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Process design of patchouli oil distillation by varying operating conditions to increase yields of patchouli oil

Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Engineering
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Patchouli oil is part of the essential oils obtained from patchouli plants by distillation. Patchouli oil is widely used in industry as provider of aroma and flavour. Quality of patchouli oil is determined by its natural characteristics and foreign materials contain in the patchouli oil. The foreign materials contain in the patchouli oil can be damage the quality of patchouli oil. Aceh Province is the largest contribute in producing patchouli oil in Indonesia. Patchouli oil processing areas in the Aceh region, precisely in the North Aceh and South Aceh district. In generally farmer of patchouli in Aceh is traditional farmer and many of them not yet follow the best refine system. They do it base of previously experience. Refinery equipment that used from former drum that can be reaction with patchouli oil, with the result can to change chemistry structure of patchouli oil, so that the oil produced is dirty and has dark colour and does not meet the specified quality requirements). The main purpose of this research is to increase yield and the quality of patchouli oil by using of refinery equipment modification process to meet quality standards. In this research the former drum is replaced by stainless steel drum. Method of test quality and procedure of test quality same as standard method of SNI-06-2385-2006. The results showed that the using of refinery equipment (stainless steel drum) able to increase the yield and oil quality, especially in terms of colour, physicochemical properties and concentration of its main components and also meet the quality requirements of national standards

Pengaruh Penambahan Molases Terhadap Komposisi Kimia Silase Beberapa Jenis Rumput Yang Ditanam Bercampur Dengan Stylos

Jurnal Agripet Vol 7, No 2 (2007): Volume 7, No. 2, Oktober 2007
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

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Abstract

ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in UPTD (Unit Pelaksana Tugas Dinas) Saree Aceh Besar about 4 weeks. The matter of this study are 4 kinds of grass there are rumput benggala (panicum maximum) rumput BD (Brachiaria decumbent). The grass that use in this study ditanam mixe with stylosanthes guyanesis legume, while the additive in silage is molasses. The study was designed into Completely Randomized Design (CDR) Factorial 4x3. There were 3 replications. First factor was R1 (Rumput Benggala + Stylosanthes guyanesis), R2 (Rumput lampung+Stylosanthes guyanesis), R3 (Rumput BD + Stylosanthes guyanesis), R4 (Rumput Star grass + Stylosanthes guyanesis) and the second factor were 3 level there were M1 (0%0,M2(3%) dan M3 (5%). Invetigated variabes included pH, Dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and water containet..The data were analyzed by an analysis of variance and as a significant effect was detected, the analysis was contained by Uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT), Steel and Torrie (1991). The result of this study showed that the different of several grass have hight significantly (P,0.010 of dry matter, crude protein, ash and water containing but have no significantly on pH and crude fiber silage. The diferent among molasses have significantly on pH, crude protein and crude fiber silage. From BNT test showed that molasses increased dry matter and crude protein of silage compared to no molasses added. However, th used of molasses decreased crude fiber and water contain compared to no molasses added. The quality of silage found at level of 5.5% molasses especially on star grass (R4M3). The study concluded that using different level molasses es on several grass producted better silage than without molasses.

PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN SAINTIFIK MELALUI METODE EKSPERIMEN PADA PEMBELAJARAN FISIKA SISWA KELAS X MIA 3 SMA NEGERI 1 TENGGARONG (Materi Suhu dan Kalor)

Saintifika Vol 16, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Jurusan Pendidikan MIPA FKIP Universitas Jember

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Abstract

Penerapan pendekatan saintifik melalui metode eksperimen merupakan pendekatan pembelajaran yang  menggunakan enam langkah pembelajaran ilmiah dipadukan dengan menggunakan metode eksperimen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keterampilan proses sains (KPS) siswa pada saat menerapkan pendekatan saintifik melalui metode eksperimen, dan untuk mengetahui hasil belajar Fisika siswa setelah diterapkan pendekatan saintifik melalui metode eksperimen. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian yang bersifat pre-eksperimental one group pretest-posttest design. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah  purposive sampling yaitu kelas  X MIA 3 sebanyak 33 orang.  Pengambilan data penelitian ini menggunakan teknik observasi  dan teknik tes. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh besarnya nilai rata-rata pada masing-masing aspek KPS antara lain: (1) Aspek Mengamati sebesar 90,3; (2) Aspek menyusun hipotesis sebesar 82,7; (3) Aspek menjalankan percobaan (eksperimen) sebesar 86,9; (4) Aspek menyimpulkan sebesar 79,5; (5) Aspek mengkomunikasikan sebesar 82,1. Nilai rata-rata pre-test dan post-test masing-masing sebesar 50,3 dan 77,6 dengan nilai presentase N-Gain sebesar 54,9%.

