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Journal : Journal of Maternal and Child Health

Socioeconomics Factors Associated with the Utilization of Primary Health Services of Mothers and Children at Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Kristiani, Yunita; Tamtomo, Didik; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 2, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: One of the main health development agenda in Indonesia 2015 to 2019 is reduction in maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate, and improve access and quality of maternal and child health services. However, variance in socioeconomics status between individual and between rural-urban have caused to difference in utilization of health service. This study aimed to analyze socioeconomics factors associated with the utilization of primary health services of mothers and children at Nunukan District, North Kalimantan.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at six community health centers in Nunukan, North Kalimantan, from October to November, 2017. A total sample of 208 mothers was collected using multistage random sampling. The dependent variables were antenatal care (ANC) service, place of birth delivery, and basic immunization. The independent variables were maternal education, maternal employment status, family income, family welfare, and residence. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: Utilization of ANC increased with better family welfare (b= 1.42; 95% CI= 0.34 to 2.49; p=0.010). Use of basic immunization increased with higher maternal education (b= 0.71; 95% CI= 0.06 to 1.35; p= 0.032). Place of birth delivery at formal health facility increased with living in urban area (b= 3.2; 95% CI= 1.97 to 4.44; p <0.001), maternal employment (b= 2.34; 95% CI= 0.77 to 3.91; p=0.003), and regular ANC (b=1.04; 95% CI= -0.10 to 2.18; p=0.074). Family income increased with higher maternal education level (b= 1.21; 95% CI= 0.50 to 1.92; p= 0.001) and maternal employment (b= 2.54; 95% CI= 1.67 to 3.41; p <0.001). Family welfare increased with living in urban area (b= 1.4; 95% CI= 0.09 to 2.68; p=0.035) and higher family income (b=2.5; 95% CI= 0.44 to 4.54; p= 0.017). Maternal employment status increased with higher maternal education level (b= 2.45; 95% CI= 1.63 to 3.26; p <0.001).Conclusion: Utilization of ANC directly increases with better family welfare. Utilization of basic immunization increases with higher maternal education. Place of birth delivery at formal health facility increases with living in urban area, maternal employment, and regular ANC.Keyword: social economics factors, ANC, place of birth delivery, basic immunization, mother, children Correspondence: Yunita Kristiani. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Surakarta, 57126, Central Java. Email: y.ithakristiani@gmail.com. Mobile: 085393313553.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2017), 2(4): 371-384https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2017.02.04.08
Phenomenology Study: Factors Associated with the Choice of Unskilled Traditional Birth Attendants in Brebes, Central Java Prastiwi, Ratih Sakti; Budihastuti, Uki Retno; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 1, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: The number of birth delivery attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant in Brebes District, Central Java, was still high. From January to April 2016, 67 birth deliveries were attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant. This study aimed to delve information in how social and cultural factors influence the decision to choose traditional birth attendants in Brebes, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was a qualitative study with phenomenology approach. This study was carried out in Brebes, Central Java. The key informants of this study were midwives, who by snowball sampling technique suggested on the traditional birth attendants and their clients (i.e. laboring mothers) to be interviewed. The data were collected by in-depth interview, focus group discussion, observation, and document review. The researcher did data reduction, data display, and made decision. The data were verified by triangulation of sources technique.Results: Some skilled traditional birth attendants actively collaborated with midwives. Today rarely traditional birth attendants attend birth delivery, although there was a considerable number of community members who sought their help for birth attendant. Community members regard these traditional birth attendants as to have charisma and some supernatural power. Usually traditional birth attendants get involved in cultural ceremonies. Sometimes community members seek traditional birth attendants as a source of advice. In an extended family the decision to choose birth attendant was made by the mother or grandmother of the laboring woman. In a smaller family the decision to choose birth attendant was made by the laboring woman.Conclusion: The decision to choose unskilled birth attendants is made by the family members of the laboring woman, and this choice was influenced by traditional birth attendant’s charisma.Keywords: birth delivery, traditional birth attendant, social and cultural factorsCorrespondence: Ratih Sakti Prastiwi. Diploma III Program of Midwifery, Health Polytechnics Harapan Bersama, Tegal. Email: ratih.sakti@ymail.com.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2016), 1(4): 242-249https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2016.01.04.05 
Employment Status, Family Income, Contraceptive Availability, and their Effects on the Use of Long Term Contraceptives in Sukoharjo, Central Java Ningrum, Sri Setiyo; Indarto, Dono; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Maternal and Child Health Vol 1, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Rapid population growth cause population burden on earth and imbalance population distribution. This situation in turn make cause public health and social problems. One of the methods that can be used to control population growth is long term contraceptive use. The Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (SDKI) showed that employed mothers were more likely to use long term contraceptive than unemployed mothers. Contraceptives are available for free at Family Planning Clinic (KKB). This study aimed to analyze the effect of employment status, family income, and contraceptive availability, on the use of long term contraceptive among women and men of reproductive age in Sukoharjo, Central Java.Subjects and Method: This was a qualitative analytic and descriptive study with phenomenology approach. This study was conducted in Weru, Kartasura, Polokarto, and Tawangsari subdistricts, Sukoharjo, Central Java. The key informants included acceptors of implant, Intra Uterine Device (IUD), Female Surgical Method (MOW), and Male Surgical Method (MOP). The data were collected by in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), observation, document review. The data were alayze by interactive analysis. The data were verified by triangulation of data sources.Results: Two informants reported they chose IUD because they had to work outside the house, undesirable side effects of using oral contraceptive, injection contraceptive, and contraceptive use by their mothers and grandmothers. Some other informants have used implant because of undesirable side effect of using injection contraceptive, such as irregular menstruation and increased body weight. Two other informants have used female surgical method (MOW) because they already have three children and do not want to be pregnant again. One male informant reported that he has used male surgical method (MOP) because already has four children, and he followed the methods his father has used. Most of the long term contaceptive users work outside the house and their incomes were lower than the minimum regional standard wage. Most of the long term contraceptive users receive free contraceptive and additional reward (e.g. free rice). The remaining long term contraceptive users buy contraceptives at the health center and hospital. The contraceptives were supplied by the National Coordinating Board of Population and Family Planning (Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional, BKKBN) at province level. Village midwives did not receive free contraceptive because their practices have not been classified as Family Planning Clinics (KKB).Conclusion: Availability of contraceptive is a necessary condition for long term contraceptive use. Working outside the house is an additional factor for most women to realize long term contraceptive use.Keywords: Employment status, family income, availability, long term contraceptive Correspondence: Sri Setiyo Ningrum. Diploma III Program in Midwifery, Poltekkes Bhakti Mulia, Sukoharjo, Central Java. Email: srisetiyoningrum@ymail.com.Journal of Maternal and Child Health (2016), 1(3): 179-187https://doi.org/10.26911/thejmch.2016.01.03.05