Rathna Wijayanti
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Livelihood Strategies as Responses to Water Availability in Pusur Subwatershed, Bengawan Solo Wijayanti, Rathna; Baiquni, Muhammad; Harini, Rika
Forum Geografi Vol 30, No 2 (2016): December 2016
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v30i2.2618

Abstract

Water availability has a significant role on human life, particularly for the rural, agrarian communities. This study aimed to investigate the diverse conditions of water availability in Pusur sub-watershed, Bengawan Solo watershed, and the livelihood strategies of the local community in responding to the water availability. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis, and the data was collected through questionnaire, in-depth interview, and observation. On the water availability, the study used the following variables: (1) quality, (2) quantity, (3) spatial and temporal distribution, (4) access, (5) social-economy, and (5) institutional aspect. On the livelihood strategies, it uses: (1) reaction and (2) anticipation for water deficit. In term of sampling methods, the study used area and purposive sampling, by splitting the study site into the upper, middle, and lower area. The analysis of this study indicates that the level of water availability in the upper area is considered low. The community living in the upper area depends upon rainwater for its agricultural sector, and upon the water supply distributed by pipelines and tanker trucks for its household. The study also indicates that the middle area has abundant water supply, but the quality has been declined due to pollution, poor sanitation system, and potential conflict among the community members. Meanwhile, in the lower area, particularly in the dry season, irrigation water has been inadequate. Responding to the diverse water availability, the community has applied the following livelihood strategies: (1) leaving the agricultural land uncultivated in the upper area, and (2) pumping wells and rivers in the middle and lower areas. In addition, as part of its precautions actions, the community has applied: (1) agroforestry system at the upper area, (2) improved the irrigation system of the middle area, and (3) creating wells and using water pumps in the lower area. 
STUDI IDENTIFIKASI PENGELOLAAN LAHAN BERDASAR TINGKAT BAHAYA EROSI (TBE) (STUDI KASUS DI SUB DAS SANI, DAS JUWANA, JAWA TENGAH) Wijayanti, Rathna
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 9, No 2 (2011): Oktober 2011
Publisher : Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan,Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jil.9.2.57-61

Abstract

Kondisi Sub DAS Sani DAS Juwana, Jawa Tengah, saat ini sedang dalam kondisi kritis yang ditunjukkan dengan adanya banjir, sedimen, dan tingkat erosi tinggi. Untuk pengelolaan Sub DAS Sani, diperlukan studi untuk mengidentifikasikan dan mengkaji laju dan sebaran erosi, serta merumuskan urutan prioritas pengelolaan lahan berdasarkan TBE dan rekomendasi pengelolaan lahan guna kepentingan penanganan lahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan besarnya laju erosi dengan tingkat erosi normal (<15 ton/ha/thn) sebesar 64,64% dari luas wilayah, dan laju erosi berat sampai dengan sangat berat sebesar 9,498%. Berdasarkan Tingkat Bahaya Erosi (TBE), TBE dengan kategori sedang sampai dengan sangat berat seluas 4.425,92 Ha (17,42%) sehingga membutuhkan tindakan konservasi. Sebaran laju erosi maupun TBE sedang sampai sangat berat berada di lereng atas Gunung Muria dan sebagian di Perbukitan Patiayam. Semakin berat TBE maka semakin tinggi prioritas penanganannya. Hasil sebelum dan sesudah rekomendasi menunjukkan bahwa terjadi penurunan erosi yang signifikan pada laju erosi sedang sampai sangat berat yaitu dari 258.493,20 ton/ha/tahun menjadi 10.486,58 ton/ha/tahun, atau berkurang sebesar 248.006,62 ton/ha/tahun. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan: (1) TBE di Sub DAS Sani DAS Juwana yang memerlukan tindakan konservasi sebesar 4.425.92 Ha (17,42%), yang terdiri dari TBE sangat berat, berat, dan sedang, tersebar di daerah yang seharusnya menjadi lahan konservasi. Erosi ini terutama disebabkan oleh konversi lahan hutan ke bukan hutan, pengelolalaan lahan pertanian kurang atau tidak memperhatikan kaidah konservasi tanah dan air, dan belum adanya kesadaran partisipasi masyarakat dalam mengelola lahannya; (2) Berdasarkan hasil rekomendasi pada unit lahan-unit lahan dengan TBE sangat berat, berat, dan sedang, laju erosi dapat dikurangi sebesar 248.006 ton/ha/tahun. Upaya pengelolaan lahan dengan teknik konservasi yang sesuai dan memadai dapat mengurangi laju erosi. Berdasarkan urutan prioritas pengelolaan lahan dan arahan fungsi pemanfaatan lahan, rekomendasi pengelolaan lahan secara mekanik untuk lereng klas I ? IV menggunakan teras gulud sedangkan lereng klas V menggunakan teras gunung. Untuk rekomendasi secara vegetatif, pengelolaan lahan disesuaikan dengan arahan pemanfaatan lahannya.
Strategi Penghidupan Berkelanjutan Masyarakat Berbasis Aset di Sub DAS Pusur, DAS Bengawan Solo Wijayanti, Rathna; Baiquni, M.; Harini, Rika
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan Vol 4, No 2 (2016): August 2016
Publisher : Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (841.466 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jwl.4.2.133-152

Abstract

In coping with water insufficiency and socio-economic culture problems, the strategy by combining the livelihoods assets which they have already owned and which are accessible has applied by the farmers at Pusur Sub-Watershed. The study aims to review the conditions of livelihoods assets owned and those which were accessible by the community, as well as to review the strategies of sustainable livelihoods of community-based on the asset in order to increase the living and to protect the environment sustainability in Pusur Sub-Watershed, Bengawan Solo Watershed. The method used was using quantitative and qualitative analysis through the questionnaire, in-depth interview, and observation techniques. The variables are used to value the condition of livelihoods assets are the human capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, and financial capital. The livelihood strategies were grouped into an intensification and extensification, diversification, and migration. The method of sampling area and purposive sampling are applied to split the area of research into three, i.e. the upper part, middle part, and bottom part. The result showed that the highest asset owned by Sub-Watershed on the middle part, upper and the last is a bottom part. The physical capital would have the highest value in the whole area of Sub-Watershed if it compared to the other capitals. The intensification strategy on the upper part is agroforestry, while the middle and bottom have ?panca usaha tani? strategy. The diversification strategy through livestock is taken in the upper part, while the strategies as the employee or hourly workers are found in the middle and bottom part. The migration strategies with the reason of marriage were dominating in the bottom and upper parts, while the middle part the migration is due to the work issues.