted by the microscopic re-examination of sputum at the end of the 2nd month intensive phaseof treatment. Sputum examination at the end of intensive phase conducted to determine whether there has been conversion of sputum, which changes from positive to negative smear. Thirty sputum samples ofpatients with pulmonary TB (tuberculosis) which have made preparations to meet the inclusion criteria, carried out with qcid-fost staining Ziehl Neelsen method qnd examined microscopically by counting thenumber of smear positive per 100 field of view. OAT patients were given intensive phase for 2 montla and then a week before the end of the month of the 2nd re-examination of sputum performed microscopically. The results obtqined by dffirent test was then performed with llilcoxon test.The average of smear positive before treatment was 222/100 56/100 LP where the minimum amount and maximum 1139/ I00LP LP. The averqge of smear positive after treatment was I6/100 LP where the minimumamount 0 / 100 LP and muimum 104/100LP. As many as 73.i94 had positive sputum smear conversion after intensive phase of treatment. After the Wilcoxon test to the number of smear positive before and aftertreqtment got p-value : 0.0001 (p-value <0.05). There was significant dffirence between the number of smear positive before and after treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosri, so it can be concludedthat the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug effectively provided to the new pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Anti- Tuberculosis Drugs should be swallowed on a regular basis according to the instructions and do not stop taking the medication before the treatment is completed in order to avoid drug resistance, although at the end of intensive phase of treatment is obtained the number of smeor negative, but must continue treatment atan advanced stage to avoid recurrence.Keywords : Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs, Sputum pulmonary tuberculosis patients

Hubungan antara Hygiene Perorangan dan Lingkungan dengan Kejadian Pioderma Studi Observasi Analitik pada Pasien Pioderma Rumah Sakit Islam Sul-tan Agung Periode Agustus-Desember 2010

Jurnal Sains Medika Vol 3, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran UNISSULA

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Abstract

Background : Bacterial skin infection is the third most common  health problem in Indonesia resulting  frompoor personal and environmental hygiene. The most common bacterial skin infection is the pyoderma. Thisstudy aims to find out relation between personal hygiene and environmental with the incidence of pyodermain RSI Sultan Agung Semarang.Design and Methods: The study type was analytic observational with case control design. The sampleconsisted of 30 respondents RSI patients Sultan Agung for case group and 30 persons as control group is theneighbors of patients who have similar characteristics and are not suffering pyoderma. The data used aresecondary data from medical records and primary data from questionnaires filled out by respondents, thenthe data were analyzed with chi-square and to determine the correlation power there was used a contingencycoefficient test.Results : It was found that the good and the bad individual hygene for the case group were 3.3% and 66.7%respectively, while for the control group the good and bad individual hygene were 80.0% and 20.0%respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,000 with contingency coefisien of 0.426. It was found  that  thegood and the bad environmental hygene for the case group were 56.7% and 43.3% respectively, while for thecontrol group the good and bad environmental hygene were 83.3% and 16.3% respectively. Chi-square testresulted in p=0,024 with contingency coefisien of 0.27.Conclusion : There was a significant correlation between the personal and environmental hygiene andpoderma insicence at the RSI Sultan Agung with a moderate relationship between individual hygiene andweak relationship between environmental hygene.Pendahuluan: Infeksi kulit bakterial merupakan masalah kesehatan ketiga di Indonesia, sebagai akibathygiene perorangan dan hygiene lingkungan yang jelek. Infeksi kulit bakterial yang paling banyak adalahpioderma. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan hygiene perorangan dan lingkungandengan kejadian pioderma di RSI Sultan Agung Semarang.Metode:  Jenis penelitian adalah analitik observasional dengan rancangan  case control. Sampel terdiridari 30 responden pasien RSI Sultan Agung untuk kelompok kasus dan 30 orang sebagai kelompok kontrolmerupakan tetangga pasien yang mempunyai karakteristik yang sama dan tidak sakit pioderma. Datayang digunakan adalah data sekunder dari catatan medik dan data primer dari kuesioner yang diisi olehresponden, kemudian data dianalisis dengan uji  chi-square  dan untuk mengetahui kekuatan korelasidigunakan Uji Koefisien Kontingensi.Hasil:  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada kelompok kasus mempunyai hygiene perorangan baik sebanyak33,3% dan buruk sebanyak 66,7% sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol mempunyai hygiene peroranganbaik sebanyak 80,0% dan buruk sebanyak 20,0%. Hasil uji chi-square  didapatkan nilai sebesar  p =0,000dan koefisien kontingensi 0,426. Untuk hygiene lingkungan, pada kelompok kasus mempunyai hygiene lingkungan baik sebanyak 56,7% dan buruk sebanyak 43,3%. Sedangkan pada kelompok kontrolmempunyai hygiene lingkungan baik sebanyak 83,3% dan buruk sebanyak 16,3%. Hasil uji chi-squaredidapatkan sebesar  p =0,024 dan koefisien kontingensi 0,279.Kesimpulan:  Terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara hygiene perorangan dan lingkungan dengankejadian pioderma di RSI Sultan Agung dengan keeratan hubungan sedang pada hygiene perorangan danlemah pada hygiene lingkungan.

