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Application of Aquaculture Natural Food Produce by Protoplast Fusion Process of Dunaliella salina and Phaffia rhodozyma

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 4 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Recently, fishponder income tend to be static so that required an effort to accurately and efficiently one of them through aquacultures  food diversification. So far, efforts to observe the pattern of introduction of a new feed, applications and their impact on aquaculture and fish farmers income has never been measured. Diversification of feed use protoplast fusion process from D. salina and P. rhodozyma which rich in natural carotenoids is needed in aquaculture because they will increase survival and body weight of animal farming. Different types of carotenoids can be combined through a process of protoplasm fusion making it cheaper, faster and efficient for diversification and development of carotenoid-rich diet. The specific objectives of this research is the development of natural food aquaculture with high carotenoid content using protoplasm fusion  from the microalgae D. salina and yeast P. rhodozyma. The early stage in this research will cultivate recombinant followed by quantitative analysis of carotenoid production compared with controls. The second stage is the food diversification with different concentrations of recombinant and comparisons with commercial food followed by cost-benefit analysis. The research results have been obtained which  most carotenoid-rich natural food resulted from recombinant fusion of D. salina and P. rhodozyma. Its application in vitro have increased body weight of shrimp comparing to artificial feed. In addition, recombinant food showing stable growth in both freshwater and salt water, can breed naturally and are safe for animal aquaculture consumption and also the environment. Key words : carotenoid, protoplast fusion, D. salina,  P. rhodozyma, recombinant Selama ini pendapatan petani tambak cenderung statis sehingga diperlukan suatu upaya secara tepat dan efisien salah satunya melalui diversifikasi pakan. Sejauh ini usaha untuk mengamati pola introduksi suatu pakan baru, aplikasi dan dampaknya terhadap budidaya dan pendapatan petani tambak belum pernah terukur. Diversifikasi pakan mengggunakan pakan kaya karotenoid alami sangat dibutuhkan dalam budidaya perikanan karena terbukti dapat meningkatkan keloloshidupan dan menambah bobot hewan budidaya. Kedua jenis karotenoid β-karoten dan astaxantin dapat digabungkan melalui  proses fusi protoplasma sehingga lebih murah, cepat dan efisien untuk diversifikasi dan pengembangan pakan kaya karotenoid.  Tujuan khusus penelitian ini adalah pengembangan usaha budidaya  untuk  meningkatkan  pendapatan  petani  tambak  melalui  diversifikasi  pakan  akuakultur  dengan kandungan karotenoid tinggi hasil fusi protoplasma alga Dunaliella salina dan khamir Phaffia rhodozyma. Tahap awal dalam penelitian ini akan melakukan kultivasi pakan rekombinan Dunaliella salina dan Phaffia rhodozyma diikuti analisis produksi karotenoid secara kuantitatif dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Tahap kedua adalah diversifikasi pakan dengan perbedaan konsentrasi fusan dan perbandingan dengan jenis pakan lain diikuti dengan analisis untung rugi. Kata kunci : karotenoid, fusi protoplas, D. salina,  P. rhodozyma, rekombinan

Pengaruh Pengaturan Intensitas Cahaya yang Berbeda Terhadap Kelimpahan Dunaliella sp. dan Oksigen Terlarut dengan Simulator TRIAC dan Mikrokontroller AT89S52

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 11, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Energi matahari dibutuhkan oleh phytoplankton dilaut dalam proses fotosintesis. Laju fotosintesis akan meningkat bila intensitas cahaya meningkat dan menurun bila intensitas cahaya berkurang, sehingga cahaya berperan sebagai faktor pembatas utama dalam fotosintesis atau produktvitas primer. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk pembuatan dan pengujian pengaturan intensitas cahaya lampu buatan untuk proses fotosintesis fitoplankton Dunaliella sp. Cahaya lampu diatur intensitasnya mengikuti pola cahaya matahari dengan panjang gelombang 0.4μm- 0.7μm menggunakan rangkaian konverter AC-AC. Konverter AC-AC tersebut menggunakan rangkaian TRIAC yang pemicuannya dikontrol dengan mikrokontroler AT89S52. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwadari perlakuan siklus on-off (A), siklus 3 jam (B) dan siklus matahari buatan (C), menunjukkan bahwa respon fotosintesis yang paling bagus dan efisien adalah perlakuan dengan siklus matahari buatan (C)Kata kunci : Intensitas cahaya buatan, fitoplankton Dunaliella sp., microcontroller, AC-AC converterSun light intensity plays an important role to photosynthesis process in the sea water. The photosynthesis rates will be high when the light intensity is high and it will be down when the light intensity decreases.Therefore light play significant role as the limiting factor in primary productivity of photosynthesis. The research purpose is to provide the artificial lighting lamp for phytoplankton. (Dunaliella sp.) photosynthesis process. The lighting lamp intensity is controlled in order to be similar with sunlight intensity pattern that has wavelength 0.4 mm 0.8mm by using AC - AC converter circuit. The AC-AC converter uses TRIAC triggered by AT89S52 microcontroller. The experimental result indicates that the artificial lighting controller can be used to support phytoplankton photosynthesis process. This is indicated by the dissolved oxygen (DO) and the density of phytoplankton which tend to follow the pattern of the given lighting intensity.Key words: artificial lighting, phytoplankton Dunaliella sp., microcontroller, AC-AC Converter

