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ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI RESISTEN MERKURI DARI MUARA SUNGAI SARIO YANG DAPAT DIGUNAKAN UNTUK DETOKSIFIKASI LIMBAH MERKURI Fatimawali, Fatimawali; Badaruddin, Fatmawaty; Yusuf, Irawan
JURNAL ILMIAH SAINS Vol 11, No 2 (2011): Volume 11 Nomor 2, Oktober 2011
Publisher : Sam Ratulangi University

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Abstract

ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI RESISTEN MERKURI DARI MUARA SUNGAI SARIO YANG DAPAT DIGUNAKAN UNTUK DETOKSIFIKASI LIMBAH MERKURI Fatimawali1), Fatmawaty Badaruddin2), Irawan Yusuf 2) 1)Dosen Fakultas  Kedokteran Unsrat Manado dan Mahasiswa Program Doktor Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar; 2)Dosen Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar ABSTRAK Merkuri adalah logam berat yang bersifat sangat toksik, mempunyai afinitas terhadap gugus thiol protein.  Keberadaan merkuri  dilingkungan, karena secara alamiah maupun karena aktifitas antrofogenik. Di Kabupaten Bolaang Mongondow terdapat beberapa penambang emas rakyat yang menggunakan merkuri untuk mengekstrak emas dari batuan atau ore dan membuang limbah merkuri secara bebas ke lingkungan dan terbawa air hujan sampai kepada perairan.  Sedimen perairan yang terkontaminasi merkuri dapat ditumbuhi bakteri resisten merkuri.  Bakteri resisten merkuri anorhanik dapat digunakan untuk bioremediasi perairan, karena bakteri tersebut mampu mereduksi merkuri anorganik menjadi logam merkuri yang mudah menguap dan kurangtoksik.  Dan merupakan sumber pencemaran merkuri.  Bakteri resisten merkuri mempunyai operon mer yang biasanya terkandung dalam plasmid.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi bakteri resisten merkuri anorganik, dan menganalisis kemampuannya dalam mereduksi HgCl2 dalam media nutrient broth.  Bakteri resisten merkuri tinggi, dilakukan analisis Gen 16S rRNAnya untuk mengetahuis pesiesnya.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat A1.1.1 merupakan bakteri spesies Klebsiella pneumoniae, mampu mereduksi HgCl2 75% dalam waktu 1 jam, 92% dalam waktu 12 jam dan 99,4%  dalam waktu 24 jam Kata Kunci: bakteri, detoksifikasi,  HgCl2,  Klebsiella pneumoniae   ISOLATION  AND  IDENTIFICATION OF MERCURY-RESISTANT BACTERIUM FROM SARIO RIVER ESTUARY THAT CAN BE USED TO DETOXIFY INORGANIK MERCURY WASTES ABSTRACT Mercury (Hg) is well known for its high toxicity and strong affinity toward the thiol group of proteins. When Hg released into the environment in substantial quantities through natural events and anthropogenic activities . In District of Bolaang Mongondow, many miners who are a source of mercury pollution of aquatic environments to which they use to extract gold from the rock or ore. Waters sediment contaminated with mercury, can be overgrown with microorganism such as bacteria that are resistant to mercury.  Mercury-resistant bacteria can be used for bioremediation of waters due to the ability of these bacteria to reduce toxic inorganic mercury into mercury metal which is volatile and less toxic. Mercury-resistant bacteria has mer Operon which usually contained in the plasmid.  The aim of this study was the selection of bacterial strains resistant to inorganic mercury, as well as to show their capacity to reduce mercury  in pure culture media Nutrient Broth. Twelve isolate bacteria was selected for its capacity to reduce mercury HgCl2 in culture media nutrient broth. The one bacterial strains belong to the spesies Klebsiella pneumoniae. Inoculated in pure culture, these strain showed a mercury reduction of 75% in 1 hour, 92% in 12 hours, and  99,4% in 24 hours. Keywords : bacteria , detoxification, HgCl2 ,  Klebsiella pneumoniae
Correlation between level of serum estrogen, c-telopeptide, and interleukin-6 in determining bone density in perimenopausal women Suparman, Eddy; Yusuf, Irawan; Tahir, Andi Mardiah
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 34. No 2. April 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the role of estrogen as a menopausal biochemical marker to c-telopeptide (CTx) and IL-6 as a biochemical marker of mineral bone density in perimenopausal women.Method: This is an observational, cross-sectional study in perimenopausalwomen between 45 - 51 years old, who matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria such as no contraception was taken before, no specific disease that could affect the laboratory findings. Samples were taken from outpatients clinic of Prof Dr. R.D. Kandouhospital. The patients were gathered for blood samples collection. Blood samples were tested in laboratory. All data were collected and being