Soekadar Wiryadiputra
Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Jember
Articles
11
Documents
Epidemi Penyakit Tumor pada Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) di Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 1, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

In the early of 2005 at one of the coffee and cocoa estates in the district of Banyuwangi, East Java, an epidemic outbreak of gall disease on albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) with heavy infestation level occurred. Arthropod pest initially was suspected as the causing agent of the gall. However, intensive observations in the field and laboratory revealed that the gall was caused by the rust fungus of Uromycladium tepperianum. It was a new outbreak of the disease reported in Indonesia.Observation at one division of the estate showed that the extent of albizia trees infected by the pathogen reached to more than 50%. There was an indication that environmental factors especially rainfall and humidity strongly increased the disease intensity and sporulation of the fungus. Results on the fungicide trial conducted in the field indicated that spraying of the mixed solution of Carbendazim (Delsene MX 80 WP) and Flusilazol (Nustar 400 EC) at the concentration of 1 g and 0.3 ml formulation per liter of water respectively was very effective in suppressing the infestation. These mixed fungicides could suppress the disease infestation to 60.1% compared with untreated trees. Keywords: Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria), gall disease, Uromycladium tepperianum, disease control.

Effectiveness of Bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensisFormulation Against Cocoa Pod Borer in Field Condition

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Field trial of Bt insecticide formulation with a code of formulation-A +1WP against cocoa pod borer (CPB) (Conopomorpha cramerella) has been conducted at the heavily infested cocoa area in Holo village, Amahai sub district, Central Maluku regency. Formulation-B 2.5 WP as a commercial Bt insecticide which has been distributed widely in the market was used as a comparison Bt insecticide. The results of the trial revealed that compared with untreated treatment, Bt insecticide formulation-A +1WP significantly reduced infestation of CPB, CPB population, and yield losses of dry cocoa bean caused by CPB. At the same concentration (2.5 g/L), the effectiveness of formulation-A +1WP was not significantly different with formulation-B 2.5WP. In the case of production increase, at the same concentration (2.5 g/L) formulation-A +1WP caused higher yield than formulation-B 2.5WP, i.e. 39.9% compared with 35.1%, respectively. Both Bt insecticide formulations tried did not caused phytotoxic against cocoa plant. It is recommended that controling of CPB should use concentration of 2.5 g/L Bt insecticide formulation/L of water, and should be applied at around early morning until 09.00 AM and / or at the afternoon after 15.00 PM. Spraying targets should be cocoa pods at the length of less than 8.0 cm which is not laid eggs of CPB yet. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, control, effectiveness, microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis

Effectiveness of Biopesticide Derived fromCassia spectabilis and Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Against the Main Insect Pests of Coffee and Its Effect On Other Arthropods

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

An experiment on the effectiveness of biopesticide made of ramayana (Cassia spectabilis) and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) it called as Casnic, on Hypothenemus hampeiand Planococcus citriand its effect on the arthropods population fauna in coffee plantation had been conducted in Pest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Researh Institute and Bangelan Plantation in Malang. The treatment consisted of three level concentrations of botanical pesticide(15 ml, 30 ml, and 60 ml/lof water), Beauveria bassiana(at a dose 100 g spore per ha), metidation spraying (2 ml formulation per litre of water) and two control treatments (with and without soap). The field experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The results showed that botanical pesticide at the concentration of 30.0 ml stock solution per litre of water and applied four times with monthly interval was effective in controlling coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee mealy bug (Planococcus citri). The effectiveness was not significantly different compared to metidation and Beauveria bassianaat the dose of 0.8 l and 100 g formulation per ha per application. Application of the botanical pesticide did not show negative effect on the usefull predatory insects and other arthropods population in coffee ecosystem. Key words : Botanical pesticide, Cassia spectabilis, Nicotiana tabacum, Coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, Planococcus citri, Arthropods.

Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus)on Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus)is the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella)and rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus). A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus)inoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus), coconut, Gliricidia sepium, mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidus), Helopeltis spp.

Use of Trapping for Controlling of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Studies on the field trapping of coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) have been conducted to evaluate trap color, trap design and lures (attractant substances). The trials were conducted in a Robusta coffee plantation in East Java during August to December 2004. The trap color evaluated were red, orange, yellow, green and blue, set up in the coffee plantation using a four funnels trap. The traps installed on wood poles at a height of 175 cm above ground and placed among coffee trees. Observations were conducted every day for a week. Result of the study showed that the red and blue color traps captured CBB significantly higher than the others. During a week, the red color captured 1694 CBB adults while the blue one captured 1619 CBB adults. Peak number of captured CBB of the red and blue trapping occurred on the third day with the number of CBB of 416 and 395, respectively. In the evaluation of trapping design, four types of trapping were tried at the same location. The types of trapping were single funnel red trapping, four funnel red trapping, bottle trap with two straight opposite holes, and bottle trapping with two-zigzag holes. Bottle trapping was made of plastic bottle of 1.5-litre capacity, provided with two holes at its opposite wall. Setting up of the trapping in the field and the observation time were in the same way with the trial in trapping color evaluation. Results obtained indicated that the bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes captured the highest number of CBB followed by four funnel red trapping i.e. 547 and 69 per week, respectively. The peak number of trapped CBB occurred at the third day, as at the color trials. Furthermore, four lures have been evaluated int order to obtain the most effective substances for CBB trapping. Substances of A, B, C and D were set up in a coffee plantation using two types of trapping, four funnel red trapping and bottle trapping with two straight opposite holes. The results showed that the substances of B, C and D captured higher CBB adult than A. Nevertheless, this results was not fully convincing since the number of CBB trapped was low, which was due to low population of the CBB during the last trial. Key words: Coffee, trapping, coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, trap color, trap desain, lure