Struktur Komunitas Zooplankton di Muara Sungai Serang, Jogjakarta

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 10, No 2 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Zooplankton adalah salah satu komponen dalam rantai makanan yang diukur dalam kaitan dengan nilai produksi suatu ekosistem. Hal ini dikarenakan zooplankton berperan ganda baik sebagai konsumen satu maupun konsumen dua, dimana merupakan rantai penghubung di antara plankton dan nekton. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas zooplankton di perairan muara Sungai Serang Yogyakarta. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus. Penentuan stasiun sampling menggunakan metode pertimbangan (purposive sampling method). Pengolahan data meliputi kelimpahan, indeks keanekaragaman, indeks keseragaman, indeks dominansi, dan indeks dispersitas Morisita. Parameter perairan yang terukur suhu, salinitas, kecerahan, kecepatan arus, kedalaman, derajat keasaman (pH), DO, nitrat, dan fosfat. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan tanggal samplingdiperoleh kelimpahan rata-rata zooplankton berkisar antara 6.704-36.427 sel/L dengan indeks keanekaragaman 1,16-1,78; indeks keseragaman 0,75-0, 95; dan indeks dominansi 0,13-0,31. Sedangkan hasil penelitian berdasarkan stasiun diperoleh kelimpahan rata-rata zooplankton berkisar antara 10.952-31.669 sel/L dengan indeks keanekaragaman 1,17-1,65; indeks keseragaman 0,76-0,95; dan indeks dominansi 0,13 - 0,21.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh hasil, bahwa genus zooplankton yang memiliki sebaran luas pada setiap stasiun (dominan) adalah genus Trigriopus, Nauplius, Pseudocalanus (Crustacea), Brachionus, Plerodina (Rotatoria). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa zooplankton yang terdapat di perairan muara Sungai Serang Yogyakarta terdiri dari 6 kelas dan 21 genus. Sedangkan dilihat dari nilai indeks keanekaragaman dan keseragaman diketahui bahwa muara Sungai Serang termasuk daerah yang memiliki komunitas zooplankton yang beragam dan didominasi oleh kelas Crustacea.Kata kunci: struktur dan indeks komunitas,  zooplankton, estuarinZooplankton is one of the components in the food chain especially in relation to the production of an ecosystem. This is due to the fact that zooplankton play both as first and second consumer. The objective of this study was to investigate the community structure of zooplankton within Serang River estuary, Yogyakarta. The research was based on a case study, while sampling was done by purposive sampling method. The abundance, variety index, diversity index, dominancy index, and dispersity index were calculated based on the data collected.. The water parameter measured temperature, salinity, transparency, current velocity, pH, dissolvedoxygen, nitrate, and phospate. The result showed that based on the date of sampling the average of zooplankton abundance were ranged between 6704 - 36427 cell/L with variety index range between 1,16-1,78; diversity index were ranged between 0,75-0,95; and dominancy index were ranged between 0,13-0,31. While the results based on sampling station of the average of zooplankton abundance was range between 10.952 - 31.669 cell/L with variety index were ranged between 1,17-1,65; diversity index were ranged between 0,76-0,94; and dominancy index range between 0,13-0,21. The most common genera of zooplankton found in sampling station were Tigriopus, Nauplius, Pseudocalanus (Crustacea), Brachionus, Pterodina (Rotatoria).There were 6 classes and 21 genera of zooplankton found in the estuary of Serang River, Yogyakarta. Based on the value of the indices, it suggest that this estuary has high diversity of zooplankton and dominated by class CrustaceaKey words : structure and community indices, zooplankton. estuary