processed statistically using Pearson correlation coefficient (SPSS version 16).Result: From 60 perimenopausal women (45 - 51 years old) sample, mean age was 47.98 ± 2.26 SD. Estrogen (estradiol) level: < 10 pg/ml, maximum 358 pg/ml, and mean 77.11 ± 86.2 SD. IL-6 level: minimum is 1.645 pg/ml, maximum 7.771 pg/ml, and mean4.317 ± 2.112 SD. We found significant correlation between age and estrogen level (correlation level < 0.05) and CTx level (in level < 0.01). From regression curve, age has no significant correlation withIL-6 concentration. However, we found significant correlation between estradiol and CTx and IL-6 with respective correlation coefficient value of < 0.01. Likewise the correlation between CTx and IL-6 showed significant statistically with the value of the correlation coefficient < 0,01.Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between estrogen, Il-6 and CTx. These variables play an important role in the occurrence of the physiological changes in the perimenopausal women. This study also showed the occurrence of a bone reabsorption processthat was marked by the increase of CTx level in accordance with the increase in the age and the increase in the level of CTx togetherwith the decline in the level of oestrogen. Therefore, prevention therapy of osteoporosis should begin in earlier age, before the further bone reabsorption take place.[Indones J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 34-2: 84-8]Keywords: c-telopeptide, bone mineral density, estrogen, interleukin- 6, perimenopause women Tujuan: Mengetahui peran estrogen sebagai penanda biokimiawi menopause terhadap c-telopeptide (CTx) dan IL-6 sebagai penanda biokimiawi penurunan densitas mineral tulang pada perempuanperimenopause.Metode: Penelitian ini adalah suatu studi observasional dengan pendekatan studi potong lintang (cross sectional) pada perempuan perimenopause usia 45 - 51 tahun yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi estrogen danprogesteron dikeluarkan dari sampel. Sampel diambil di Poliklinik RSUP Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Manado. Para pasien dikumpulkan pada hari tertentu untuk kemudian diperiksakan darahnya, pemeriksaandarah dilakukan di laboratorium swasta. Data yang adadikumpul dan diolah secara statistik dengan menggunakan koefisien korelasi dari Pearson, dengan menggunakan program SPSS, versi 16.Hasil: Dari 60 sampel perempuan usia perimenopause (45 - 51 tahun) diperoleh mean usia sebesar 47,98 ± 2,26 SD. Kadar estrogen(estradiol) minimum diperoleh < 10 pg/ml sedangkan nilai maksimum sebesar 358 pg/ml dengan mean sebesar 77,11 ± 86,2cSD. Kadar CTx minimum diperoleh sebesar 0,03 μg/l, nilai maksimum sebesar 1,21 μg/l dengan mean sebesar 0,377 ± 0,226 SD. Kadar IL-6 minimum sebesar 1,645 pg/ml, nilai maksimum didapatkan sebesar 7,771 pg/ml dengan mean sebesar 4,317 ± 2,112 SD. Ditemukan suatu korelasi signifikan antara usia dengan kadar estrogen (pada level korelasi < 0,05) dan dengan kadar CTx (pada level < 0,01), dari kurva regresi, usia tidak memiliki korelasi signifikanterhadap konsentrasi IL-6. Namun korelasi signifikan antara estradiol dengan CTx dan IL6 dengan nilai koefisin korelasi masing-  masing sebesar < 0,01. Demikian juga korelasi antara CTx dengan IL-6 menunjukkan signifikan secara statistik dengan nilai koefisien korelasi < 0,01   Kesimpulan: Terdapat suatu korelasi signifikan antara Estrogen, IL-6 dan CTx di mana variabel ini dianggap saling berperan dalam terjadinya perubahan fisiologis pada perempuan perimenopause.Studi ini juga menunjukkan telah terjadinya suatu proses reabsorbsi tulang yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya kadar CTx sesuai dengan pertambahan usia dan meningkatnya kadar CTx seiring dengan menurunnya kadar estrogen. Dengan demikian, terapipencegahan osteoporosis dapat dimulai pada usia ini, sebelum terjadi proses reabsorbsi tulang lebih jauh.[Maj Obstet Ginekol Indones 2010; 34-2: 84-8]Kata kunci: c-telopeptide, densitas mineral tulang, estrogen, interleukin- 6, perempuan perimenopause
Intra Arterial Heparin Flushing Increases Cereberal Blood Flow in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients Putranto, Terawan Agus; Yusuf, Irawan; Murtala, Bachtiar; Wijaya, Andi