Pengaruh Iklan Rokok terhadap Kebiasaan Merokok Mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Olahraga Universitas Negeri Malang

Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya Vol 18, No 3 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Hasil survey yang dilakukan oleh Badan Pusat statistik menunjukkan tingginya angaka perokok aktif di Indonesia, dari angka tersebut ternayata didapatkan bahwa lebih dari 50% perokok aktif tersebu mengawali merokok pada usia relatif muda. Data menunjukkan pula bahwa remaja yang merokok kebanyakan adalah remaja penggemar olah raga (melakukan olahraga dan atau penonton acara olahraga). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui iklan rokok pada olahraga dengan kebiasaan merokok mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Olahraga Universitas Negeri Malang. Metode penelitian secara Cross Sectional Study dilakukan pada seluruh mahasiswa baru Fakultas Ilmu Olahraga Universitas Negeri Malang tahun 2001, data yang didapat dianalisa secara deskriptif dan analisa dengan koefisien kontingensi C. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahawa28,6% dari seluruh mahasiswa tersebut adalah perokok aktif dan lebih 50%dari jumlah tersebut merokok sama dengan atau lebih dari 1 pak perhari. Usia mengawali merokok rata-rata 17 tahun. Olahraga yang paling diminati untuk dilakukan dan atay ditotnton adalah Formula 1 dan sepak bola. Analisa dengan koefisiensi kontingensi C menunjukkan adanya hubungan anatara iklan pada olahraga sepakbola dan formula 1 tersebut dengan kebiasaan merokok. Bila dibandingkan antara iklan rokok yang dikenakan pemain (kostum, tulisan pada mobil), iklan rokok pada arena pertandingan dan iklan rokok disela acara tayangan olahraga tersebut di televisi maka pengaruh yang paling kuat adalah iklan rokok yang dikenakan pemain (PF=0,89) didikuti iklan disela acara tayangan olahraga (PF=0,81) dan iklan pada arena pertandingan (PF=0,38). Sehingga dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa ada pengaruh iklan rokok pada olahraga dengan kebiasaan merokok dikalangan mahasiswa Universitas Negeri Malang.

Pengaruh Pemberian Daun Lamtoro (Leucaena leocephala) terhadap Kualitas Silase Rumput Gajah (Pennisetum purpereum) yang Diberi Molasses

Jurnal Agripet Vol 9, No 1 (2009): Volume 9, No. 1, April 2009
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

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Abstract

The effect of gift lamtoro leaf (Leucaena leocephala) to quality of silage of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpereum) that adding molassesABSTRACT. Research about the effect of gift of lamtoro leaf and molasses to quality of elephant grass silage (Pennisetum purpereum) have been executed at Lamsiot village Indrapuri sub district Aceh besar. Analysis content of nutrient in Food Livestock laboratory Agriculture Faculty of Syiah Kuala University. This research aim to see how influence of gift lamtoro leaf and elephant grass silage that adding molasses. This research the complete random device consisted o with 5 kinds of treatment and 3 restarting. This is R1 silage control without treatment and lamtoro leaf 0 5. R2 silage without lamtoro leaf (0%) and molasses 5%, R3 silage with the addition of lamtoro leaf 10%, R4 20%, R5 30%, adding molasses each 5%. The parameter of this study is acidity (pH) degree (pH), dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber. to know the treatment influence used data Analysis and continued with the Duncan Test. The result of this research indicated that gift of lamtoro leaf give the real influence at pH and influence with is not real at dry substance, while at crude protein and crude fiber give the very real influence. Best silage there are at silage with 30% of lamtoro leaf. 

Some Ensiling Density On Fermentation Quality Of Nafiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) Silage

Jurnal Agripet Vol 2, No 2 (2001): Volume 2, No. 2, Oktober 2001
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

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Abstract

ABSTRACT.