Faktor Perilaku yang Berhubungan dengan Kontaminan Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus pada Makanan Siap Saji

Jurnal Sains Medika Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran UNISSULA

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Abstract

Background: Food is an important environmental element in improving the optimal health status. Severalfoodborne-disease transmissions have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygieneof people handling foodstuff including diarrhea, gastroenteritis, and food poisoning. This study aims atanalysing the risk factor related to attitude associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contaminantsin food handler including knowledge, attitude and practices regarding contamination.Design and Method: A cross-sectional study included 22 ready served food seller in Telogosari Kulon,Pedurungan, Semarang.Result: The study showed there are no contamination in 14 (63.6%) samples of bacteria and 8 (36.4%) samplescontain Staphylococcus aureus bacterial contaminants. There was a significant differences in knowledge,attitude and practice of the food handler with bacterial contamination. Further, we found significantcorrelation knowledge, attitude and practices of the food handler regarding contamination.Conclusion: Counseling, emphasis on food safety training for food seller, and supervision by visiting orlaboratory tests on samples regularly are needed to ensure that food safety practices are followed, (SainsMedika, 1 (2) : 168-175).ABSTRAKPendahuluan: Makanan adalah unsur lingkungan yang penting dalam meningkatkan derajat kesehatansecara optimal. Sebaliknya makanan dapat pula menjadi sumber penularan penyakit atau penyebabterjadinya keracunan makanan, jika makanan tersebut tidak dikelola secara hygiene. Penyakit yangsering terjadi berkaitan dengan penyediaan makanan yang tidak hygiene adalah diare, gastroenteritis,dan keracunanan makanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis faktor perilaku yang berhubungandengan kontaminan bakteri  Staphylococcus aureus pada penjamah makanan yang meliputi pengetahuan,sikap dan praktik dengan kontaminan bakteri  Staphylococcus aureus.Metode Penelitian: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan  crosssectional. Sampel sebanyak 22 penjual makanan siap saji (nasi bungkus) di Telogosari Kulon, Pedurungan,Semarang.Hasil Penelitian: Sebanyak 14 (63,6%) sampel tidak terjadi kontaminasi  Staphylococcus aureus  dan 8(36,4%) sampel kontaminan bakteri  Staphylococcus aureus. Ada hubungan yang bermakna antarapengetahuan, sikap dan praktik penjamah makanan dengan kontaminan bakteri  Staphylococcus aureus.Kesimpulan: Upaya agar makanan siap saji menjadi aman dan terhindar dari kontaminan mikroba dapatdilaksanakan melalui penyuluhan dan peningkatan motivasi kepada penjual makanan, pengawasandengan melakukan kunjungan atau pemeriksaan sampel di laboratorium secara berkala, (Sains Medika,1 (2) : 168-175).