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recently, stroke therapy is focused on reperfusion therapies for restoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and minimizing the undesired effects of neuron ischemia. However, the thrombolytic therapy to restore CBF was restricted with narrow time window. On other hands, not many patients can reach the treatment immediately after the onset of stroke. A wider time window therapy that might increase CBF would probably helpful. This study aims to investigate the CBF improvement after intra arterial heparin flushing (IAHF) therapy in chronic stroke patients.METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted with time sampling. We collected chronic ischemic stroke subjects (with stroke onset ≥30 days) within periods February-September 2015. We investigated CBF before and after IAHF treatment in 75 chronic stroke patients. The difference before and after IAHF treatment in subgroup which is classified with infarct size and lesion area was tested. CBF was measured using MRI Quality Arterial Spin Labeling (qASL) with region of interest around infarct lesion.RESULTS: We found a significant CBF improvement (p<0.001) around infarct area after IAHF treatment with average 10.39mL/100g/min raised. CBF improvement was found in lacunar infarct (p<0.001) and non lacunar (p<0.001), also in infarct in cortical (p<0.05), subcortical (p<0.001) and both area (p<0.05).CONCLUSION: IAHF is associated with increased CBF around infarct area and IAHF probably offers some benefit for chronic stroke.KEYWORDS: IAHF, CBF, chronic stroke, ischemic, lacunar, non lacunar, cortical lesion, subcortical lesion
Study on the influence of adiponectin genetic variants and adiponectin levels among Indonesian women with polycystic ovary syndrome Pangaribuan, Bertha; Yusuf, Irawan; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Wijaya, Andi
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 21, No 2 (2012): May
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Background: Insulin resistance and central adiposity are frequent disorders in PCOS women, which are marked by biological marker dysregulation related to this metabolic abnormalities. Association between adiponectin and insulin resistance has been investigated in many studies, while only a few studies were done in PCOS patients. This study is to determine the association of T45G polymorphisms in Indonesian population with PCOS biological markers and their influence to adiponectin serum.Methods: Fifty-two PCOS patients and 52 normal ovulatory women without hyperandrogenism as control subjects were included. Blood samples were collected between day 3 and 5 of a spontaneous menstrual cycle at 7 to 9 am, after overnight fasting. Serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, SHBG, glucose, insulin, lipid profile and adiponectin were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and SHBG. T45G gene polymorphisms were determined by PCR after genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood of patients and control subjects.Results: There were significant difference between PCOS and control group in term of BMI, LH, testosterone, SHBG, and FAI, but not significant to T45G gene polymorphisms frequency distribution. Adiponectin levels were lower in PCOS patients than control. There was an association between insulin resistance with PCOS. Among PCOS patients, no association between adiponectin LH, testosterone, SHBG, and FAI with T45G gene polymorphisms. T45G gene polymorphisms were more frequent in PCOS with low adiponectin levels compared to those with high adiponectin levels, although not significant statistically.Conclusion: T45G gene polymorphisms has no direct association with PCOS biological markers, but its association with adiponectin needs further study. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:83-91)Keywords: Adiponectin, insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, T45G adiponectin gene
CYP2A6 gene polymorphisms impact to nicotine metabolism Muliaty, Dewi; Yusuf, Irawan; Setiabudy, Rianto; Wanandi, Septelia I.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 19, No 1 (2010): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco cigarette smoke. After being absorbed by the lung nicotine is rapidly metabolized and mainly inactivated to cotinine by hepatic cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2A6 may play a role in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. CYP2A6*1A is the wild type of the CYP2A6 gene which is associated with normal or extensive nicotine metabolism. In the CYP2A6 gene, several polymorphic alleles have been reported such as CYP2A6*4, CYP2A6*7, CYP2A6*9, and CYP2A6*10 which are related to decreasing nicotine metabolism activity. The variation of nicotine metabolism activity could alter nicotine plasma levels. Smokers need a certain level of nicotine in their brain and must smoke regularly because of nicotine’s short half-life; this increases the number of smoked cigarettes in extensive metabolizers. Meanwhile, in slow metabolizers, nicotine plasma level may increase and results in nicotine toxicity. This will eventually lower the risk of dependence. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:46-51)Keywords: cotinine, hepatic cytochrome P450 2A6, smoking behavior