Pengaruh Tanaman Stylosanthes Guyanensis Terhadap Produksi Beberapa Jenis Rumput Pada Sistem Penanaman Bercampur

Jurnal Agripet Vol 7, No 1 (2007): Volume 7, No. 1, April 2007
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

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Abstract

ABSTRACT. A research on the effect of Stylosanthes guyanesis on production of Pannicum maximum, Staria splendid, Brachiaria decumbens, and Cynodon Plectostachyus have been conducted at UPTD (Unit Pelaksana Tugas Dinas) Saree, Aceh Besar. The grasses were planted mixed with stylosanthes guyanesis. The method used was completely randomized design (CRD) with factorial pattern of 4 x 4 with 4 replications. The first factor consist of 4 different kind of grasses e.g Pannicum maximum (R1) Staria splendid (R2), Brachiaria decumbens (R3) and Cynodon Plectostachyus (R4). The second factor was mixed palnting with stylosanthes guyanesis. Parameters studied were number of tiller, height of grass, and herbage yield. Data were analyzed by analyzed of variance and continued by least significant different test (LSD) (Steel and Torrie, 1983). The result showed that mixed cultivation of grass with leguminose (Stylosnthes guyanesis) was better on number tiller, height of grass, and herbage yield compared to unmixed planting grasses.

PERKEMBANGAN POS KEADILAN PEDULI UMAT (PKPU) ACEH (2004 – 2016)

Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Sejarah Vol 3, No 3 (2018): Juli 2018
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Sejarah

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThis research raises the issue of how the Development of PKPU Aceh, 2004-2006. The purpose of this research is (1) to know the background of PKPU Aceh (2) the development of PKPU Aceh and (3) why PKPU still exist in Aceh after recontruski and rehabilitate Aceh. The data of this research are sourced from primary and secondary source, data collecting is done by four ways, that is literature study, observation, interview and documentation. The method used is descriptive and critical historical method with qualitative approach. The result of this research are (1) The Development of Acehs Justice Peduli Peduli (PKPU) since 2004-2016 has brought changes to the social life of the people in Aceh. Especially the life of the poor / needy, orphans and the dhuafa. They are routinely trained through training, providing business capital, for orphans provided dormitory and free education to the level of higher education. (2) PKPU currently routinely manages humanitarian programs for the community from education, economy, health, emergency response, social and orphan. During 12 years of work in Aceh PKPU has become more widespread and global, showing real and professional work in humanitarian events in various places. and (3) Communitys trust to PKPU is still very high, it is proven that the management of funds from the community both zakat, infak and alms as well as corporate CSR funds are entrusted the same PKPU. It is suggested that this research can benefit from what has happened. That is why the history of PKPU must also be written, hopefully can inspire various elements of society to continue to contribute and play an active role in tackling various natural disasters, social problems and humanitarian tragedy. Keyword: PKPU National Humanitarian Agency.

Efektivitas Penggunaan Kotoran Ternak untuk Memperbaiki Sifat Kimia Tanah dan Kualitas Rumput Brachiaria humidicola pada Lahan Penggembalaan

Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Volume 1, Nomor 1, Juni 2012
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstract

ABSTRAK. Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan penggembalaan Desa Leupon Kecamatan Blang Bintang Kabupaten Aceh Besar pada tanggal 20 Januari sampai 12 Mei 2011. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas penggunaan jenis dan dosis kotoran ternak terhadap perbaikan sifat kimia tanah dan kualitas rumput Brachiaria humidicola  pada lahan penggembalaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok  (RAK) pola faktorial, yaitu faktor jenis kotoran ternak dan dosis kotoran ternak. Parameter yang diamati yaitu : (1) sifat kimia tanah  dan (2) kualitas rumput Brachiaria humidicola (Bh). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis dan dosis kotoran ternak terdapat interaksi terhadap pH H2O, P-tersedia, K-dd, KTK tanah dan C-organik tanah. Faktor tunggal jenis kotoran ternak berpengaruh terhadap P-tersedia, K-dd dan KTK tanah. Dosis kotoran ternak berpengaruh terhadap pH H2O dan KCl, C-organik, N-total, P-tersedia, K-dd dan KTK tanah. Jenis dan dosis kotoran ternak secara interaksi berpengaruh terhadap protein kasar dan serat kasar serta kadar abu. Faktor tunggal jenis kotoran ternak berpengaruh terhadap bahan kering dan serat kasar rumput Brachiaria humidicola. Dosis kotoran ternak berpengaruh terhadap protein kasar dan serat kasar serta memberikan hasil terbaik pada dosis 15 ton/ha.The Use of Animal Manure Effectivity to Improve Some Soil Chemical Properties and Quality of Brachiaria humidicola Grass on Grazing LandABSTRACT. The research was conducted on grazing land of Leupon Village in  Blang Bintang Sub District,  Aceh Besar on January 20 to May 12, 2011. This study was aimed at determining effectiveness of types and doses of  animal manure to improve soil chemical characteristics and quality of Brachiaria humidicola grass on grazing land. The experiment used a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial pattern.  Factors evaluated were manure types and manure doses. Variables observed were (1) soil chemical characteristics and (2) Brachiaria humidicola grass quality. The results showed that there was significant interaction between types and doses of animal manure on  pH-H2O, available P, exchangeable K, soil CEC, and soil organic C. As a single factor, manure types exerted significant effects on available P, exchangeable K, and soil CEC. Manure doses also exerted significant effects on pH- H2O and KCl, soil organic C, total N, available P, exchangeable K,  and soil CEC. There were significant interactions between types and doses of manure on crude protein, crude fiber, and ash content. A single factor, types of animal manure exerted significant effects on dry matter and crude fiber of Brachiaria humidicola grass. Doses of animal manure also exerted significant effects on crude protein and crude fiber. The best result was chicken manure  at dose of 15 tons per ha.