Faktor Perilaku yang Berpengaruh terhadap Kejadian Malaria di Daerah Endemis Malaria The Behavioral Factor Associated with The Incidence of Malaria in Endemic Area

Jurnal Sains Medika Vol 3, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran UNISSULA

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Magelang Regency is one of the endemic area of malaria in central Java. The working areaof Health centre of Kajoran I, Banjaretno, has the highest incidence of malaria annually (Dinkes Magelang,2010). Malaria is is transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles infected by Plasmodium sp. Its mosteffective prevention is vector eradication. This study was aimed at finding out the behavioral risk for theincidence of malaria.Design and Methods: In this observasional study using case control design include 40 cases and 40 controlsusing the simple random sampling. Chi square test followed by double-logistic regression was applied forthe data analysis with p=5%.Results: Bivariate analysis on the 6 factors resulted in p<0.05 and 2 factors resulted in p>0.05. multivariateanalysis showed that the habit factor of going out in the evening, installing wire gauze on the ventilation,hanging used clothes, mowing lawn, the existence of closed waste basket, washing the curtain resulted inthe p=0.010 (OR = 10; 95% CI = 3.4-39.2), p=0.001 (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 3.5-15.8), p=0.018 (OR = 3.3; 95% CI =1.9 -16.2), p=0.044 (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.1-30.9), p=0.380 (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.1-1.2), p=0.002 (OR = 2.4; 95%CI =3.4 -5.6) respectively.Conclusion: The habit of going out in the evening has been shown to be most important behavioral factorassociated with the malaria incidence (Sains Medika, 3(2):168-184).Pendahuluan: Kabupaten Magelang merupakan salah satu daerah endemis malaria di Jawa Tengah.Desa Banjaretno di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Kajoran I merupakan daerah dengan angka kasus malariatertinggi pada hampir setiap tahunnya (Dinkes Magelang, 2010). Penyakit malaria ditularkan melaluigigitan vector nyamuk Anopheles betina yang sudah terinfeksi oleh Plasmodium sp. Cara penanggulanganyang paling tepat hingga saat ini adalah dengan memberantas vektor. Penelitian ini dilakukan untukmengetahui faktor perilaku manakah yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kejadian malaria.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini merupakan observasional dengan pendekatan Case control. Sampel terdiridari 40 kasus dan 40 kontrol, teknik sampling menggunakan simple random sampling. Data yang diperolehdianalisis menggunakan uji Chi square dan selanjutnya dianalisis multivariat dengan uji regresi logistikganda dengan tingkat kemaknaan 5%.Hasil: Analisis bivariat menunjukkan 6 (enam) faktor perilaku yang mempunyai nilai p<0,05 dan 2 (dua)faktor perilaku mempunyai nilai p >0,05. Pada analisis multivariate faktor kebiasaan keluar rumah padamalam hari mempunyai nilai p=0,010 (OR = 10; 95% CI = 3,4-39,2), kebiasaan memasang kawat kasa padalubang ventilasi p=0,001 (OR = 4,1; 95% CI = 3,5-15,8), kebiasaan menggantung baju bekas pakai di dalamrumah p=0,018 (OR = 3,3; 95% CI = 1,9 -16,2), kebiasaan membersihkan semak-semak p=0,044 (OR = 6,5;95% CI = 2,1-30,9), keberadaan tempat sampah yang tertutup p=0,380 (OR = 0,43; 95% CI = 0,1-1,2),kebiasaan mencuci korden p=0,002 (OR = 2,4; 95% CI =3,4 -5,6).Kesimpulan: Faktor perilaku yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kejadian malaria adalah kebiasaan keluarrumah pada malam hari (Sains Medika, 3(2):168-184).

The Role of Antioxidant to Prevent Free Radicals in The Body

Sains Medika Vol 8, No 1 (2017): January - June 2017
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

AbstractAntioxidants are compounds that can counteract or reduce the negative impact oxidants in the body. Antioxidants work by donating an electron to compounds that are oxidant so that the oxidant compound activity can be inhibited. Antioxidants are classified into two, namely antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme. Antioxidant enzymes as enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a non-enzyme antioxidant found in many vegetables and fruits, which include reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, E, β- carotene, flavonoids, isoflavones, flavones, antosionin, catechins, and isokatekin, and lipoic acid. Low antioxidant enzymes can be used as a marker of high levels of free radicals in the body. Following review aims to provide an overview of the role of antioxidants in preventing the formation of free radicals in the body.