Proatherogenic or antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein type in acute coronary syndrome and healthy male person Kaniawati, Marita; Yusuf, Irawan; Bakri, Syakib; Santoso, Anwar
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 19, No 4 (2010): November
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Aim: To make proatherogenic/antiatherogenic HDL type criteria using Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), Neopterin and HDL-cholesterol levels, which may be useful in clinical practice.Methods: This was a case control study recruiting 52 subjects with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and 30 control healthy subjects. HDL type was classifi ed into antiatherogenic and  proatherogenic based on the levels of ApoA-I, PON-1, Neopterin and HDL-cholesterol. Concentrations of ApoA-I was measured by immunoturbidimetry method, PON-1 was measured by colorimetric method, Neopterin was measured by ELISA, and HDL-C was determined by homogenous method. Univariate logistic regression analysis was done using ACS as a dependent variable and levels of ApoA-I, PON-1, Neopterin andHDL-cholesterol as independent variables. Proatherogenic/ antiatherogenic HDL type was determined by using ApoA-I, PON-1, Neopterin and HDL-cholesterol cut off and odd ratios.Results: Patient’s age was 50.89 + 12.63 year, HDL-C was 39.82 + 9.84 mg/dL, Apo A-1 was 119.77 + 32.05 mg/ dL, PON-1 was 41.26 + 18.19 kU/L, Neopterin was 16.22 + 38.10 nmol/L. Cut offs of ApoA-I, PON-1 and Neopterin successively were 124.5 mg/dL, 40.8 kU/L, and 7.016 nmol/L. On univariate logistic regression analysis showed that OR of ApoA-I, PON-1 and Neopterin respectively were 29.759 (95% CI : 4.074 – 217.382), 1.647 (95% CI : 0.412 – 6.586), 4.317 (95% CI : 1.098 – 16.977). Using scoring system, we concluded that total score &gt; 18 was proatherogenic HDL type, and total score &lt; 18 was antiatherogenic HDL type. With this scoring we found 78.85% had proatherogenic HDL type in ACS population.Conclusions: Dysfunctional HDL or proatherogenic/anti atherogenic  HDL type can be predicted by using ApoA-I– PON-1–Neopterin–HDL-cholesterol scoring system. Those with score of 18 are supposed to have antiatherogenic HDL type, and those with score of &gt; 18 were having proatherogenic HDL type. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:228-34)Keywords: ApoliproteinA-I (ApoA-I), HDL-cholesterol, neopterin, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), proatherogenic/antiatherogenic HDL
The effects of zinc supplementation on the TNF-α profile and diarrhea in severely malnourished children of low income family As’ad, Suryani; Yusuf, Irawan
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 12, No 4 (2003): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Zinc deficiency has a great impact on growth and development, especially in malnourished children. Zinc is important in both local and systemic immunity. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of zinc supplementation on the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and diarrhea in severely undernourished under-five children of low-income families. A randomized double blind pre-test post-test controlled design was selected. A group of 12-59 month-old children were given local food, and treated as control group (n=60), and another group (n=60) were given local food with 15 mg/5 ml zinc as intervention group. Zinc concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and TNF-α concentration was determined by ELISA. Data on nutrient intakes were collected using 24-hour food recall method. The result of the study showed that after zinc intervention, zinc serum increased significantly, and TNF-α concentration decreased along with reduction of the duration and frequency of diarrhea. Zinc concentration increased 87.0% in the intervention group, while in the control group the increase was only 19.6%. There was a significant reduction of both serum and fecal TNF-α concentration after intervention (p&lt;0.05). Severity and duration of diarrhea were reduced significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (p&lt;0.001). It was concluded that zinc intervention reduced the duration and severity of diarrhea through improvement of immunity, especially local immunity with TNF-α as biomarker. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 247-51) Keywords: undernourished children, zinc supplementation, diarrhea, TNF-α.