Prediksi Erosi Padang Pengembalaan Kawasan Pengembangan Peternakan Kabupaten Aceh Besar

Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Volume 1, Nomor 1, Juni 2012
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstract

Abstrak. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat bahaya erosi pada ladang pengembalaan dengan berbagai jenis hijauan pakan ternak di Kecamatan Indrapuri dan Kuta Malaka Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode survey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dilokasi penelitian terdapat 10 Satuan Peta Lahan (SPL) dengan total luas areal 175,36 hektar. Erosi aktual terbesar terdapat pada SPL 4 yaitu sebesar 279,89 ton  ha ­-1 th ­­­­-1  dan SPL 6 yaitu sebesar 85,77 ton  ha ­­­­-1 th ­­­­-1  sedangkan erosi potensial tertinggi juga terdapat pada SPL 4 yaitu sebesar 699,74 ton  ha ­­­­-1 th ­­­­-1  dan SPL 8 yaitu sebesar 259,58 ton  ha ­­­­-1 th ­­­­-1. Terdapat 5 (lima) tingkat bahaya erosi yaitu sangat ringan masing-masing terdapat pada SPL 5 dan 9, ringan terdapat pada SPL 1,2,3 dan 7,  sedang terdapat pada SPL 10, berat terdapat pada  SPL 6 dan 8, sangat berat terdapat pada SPL 4. Rumput Bracharia decumben  dengan bentuk wilayah berombak sampai bergelombang terdapat bahaya erosi sangat ringan hingga ringan, rumput alam pada bentuk wilayah sama terdapat tingkat bahaya erosi ringan sampai berat.  Rumput alang-alang mempunyai tingkat bahaya erosi ringan sampai berat, rumput alam dan lamtoro pada wilayah berombak mempunyai tingkat bahaya erosi ringan.Erosion Prediction on Rifle Range of Development Area in Aceh Besar DistrictAbstract. This research was aimed at profound assessment of erosion hazard levels at grazing fields with various types of forage in Indrapuri and Kuta Malaka Sub-District, Aceh Besar District. The research used a descriptive method with 5 stages, including (1) approach, (2)preparation of working maps, (3)field activities, (4)data collection, (5)analysis and tabulation of data. Results showed that there were 10 units of Land Map (LMU) existed, with a total area of 175,36 hectares at the research locations. The largest actual erosion was found in LMU 4, and LPU 6, up to 279,89 tons ha-1yr-1 and 85,77 tons ha-1yr-1, respectively.  The largest potential erosion was found in LMU 4 and LMU 8, up to 699,74 tons ha-1yr-1and 259,58 tons ha-1yr-1, respectively.   There existed 5 levels of erosion hazard;  a very mild erosion existed in LMU 5 and 9; a mild erosion in LMU 1,2, 3 and 7; medium erosion in LMU 10, heavy erosion in LMU 6 and 8, and very heavy erosion in LMU 4. At grass of Bracharia decumben with undulate to wavy areas, there existed erosion hazard at rates of very mild to mild.  At natural grass with undulate, wavy, and hilly areas, there were erosion hazard of mild to severe intensity. At coarse grass with undulate to wavy areas, there were erosion hazard at the rate of mild to heavy levels.  At natural grasses and lamtoro with undulate area, the rate of erosion hazard was mild, while at elephant grass with undulate to wavy areas, the rates of erosion were mild to medium.