Struktur Komunitas Copepoda di Perairan Jepara

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 12, No 4 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Copepoda merupakan komponen terbesar dari zooplankton di laut dan berperan sebagai produser sekunder serta konsumer. Berdasarkan perannya dalam jaring-jaring makanan, maka komunitas copepoda pada suatu perairan dapat digunakan untuk menilai produktivitas perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas copepoda di perairan Jepara. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari April hingga Desember 2005 di perairan Jepara dan identifikasi dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi Oseanografi UNDIP. Enam stasiun untuk pengambilan sampel yang dilakukan sebulan sekali. Pengambilan sampel copepoda dilakukan dengan planktonnet 100 mm, dengan menyaring air sebanyak 1 m3 secara vertikal dari dasar perairan. Sampel yang diperoleh diawetkan dengan formalin 4% untuk diidentifikasi di laboratorium. Keanekaragam, keseragaman dan dominansi dianalisa untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas copepoda. Pengukuran parameter kualitas air yang meliputi suhu, salinitas pH, arus dan kecerahan dilakukan secara bersamaan dengan pengambilan sampel. HasiI penelitian di perairan Jepara terdapat3 ordodan 18 genus copepoda, yaitu Ordo Calanoida (13 genus), Cyclopoida (2 genus) dan Harpacticoida (3 genus). Kelimpahan copepoda di perairan Jepara sebesar 5 - 546 ind/l, dengan rata-rata 316 ± 85, keanekaragaman 2,3259-2,3594, keseragaman 0,80 - 0,81 dan terdapat dominansi Acartia sp dan Calanus sp. Kata kuncl: Copepoda, Struktur Populasi, Jepara The dominantion ofcopepod in the zooplankton community, play an important role as secondary producer and primary consumer in the sea food web. Due to this function, the copepod population can be use as the sea water productivity. The aim of the research is to know and copepod community structure at Jepara Waters. The research was conducted from April to December 2005 at the Jepara Wafers and the samples were identified at Laboratory of Biological Oceanography, UNDIP. There were six stations established as the research site area. Monthly sampling was done. Copepod were collected using the 100 mm plankton net, by filtering a total of 1 m3 sea water taken vertically. The samples were preserved by the addition of formaldehyde 4% and identified in the laboratory. The diversity, evenness and dominance index were calculated to describe the copepod community structure. The water quality such as temperature, salinity, pH, current and transparency, were observed in the same time. There were 18 genus of copepods determined at the Jepara waters, belong to 3 ordo i.e Calanoid (13 genus), Cydopoid (2 genus) and Harpacticoid (3 genus). Copepod density at Jepara water was 5-546 ind./l, (average 316 ± 85), diversity 2,3259-2,3594, eveness 0,8047-0,8163 and dominancy 0,1837-0,1953. Acartia sp and Calanus sp. were dominant in Jepara waters identified. Key words : Copepods, Population Structure, Jepara

Pengaruh Kepadatan Terhadap Tingkat Kematangan Gonad dan Fekunditas Kepiting Bakau (Scylla serrata) pada Kultivasi di Tambak Garam

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 9, No 4 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kematangan gonad dan fekunditas kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata) dengan sistem kultivasi dalam karamba di tambak garam berdasarkan perlakuan kepadatan benih yangberbeda.Benih kepiting berjumlah 144 ekor dengan berat awal rata-rata 250 gram, terbagi kedalam empat perlakuan kepadatan, masing masing A ( 6 ekor ), B ( 8 ekor ), C ( 10 ekor ) dan D ( 12 ekor ), yang masing– masing diulang empat kali dipelihara dalam karamba berukuran 1 x 0,75 x 1 meter. Pemeliharaan dilakukan selama 2 minggu ( 8 – 23 Oktober 2001 ). Hasil pengamatan kematangan gonad berdasarkan dianalisis berdasarkan Indeks Kematangan Gonad serta fekunditas. Kematangan gonad kepiting bakau Scylla serrata tercapai secara merata dengan indeks berkisar diantara 42.87 – 68.70, dengan indeks tertinggi sebesar 65.12 ± 2.39 pada perlakuan C ( kepadatan 10 ekor per 0.75 m 2 ). Sedangkan fekunditas berkisar diantara 60000 –120000 butir telur, dengan perlakuan tertinggi dicapai pada perlakuan B dengan kisaran jumlah telur 96000 – 120000 dan nilai rata – rata 110000 ± 12000 butir telur. Hubungan berat kepiting dengan fekunditas total Y = 567.9562 – 103477.337 X ( r = 0.7966 ). Fekunditas memberikan hasil linier menurun berdasarkan perlakuan dikarenakan kemampuan toleransi serta ruang gerak yang terlalu sempit dan persainganKata kunci : kepadatan, kematangan gonad, fekunditas, kepiting Scylla serrata.The aim of the research is to know the effect of different density on the gonad maturity and fecundity of mud crab ( Scylla serrata ) grown in the cage. This cage were put in salt water pond. Four treatments (density ), i.e. A ( 6 individual ), B ( 8 individual ), C ( 10 individual ) and D ( 12 individual ), with four replications, were applied. The average initial weight of the mud crab is 250 gram. These were grown for two weeks ( October 8 to 23, 2001 ). The mud crab gonad maturity and fecundity was analysed using the analysis based on the Gonad Maturation Index and Fecundity. The gonad maturity was found for almost of mud crab Scylla serrata. The gonad maturity index showed a value from 42.87 – 68.70, which the highest was reached by the treatment C ( with the density 10 individual per 0.75 m 2 ). The fecundity varies from 60000 –120000 eggs, which the highest was 110000 ± 12000 and reached by the treatment B ( with the density 10 individual per 0.75 m 2 ). The relationship between mudgrab weight and fecundity was Y = 567.9562 – 103477.337 X (r = 0.7966). The fecundity showed a decreased linierity due to the limitationspace cause by the level of density.Key words : density, gonad maturation, fecundity, mud crab Scylla serrata

