Articles

Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease NAWANGSIH, ABDJAD ASIH; DAMAYANTI, IKA; WIYONO, SURYO; KARTIKA, JUANG GEMA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 18, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum) of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents.  At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33%) than that of control (83%). Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1), while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1).
Aktivitas Kitinase dan Peroksidase dari Ekstrak Kasar Protein Asal Kalus dan Berbagai Jaringan Tanaman Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Artika, I Made; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 3 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Chitinase and peroxydase are important bioactive proteins or are specific enzymes that are related to plant resistance to pathogens. The aims of the research were to analyze the chitinase and peroxidase activities of crude protein extract from calli, stem, leaves and roots of T. cucumerinavar. anguina. In the first experiment, chitinase and peroxydase activities were analyzed from in vitro calli, leaves and roots obtained from 2-month-old of field grown plants. The media for calli induction were Murashige and Skoog medium with addition of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA, 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA, 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA, or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA. In the second experiment, the chitinase and peroxydase activities from crude protein extract of roots, stems and leaves were analyzed. The extracts were from 3-week-old seedling (less than a month), 1-month and 2-month-old plants. The first and the second experiment results showed that crude protein extracts of plant roots from the field grown plants had the highest chitinase and peroxidase activities. Stem of field grown plants had the similar level of chitinase activities with the plant roots. Chitinase activities of in vitro calli were not significantly different from those of plant roots so that it could be used as an alternative for plant roots in studying chitinase from T. cucumerinavar. anguina. Chitinase activities in crude protein extracts of roots appeared constant whereas peroxidase tend to increase with plant age. Keywords: calli, enzyme activities, leaves, roots, stem
Aktivitas Kitinase dan Peroksidase dari Ekstrak Protein Daun, Akar, Kalus dan Tunas In Vitro Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Wiyono, Suryo; Artika, I Made
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

A number of Trichosanthes species has been reported as a source of bioactive protein associated with defense mechanisms such as chitinase. Chitinase and peroxidase of crude protein extracted from leaves, roots, in vitro calli and shoots of T. tricuspidata had been analysed. Calli were induced on MS medium containing combinations of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA  (K1), 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA (K2), 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA (K3), or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA (K4). Shoots were cultured in MS with 1 mg/l of BA, while leaves and roots were harvested from six-month old plants grown on the field. Results of the experiment suggested that K1-K4 medium could be used to induce calli although weight of calli from all medium composition  was not significantly different (0.19-0.31 g/explant/4 weeks). Calli from K1 medium had the highest of total crude protein content (3.24 mg/ml). The highest of chitinase activity was found in in vitro shoots (6.51 mM pNP/hour/mg protein) and the highest peroxidase activity was in the plant roots (0.25 ∆ 420/minute/mg protein).   Key words:  in vitro calli, shoots, crude protein, chitinase and peroxidase activities
PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN TINDAKAN PETANI DI KABUPATEN TEGAL DALAM PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN TINGKAT KERACUNAN TERHADAP PESTISIDA Hidayat, Firman; Khamidi, Tamrin; Wiyono, Suryo
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment Vol 10, No 1
Publisher : Udayana University