The Behavioral Factor Associated with The Incidence of Malariain Endemic Area

Sains Medika Vol 3, No 2 (2011): Juli-Desember 2011
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Background: Magelang Regency is one of the endemic area of malaria in central Java. The working area of Health centre of Kajoran I, Banjaretno, has the highest incidence of malaria annually (Dinkes Magelang, 2010). Malaria is is transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles infected by Plasmodium sp. Its most effective prevention is vector eradication. This study was aimed at finding out the behavioral risk for the incidence of malaria.Design and Methods: In this observasional study using case control design include 40 cases and 40 controls using the simple random sampling. Chi square test followed by double-logistic regression was applied for the data analysis with p=5%. Results: Bivariate analysis on the 6 factors resulted in p<0.05 and 2 factors resulted in p>0.05. multivariate analysis showed that the habit factor of going out in the evening, installing wire gauze on the ventilation, hanging used clothes, mowing lawn, the existence of closed waste basket, washing the curtain resulted in the p=0.010 (OR = 10; 95% CI = 3.4-39.2), p=0.001 (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 3.5-15.8), p=0.018 (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.9 -16.2), p=0.044 (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.1-30.9), p=0.380 (OR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.1-1.2), p=0.002 (OR = 2.4; 95% CI =3.4 -5.6) respectively.Conclusion: The habit of going out in the evening has been shown to be most important behavioral factor associated with the malaria incidence (Sains Medika, 3(2):168-184).

The Correlation between Individual and Environmental Hygiene and Pioderma Incidence An Analytical Observational Study in Pyoderma Patient in Islamic Sultan Agung Hospital during the Period August to December 2010

Sains Medika Vol 3, No 1 (2011): Januari-Juni 2011
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Background: Bacterial skin infection is the third most common health problem in Indonesia resulting from poor personal and environmental hygiene. The most common bacterial skin infection is the pyoderma. This study aims to find out relation between personal hygiene and environmental with the incidence of pyoderma in RSI Sultan Agung Semarang.Design and Methods: The study type was analytic observational with case control design. The sample consisted of 30 respondents RSI patients Sultan Agung for case group and 30 persons as control group is the neighbors of patients who have similar characteristics and are not suffering pyoderma. The data used are secondary data from medical records and primary data from questionnaires filled out by respondents, then the data were analyzed with chi-square and to determine the correlation power there was used a contingency coefficient test.Results: It was found that the good and the bad individual hygene for the case group were 3.3% and 66.7% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad individual hygene were 80.0% and 20.0% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,000 with contingency coefisien of 0.426. It was found that the good and the bad environmental hygene for the case group were 56.7% and 43.3% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad environmental hygene were 83.3% and 16.3% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,024 with contingency coefisien of 0.27.Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between the personal and environmental hygiene and poderma insicence at the RSI Sultan Agung with a moderate relationship between individual hygiene and weak relationship between environmental hygene (Sains Medika, 3(1):24-30).

The Correlation between Medical Personnel’s Attitude and Pap Smear Examination Practice at Islamic Sultan Agung Hospital Semarang

Sains Medika Vol 7, No 1 (2016): January - June 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran; Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Introduction: Cervical cancer is still ranked in the first place of those diseases most commonly developing in Indonesian women. It is predicted that 41 new cases occur every day, and around 20 people every day pass away of it. Cervical cancer keeps increasing because the coverage of screening through pap smear examination is low. Objective: This research aims at discovering the correlation between medical personnel’s attitude and practice of pap smear examination at Rumah Sakit Islam Sultan Agung (RISA) Semarang. Methods: The study is observational research using cross sectional design with a sample of 38 medical personnel taken randomly from 273 personnel as its population in RISA Semarang. The data are taken using questionnaire and interview with respondents, and the obtained data are analyzed using univariate and bivariate tests, using chi-square test, at a significance level < 0.05. Result: the percentage of medical personnel having regular pap smear practice is higher in medical personnel with good attitude (66.7%) compared to those with poor attitude (17.6%). The data analysis using Chi Square statistic test indicates a significant difference, p = 0.003.Conclusion: the results of this reseach show that pap smear is more commonly done by those medical personnel with good attitude than those with poor attitude