THE DETERMINATION OF THE BIVALVAE Mactra sp. POPULATION COHORT AT REMBANG WATERS, CENTRAL JAVA USING THE BHATTACHARYA METHOD

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 1, No 3 (1998): Volume 1, Number 3, Year 1998
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

The determination of bivalvae Mactra sp. Year class cohort were applied for the samples from Randu Guntinh Esturian, Rembang Waters, Central Java, using the Bhattacharya Method (different logarithmatic). The abundance and shell length data of bivalvae Mactra sp collected on March to June, 1996 were used to improved the method. The Bhattacharya method allowed the determination of three year class cohorts for the samples. This discussed in regard to advantage of the method giving the input  data for the construction of the growth model.

THE APPLICATION OF VON BERTALANFFY GROWTH CURVE ON THE DEMOGRAPHIC STUCTURE OF BIVALVAE POPULATIONS AT REMBANG WATER, CENTAL JAVA

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 1, No 2 (1998): Volume 1, Number 2, Year 1998
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

The determination of bivalvae demographic structure were conducted in Rembang Waters, central Java. The samples were collected and observed in situ, from February to May, 1996 and coverd 3 species, which are Mactra sp., Solen sp. and Pholas sp. The Von bertalanffy Growth Curve allows the determination of bivalvae population growth and their evolution. This is in regard to their presence according to sampling time and their abundances. The growth model was adjusted by several approaches, using the computer program, called DATAX . It was found that, the general pattern of bivalvae demographic structure was directly related to the ecological capacity and hydrodynamic factors of sampling area.

A MASS-BALANCE TROPHIC FLOW MODEL AT AWUR BAY IN THE NORTHERN CENTRAL JAVA SEA

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 3, No 1 (1999): Volume 3 Number 1 Year 1999
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

A mass-balance trophic flow model is constructed using a simple model termed ECOPATH. The model is applied to an ecosystem at Awur bay, Jepara in the northern central Java sea. The model constructed was built based on twelve components of the ecosystem, which were partitioned into groups of similar species and provide for these species groups, estimates of production biomass, diet and food consumption. Three tropic level of the components were clearly presented in the model. A number of the estimates mean biomass was 3922.054 gC.m-2.yr-1, while net primary production was 78439.48 gC.m-2.yr-1, over 115 ha area at Awur bay, northern coast of Central Java.

THE ABUNDANCE OF ZOOPLANKTON AS SECONDARY PRODUCER AT AWUR BAY IN THE NORTHERN CENTRAL JAVA SEA

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 4, No 1 (2000): Volume 4, Number 1, 2000
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

The diversity of zooplankton {as Secondary Producer) were observed at seagrass, mangrove and coral reef area at Awur Bay, in Jepara Waters. The observation were made fom August, 13 to September, 10, 2000, atfour daibr intervals : at 09.00 A.M., 12.00 noon ,3.00 P.M. and 6,00 PM. The zooplankton abundance at the seagrass area are 33 73—6497 individuals/ml with an average of 5329 individuals/ml , at the mangrove area 4132»5970 individuals/mg with an average of 5177 individuals/mj , and at the coral reef area 3061-4079 with average of 3599 individuals/ml. The zooplankton di}ersity at the seagrass area are 2,1594»2,2917, with an average of 2,2289, at the mangrove area 2, 0925»2,4962 with an average cf 2,5130 and at the coral reefarea 1,9227- 2,1181 with an average of 2,0306 On the basis of the zooplankton abundance and diversity at seagrasr, mangrove and coral reef area of the Awur Bay, the averages at the Jepara Waters can be regarded as an indicator of marine productivity. The three locations observed displays a direct interre lation as the habitat of zooplankton.

ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT AWUR BAY IN THE NORTHERN CENTRAL JAVA SEA

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 2, No 1 (1998): Volume 2, Number 1, Year 1998
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

Zooplankton abundance, diversity and community structure were estimated in the seagrass beds of Awur Bay, Jepara. The samples were collected during 36 hours observation in situ, from Nopember 1994 to April 1995 and covered a total 29 species, which holoplanoton, 7 meplankton and 6 nectobenthos. Result of Shannon Weaver Diversity Index and Cluster Analysis based on Bray Curtis values revealed patterns of zooplankton abundance, diversity and community structure. These are discussed with regard to sampling time and zooplankton life cycle. The zooplankton abundances range between 6800 – 22777 individuals/m3, with average 13698 individus/m3, while the diversity range between 2,48 – 2,86 and cumulatively 2,93. Zooplankton abundance and community structure fluctuated due to seasonal changes, during the first two months of the research, and increasing to a stable level in April 1995. This pattern of zooplankton community structure appears to be related to the ecological capacity and hydrodynamic. Keywords : zooplankton, seagrass, abundance, diversity, community structure, Awur Bay, Jepara.

Co-Authors agung Suryanto Agung, Andita Agus Anugroho Dwi S. Ambariyanto , Anastasia Rita Tisiana D. K., Anastasia Rita Tisiana Anastasia Tisiana Dwi Kuswardani, Anastasia Anindya Wirasatriya Arwiyah, A Asih Rismiarti, Asih Aziz Nur Bambang Bayu A Pranoto Bayu Priyono, Bayu Budi Raharjo Chrisna A Suryono Deki Lukman Wicaksono Denny Nugroho Sugianto Dewi Masyitoh Syihab Dionisia Dini Nugraheni Dwi Haryo Ismunarti Dwi Yuliasari Edy Supriyo Eka Riadi Elis Indrayanti Endang Kusdiyantini Febrianto, Sigit Finna Widya Ariani Firman Farid Muhsoni Gabriella Inez Aramita Ganis T.K, Ganis Gentur Handoyo Gizka Anindya Putri, Gizka Anindya Greenaty Hidayah, Greenaty Hadi Endrawati Hafiludin, H Hariyadi . Haryanti, Wahyu Dewi Utari Hermin P Kusumaningrum Hermin Pancasakti Kusumaningrum Hersugondo Hersugondo Herusugondo Herusugondo Hilyati Fajrina Ida Noventalia Indras Marhaendrajaya Ita Riniatsih Johanes Hutabarat Lilik Maslukah Mahendrajaya, Robertus Triaji Mahendrajit Yudhantoko, Mahendrajit Mahfud Efendy, Mahfud Maya Angaraini Fajar Utami, Maya Angaraini Mochamad Iqbal Herwata Putra, Mochamad Iqbal Mochammad Facta Moh Holli, Moh Muh. Yusuf Nadia, Mirza Novia Rahmawati Novita Ayu Ryandhini, Novita Ayu nurul latifah Person Pesona Renta Petrus Subardjo Purwanto Purwanto Rahmad Triadi Restu Nur Afi Ati Retno Hartati Ria Azizah Rica Dewanty Rose Dewi Rosmeiuli Panjaitan Rudhi Pribadi S R Wahyudi, S R Sakti Pancar Emak Sri Redjeki Sri Yulina Wulandari Sudjadi Sudjadi Sulistyowati Sulistyowati Suryono Suryono Suryosaputro, Agus Anugroho Dwi Sutrisno Anggoro Titik Susilowati Tjahjo Winanto, Tjahjo Wahyu Budi Setyawan Widianingsih Widianingsih Widodo Setiyo Pranowo Widodo Setiyo Pranowo Winona Abigail Yopie Anggara Putra, Yopie Anggara Yulia Ulfah Yuniar Andri Sulistiyanto Zulfiandi Zulfiandi