A study on prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic biomarkers in deep vein thrombosis following meta-epiphyseal cancellous bone traumatization in major orthopedic surgeries Hartono, Franky; Yusuf, Irawan; Suhadi, Budhianto; Fachruddin, Andi
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2013): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Background: This study was aimed to show differences in the mean values of Collagen I (Col I)/Nitric Oxide (NO), Collagen IV (Col IV)/NO, Tissue Factor (TF)/NO, and P-selectin (P-sel)/NO ratios between patients with DVT and those without DVT, following hip and knee meta-epiphyseal cancellous bone traumatization in major orthopedic surgeries.Methods: This is an observational prospective cohort study on 69 patients aged &gt; 50 years, who had orthopedic surgery without thromboprophylaxis. Examination of serum Col I, Col IV, TF, P-sel, and NO biomarker levels were performed three times, i.e. before surgery, 72 hours and 144 hours after surgery. We looked for the differences in mean levels of biomarkers, and mean ratio values of the prothrombogenic/antithrombogenic (Col I/NO, Col IV/NO, TF/NO, P-sel/NO) at 72 hours and 144 hours post surgery between patients with DVT and those without. DVT events, which were confirmed at 144 hours post surgery by venography (with the exception of 8 cases where color Doppler ultrasound was done due to contrast usage contraindications).Results: DVTs were identified in 18 patients (26.1%). There were significant differences of mean levels in pre-surgical Col IV (p = 0.022) and 72 hours NO (p = 0.014) between patients with and without DVT. In addition, between the same two patient groups, significant differences were found in the mean values of the prothrombogenic/antithrombogenic ratios, i.e. Col IV/NO, TF/NO, and P-sel/NO at 72 hours post-surgery (p = 0.007, p = 0.028, and p = 0.049 respectively), with lower median values that were found in subjects with DVT. At 144-hours post surgery, the only significant ratio difference between the two groups was the mean values of Col IV/NO ratio (p = 0.014) with the median values that were higher than the median values at 72-hours post surgery .Conclusion: The incidence of DVT following traumatization of the meta-epiphyseal cancellous bone after major orthopedic surgeries in hip and knee is influenced by the balance of prothrombogenic and antithrombogenic factors as shown by the significant differences in Col IV/NO, TF/NO and P-sel/NO ratios at 72-hours and Col IV/NO ratio at 144 hours after surgery between DVT positive and DVT negative patients. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:9-15)Keywords: Collagen I, collagen IV, deep vein thrombosis, nitric oxide, orthopedic surgery, P-selectin, tissue factor
LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSE TO Mycobacterium leprae ANTIGENS IN REVERSAL REACTION STATE OF LEPROSY An in vitro study of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index using MTT method Iskandar, Fanny; Yusuf, Irawan; Arif, Mansur; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Reversal Reaction (RR) in Leprosy is a sudden inflammatory episode in the chronic course of the disease due to rapid change of cellular immunological status. The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro results of Lymphocyte Stimulation Index (LSI) RR leprosy derived lymphocytes after challenged with M.leprae antigens. Twenty three Borderline Leprosy with RR and 11 BorderlineLeprosy patients without RR were included in the study. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were separated from peripheral blood of these patients using Ficol-Hypaque column and cultured in laboratory. Using the colorimetric tetrazole (MTT) method these lymphocytes were challenged with PHA, Dharmendra antigen (1/100 and 1/10 dilutions), LAM (50 and 100 nanograms). Stimulation Index were calculated and superanatans were collected for measuring the IFN-γ and IL-10 production (ELISA). All of lymphocytesfrom RR patients showed higher Stimulation Index after challenged with the five M.leprae antigens compared to lymphocytes from non RR patients (p &lt;0.05) . IFN-γ and IL-10 also increased but not significant (p&gt;0.05). It is concluded that lymphocytes of leprosy patients during RR state are more sensitive to antigenic stimuli compared to non-RR leprosy patients. Further extended studies areneeded to determine the “cut off” value of lymphocyte Stimulation Index that is useful for clinicians in the field in the prediction of RR before starting anti leprotic treatment.
Intra Arterial Heparin Flushing Increases Manual Muscle Test – Medical Research Councils (MMT-MRC) Score in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patient Putranto, Terawan Agus; Yusuf, Irawan; Murtala, Bachtiar; Wijaya, Andi
BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL

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Background: Muscle strength impairment in stroke patient affect the patient daily life, especially when it occurs on the extremities muscles. Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) is an examination method to measure muscle strength using standardized scoring. Objective: To find possible improvement of Manual Muscle Test (MMT) Score after administration of Intra Arterial Heparin Flushing in chronic ischemic stroke patient. Method: This is an experimental study using pretest-posttest group design, with randomized controlled clinical trial, conducted among patients in Cerebrovascular Center Unit in Army Central Hospital Gatot Soebroto starting from February 2014. With 75 patients included in this study. The examination of muscle strength was done by trained physicians. The MMT score were taken before and after the IAHF procedure is conducted. Results: This study found higher score of MMTMRC scoring system on chronic stroke patient with IAHF procedure (mean MMT-MRC Score = 6,05 point. With p