Risk Factors of Acute Respiratory Infections in Practice Area for Community of Medical Students in Semarang

Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) ranks first of 10 major diseases in Primary Health Care Bangetayu with the highest percentage in Penggaron Lor Subdistrict. Skill to learn distribution and frequency of diseases as well as determinant factors that affect human health is needed in determine the most effective intervention to increase public health level. This study aimed to determine dominant factors related to ARI incidence in location of practice for community of medical students of Islam Sultan Agung University, Semarang. This study used cross-sectional design with 100 respondents and the samples were collected by stratified random sampling. Ten variables examined were environmental sanitation risk factors, while six related to behavior and health care. Data analysisused a chi-square test (bivariate) and multiple regression logistic (multivariate). Environmental sanitation factors were significantly related to ARI including the presence of ventilation, smoke hole kitchen, bedroom, residential density and the most dominant factor was the habit of smoker family members in Penggaron Lor Subdistrict. This location can be used as a practice area for the community of medical students who take Public Health Studies due to complex health problems.AbstrakInfeki saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA) menempati urutan pertama dari 10 besar penyakit di Puskesmas Bangetayu dengan persentase terbanyak di Kelurahan Penggaron Lor. Keterampilan untuk mempelajari distribusi dan frekuensi penyakit serta faktor determinan yang memengaruhi manusia sangat diperlukan untuk menetapkan intervensi yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan derajat kesehatan masyarakat. Perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui faktor risiko yang paling dominan berhubungan dengan kejadian ISPA di lokasi praktik komunitas mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan jumlah responden 100 orang dan sampel dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan stratified random sampling. Sepuluh variabel yang diteliti adalah faktor risiko sanitasi lingkungan, sedangkan enam faktor risiko terkait dengan perilaku dan pelayanan kesehatan. Data dianalisis secara bivariat dengan uji kai kuadrat dan multivariat dengan regresi logistik ganda. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian ISPA adalah ventilasi, lubang asap dapur, ruang tidur, dan kepadatan hunian. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah kebiasaan anggota keluarga yang merokok di Kelurahan Penggaron Lor. Lokasi ini dapat digunakan sebagai lahan praktik komunitas bagi mahasiswa kedokteran yang sedang kepaniteraan di program studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat karena memiliki permasalahan kesehatan yang kompleks.

The Correlation between Medical Personnel’s Attitude and Pap Smear Examination Practice at Islamic Sultan Agung Hospital Semarang

Sains Medika Vol 7, No 1 (2016): January-June 2016
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA)

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Abstract

Itroduction: Cervical cancer is still ranked in the first place of those diseases most commonly developing in Indonesian women. It is predicted that 41 new cases occur every day, and around 20 people every day pass away of it. Cervical cancer keeps increasing because the coverage of screening through pap smear examination is low.Objective: This research aims at discovering the correlation between medical personnel’s attitude and practice of pap smear examination at Rumah Sakit Islam Sultan Agung (RISA) Semarang.Methods: The study is observational research using cross sectional design with a sample of 38 medical personnel taken randomly from 273 personnel as its population in RISA Semarang. The data are taken using questionnaire and interview with respondents, and the obtained data are analyzed using univariate and bivariate tests, using chi-square test, at a significance level < 0.05.Result: the percentage of medical personnel having regular pap smear practice is higher in medical personnel with good attitude (66.7%) compared to those with poor attitude (17.6%). The data analysis using Chi Square statistic test indicates a significant difference, p = 0.003.Conclusion: the results of this reseach show that pap smear is more commonly done by those medical personnel with good attitude than those with poor attitude.