Distribution Pattern of Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus Hampei) on Arabica and Robusta Coffee

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee berry borer [CBB, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.)] is the main pest on coffee causing a significant losses. Distribution pattern of the pest is not known deeply until now, especially in Indonesia. The data of distribution pattern of pest is very important in constructing the strategy of integrated pest management, especially to determine a sampling method for monitoring of the pest. This experiment aimed to reveal the distribution pattern of CBB both spatially and vertically. The experiment was conducted on Arabica and Robusta coffee, located in Kalibendo estate in Banyuwangi East Java. A plot with 400 (20 x 20) of coffee trees were observed for infestation and population of CBB, at four branches on south, north, east and west directions for each tree. Collected data were analyzed to obtain the value of mean, variance (=s2), variance/mean relationship (=I), index of Morisita (=Iδ), coefficient of Green (=Cx) and k exponent of Negative Binomial. Results of the experiment revealed that spatial distribution pattern of CBB, both on Arabica an Robusta coffee, as well as for infestation and population parameters, was fit with aggregated or clumped distribution. For vertical distribution, it inclined that CBB infestation and population in the lower part of coffee tree was higher than in central and upper part of coffee tree. Plenty of infested coffee berries leaved on soil surface may result in higher infestation and population in the lower part.Key words: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, Hypothenemus hampei, spatial distribution, vertical distribution.

Effect of picung (Pangium edule) plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule) as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation) and one negative control treatment (aquades). The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol). The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule) is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

Hama Penggerek Buah Kakao - Kendala Utama Industri Kakao Indonesia dan Saran Pengelolaannya

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Outbreak of cocoa pod borer has occurred inCentral Sulawesiand other Indonesian provinces since 1991. The reason of the outbreak has not been clearly defined, however, it was presumed that the event look place after tremendous expansion of cocoa plantation in the last two decades. Until December, 1995 the pest has infested 11 provinces including several main cocoa producing areas ofIndonesia. Total cocoa area damaged by the pest is about 40,000 ha.Bioecological aspects and management of the pest were reviewed from some recent literatures. These information should be useful to arrange the control strategy of the pest inIndonesia. Control measures developed in other countries can be adopted directly in handling the pest, especially for short term practices.Key words: cocoa pod borer, control strategy

Pengaruh Bionematisida Berbahan Aktif Jamur Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 terhadap Serangan Pratylenchus coffeae pada Kopi Robusta

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Experiment on the effect of P. lilacinus on the infestation of P. coffeae on robusta coffee was conducted in Sumber Asin Experimental Garden, Malang. The treatments were dosages of bionematicide i.e. : 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 g; carbofuran (3 % active ingredient) 50 g/plant and organic soil treatment (OST) at 100 g/plant. Each treatment was replicated four times, and each replication consists of five coffee trees.The results in second year observation revealed that the population of P. coffeae in the roots on PL 251 treatments was not significantly different compared to the control, whereas in soil samples the population of both P. coffeae and Rotylenchulus reniformis inclined to be lower than the control, although they were not statistically significant. The lowest infestation was observed on PL 251 treatment at a dosage level of 4.00 g/tree. On nematode infestation, no significant difference on treatments of carbofuran and OST compared to the control. The yield of green coffee (market coffee) was the highest on the treatment of PL 251 at a dosage of 4.00 g/tree and significantly higher than the control and carbofuran treatments, with increasing levels of 225.3 and 198.9%, respectively.Keywords: bionematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL 251), Pratylenchus coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis

Keefektifan Limbah Tembakau sebagai Insektisida Nabati untuk Mengendalikan Hama Helopeltis sp. pada Kakao

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The effectiveness of tobacco waste extract to control Helopeltis sp. on cocoa had been tested in laboratory and field conditions. Side effects of the extract on growth of cocoa flower and predatory insects of Helopeltis sp. had also been observed after field application. The results revealed that tobacco waste extract at 10.0% concentration in water was effective in suppressing the population of Helopeltis sp. both in laboratory and field trials, and it was not significantly different compared to cypermethrin 0.1% formulation and BPMC 0.2% formulation. Application of tobacco extract and insecticides did not result in negative effects on the growth of cocoa flower, nevertheless the tratmens affected the population of predatory insects of spiders and Reduviidae.