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Abstract

The objectives of research were to obtain basic information on: 1) pesticide use by Tegal farmers, 2) knowledge, attitude and practices of farmers on pesticide, 3) the relation between knowledge, attitude and practices of farmers on pesticide and intoxication level of farmers. Knowledge-attitude- practice (KAP) survey was conducted on 90 farmers (30 chili farmers, 30 shallot farmers, 30 rice farmers) of Tegal District with structured questionnaire. The information collected included private data, type and number of pesticide uses, knowledge on pesticide, practices and attitude in pesticide uses, and symptom rose after pesticide application. The locations of survey were in Sub-district Surodadi for farmers rice, Dukuhturi for shallot farmers and Bumijawa for chili farmers. The data was grouped and calculated for percentage. Further analysis was conducted by cross tabulation and continued by χ2 test for independence of variables. Five most frequently used pesticides by farmers in Tegal were pesticides with active ingredient chlorpyrifos, profenofos, alphamethrin, deltamethrin and propineb, respectively. Knowledge, attitude and practices of most Tegal farmers on pesticide management is still low and not in line with Integrated Pests Management principles. Moreover, KAP level from the best to the worst was chili farmers, paddy farmers and shallot farmers respectively. Intoxication level based on self report, from the most severe to the least was shallot farmers, chili farmers and paddy farmers respectively. There was significant relation of knowledge and practices of farmers and pesticides intoxication level.
Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Semangka di Karawang, Jawa Barat Budiastuti, Kartini; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Wilt disease of watermelon is an important disease in Indonesia, but determination of the causal agent has not been reported yet. Postulat Koch based approach was conducted to determine the pathogen causing wilt of watermelon from Karawang, West Java. Fungi associated with wilt symptoms were isolated from stem and root, then the fungal colonies were identified based on their morphological characters. Pathogenicity tests were performed using soil media and wet paper. Host range study involved other Cucurbitaceae plants, i.e. cucumber, melon and paria. Three species of Fusarium were successfully isolated from plants showing wilt symptom, i.e. F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. semitectum. The fungus F. oxysporum consistently caused the most severe wilt symptom on watermelon, but developed no symptom on other tested cucurbits. The two fungi, F. solani and F. semitectum, caused necrotic on roots and stem of watermelon followed by wilting of the plant. The symptom was different than those of the initial symptoms from the field. Therefore it concluded that wilt symptom of watermelon is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. Key words: Cucurbitaceae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum, species identification, wilt
Pengaruh Seed Coating dengan Fungisida Benomil dan Tepung Curcuma terhadap Patogen Antraknosa Terbawa Benih dan Viabilitas Benih Cabai Besar (Capsicum annuum L.) Setiyowati, Heny; Surahman, Memen; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 3 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to study the effect of seed coating using Benomil and curcuma powder on seedborne diseases of  antrachnose and seed viability of Capsicum annuum L.. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Plant Mycology and Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology IPB, from June to July 2006. This research consisted of three experiments, i.e.: (1) the effectiveness of seed coating in decreasing infection level of antrachnose fungus in the seed of chilli, (2) the effect of seed coating on seed viability, (3) the effect of seed coating in reducing infection level of antracnose at hypocotyl of chilli.  The Experiment 1 and 3 used Randomized Complete Design and the experiment  2 used Randomized Complete  Block Design. The result of this research showed that seed coating with Benomil and curcuma powder significantly decreased the infection  level of antrachnose fungus on seed and hypocotyl (Benomil 2.5 g/l and curcuma powder 1 g/l). However, seed coating with curcuma 1 g/l had the lowest  vigour index, seedling growth rate and seed germination (3%, 2.26%, 23%). Seedcoating with Benomil 2.5 g/l and curcuma powder did not significantly affect the maximum growth potential, seed germination, and vigour index.  However, Benomil significantly decreased  the seedling growth rate.   Key wods : chilli, seed coating, antrachnose, curcuma, benomil, viability
Infeksi Papaya ringspot virus pada Tanaman Pepaya di Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Nurulita, Sari; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 6 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Severe mosaic symptoms was observed on papaya plants in Meusa village, Kutablang sub district, Bireun district and Lambaro Teunom village, Lembah Seulawah sub district, Aceh Besar district. Systemic mosaic was found in leaves, stem, twig, and fruit. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted to detect the virus causing mosaic symptoms using universal primer for Potyvirus. Amplification of 320 bp DNA fragment was successfully obtained from leaves and fruits bearing severe mosaic symptoms. Nucleotide sequencing was proceeded using the DNA amplicon as the template. Further sequence analysis indicated that Potyvirus isolates from papaya in Aceh show the highest homology (92.7% to 94.7%) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. This is the first report on PRSV infection on papaya in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province.   Key words: Potyvirus, RT-PCR, sequencing 
Laporan Pertama tentang Penyakit Busuk Arang pada Kacang Tanah Wiyono, Suryo; ., Widodo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Peanut charcoal rot disease was first observed in Bogor,West Java in June 2010, and Serang, Banten in January 2012. Infected plants in the field showed root and stem rot, discoloration of stems and/or branches. Severe infection may cause wilting of foliage then plant dried out. Based on microscopic observation Macrophomina phaseolina was constantly associated with diseased plants from those two areas. Hot temperature and low rainfall might favour disease development. This is the first report of charcoal rot disease of peanut in West Java and Banten. Key words: charcoal rot, Macrophomina phaseolina, peanut
Penyakit Keriting Daun Pepaya yang Disebabkan oleh Cladosporium cladosporioides ., Widodo; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Leaf curling and chlorotic spot on young leaves of papaya type California was observed in Bogor, Kebumen, and Bekasi. Conidium of Cladosporium cladosporioides was found associated with diseased tissue based on microscopic examination. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. cladosporioides causing papaya leaf curling in Indonesia. Key words: chlorotic, leaf curl disease, papaya disease, scab
Isolasi Bakteri Endofit Asal Padi Gogo dan Potensinya sebagai Agens Biokontrol dan Pemacu Pertumbuhan Munif, Abdul; Wiyono, Suryo; ., Suwarno
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Studies on endophytic bacteria has been increasing recently due to its potency to promote plant growth and induce plant tolerance to pests and diseases. The research was undergone to isolate endophytic bacteria from different varieties of upland rice from various growing regions in Indonesia, followed by evaluation of their biocontrol and plant growth activities. Isolation of endophytic bacteria was based-on surface-sterilized method using alcohol and NaOCl on trypsic soy agar (TSA) media. More than 200 isolates was successfully isolated and the selected isolates were subjected to in vitro assay for their ability to produce antibiotic and promote plant growth. The result showed 41 isolates of endophytic bacteria had antibiosis activity to Rhizoctonia solani, 25 isolates to Pyricularia grisea on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and 8 isolates showed antibiosis activity to both R. solani and P. grisea on both PDA and TSA. The result of plant growth test, showed 12 isolates of endophytic bacteria induced the growth of root and shoot of rice plant.This indicated that some of the endophytic bacteria have the potency as biocontrol agents and inducer of plant growth.Key words: endophytic bacteria, Pyricularia grisea, Rhizoctonia solani, upland rice