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Efek Antimalaria Ekstrak Sambiloto Terstandar (Parameter Kadar Aandrografolida) Pada Mencit Terinfeksi Plasmodium Berghei.

Majalah Farmasi Airlangga Vol 5, No 1 (2005): Majalah Farmasi Airlangga
Publisher : Majalah Farmasi Airlangga

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Abstract

Andrographis paniculata Nees. which known as ‘sambiloto’ is used for antimalaria. Andrographolide is an main content of sambiloto which is believed to have antimalarial activity. The previous research had shown that sambiloto extract have antimalarial activity both in vitro and in vivo. But, there is no data for the  effective dose of  standardized sambiloto extract as antimalaria. In this research, the standardized extract of sambiloto was tested in vivo as antimalarial agent using Peter’s 4 day suppressive test. Mice (16-29 body weight) were infected with Plasmodium berghei intra peritoneally with suspension containing infected red blood cell taken from donor mice with parasitemia >20%, when parasite concentration in erythrocyte reached >1%, treatment with suspension extract was given for four consecutive days orally with doses 0.0005-100 mg andrographolide/kg mice body weight. Blood samples were taken to determine parasitemia level for seven days and compared to non treated and chloroquin treated subjects and ED50 was obtained by analyzing inhibition level in five days with probit analysis. The result showed that standardized sambiloto extract [(10.82±0.37)% andrographolide] has an ED50 value of 12.2223 mg extract equal to 1.3200 mg andrographolide/kg body weight against Plasmodium berghei.Key words: Standardized sambiloto extract, andrographolide, antimalarial, Plasmodium berghei

Combination Therapy Model of Cempedak Stembark Ethanol 80% Extract (Artocarpus champeden Spreng.) and Artesunat on Malaria Parasite Infected Mice

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 61 No. 4 April 2011
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Parasite resistance to antimalarial become a major problem in health. Combination therapy with artemisinine derivates or known with term ACT (Artemisinine-based Combination Therapy) was suggested by WHO as alternative therapy to control the spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Combination therapy of Cempedak stembark (Artocarpus champeden Spreng.) 80% Ethanolic Extract (ACEE) and Artesunate on Plasmodium berghei infected mice was studied. The study was carried out by oral administration of ACEE and artesunate. Treatment groups were divided in (A) ACEE 100 mg/kg bw daily for three concecutive days; (B) Artesunate 36,4 mg/kg bw daily for three consecutive days; (C) combination of ACEE 100 mg/kg and Artesunate 36,4 mg/kg daily for three concecutive days; (D) combination of ACEE 100 mg/kg daily for three concecutive days and Artesunate 36.4 mg/kg daily at day one; (E) combination of ACEE 100 mg/kg for three concecutive days and Artesunate 36.4 mg/kg daily at day three. The result showed that A, B, C, D, and E inhibit parasite’s growth for 62.6%; 66.8%; 82.3%; 67.8%; 70.2% respectively. It showed that C gives the highest antimalarial activity among all groups. Based on one way Anova, the treatment groups showed statistically significant difference (p=0.00; p<0.05) for inhibiton of parasite growth. The research revealed that combination of ACEE 100 mg/kg and Artesunate 36.4 mg/kg daily for three concecutive days (model C) on P.berghei infected mice is the most potential therapy model.Keywords: Artocarpus champeden extract, combination therapy, Artesunate,inhibition of parasite’s growth.

Comparison of Ethanol Extract from Roots, Leaves, and Flowers of Calotropis gigantea as Anticancer on T47D Breast Cancer Cell Lines

ALCHEMY Vol 5, No 1 (2016): ALCHEMY
Publisher : Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malan

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Abstract

This research aims to find out the anticancer activity of ethanol extract from the roots, leaves, and flowers of Calotropis gigantea. This experiment was conducted by MTT method on T47D breast cancer cell line. The result showed that the root of Calotropis gigantea was more cytotoxic (IC50 89.76 μg/mL) on T47D breast cancer cell line than the leaves (IC50 459.51 μg/mL) and the flowers (IC50>1000). Based on the result, roots are potent to be chemotherapeutic agent, especially in breast cancer.

Comparison of the provision of champedon trunk shell capsule extract and artesunate on placental histopathologic classification in pregnant mice (Mus musculus) malaria model

Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi Vol 25, No 3 (2017): December
Publisher : Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University

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Abstract

Objectives: To compare the effect of chemphedon trunk shell capsule extract with artesunate on placental histopathologic classification in pregnant mice malaria’s models.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized experi-mental laboratory study in BALBc strains mice with controls. A total of 30 pregnant mice were divided into 3 groups. On day 10 each group was infected with P. berghei. Furthermore, on day 11 each group was subjected to thin blood smear examination and subsequent infection when administered antimalarial positive. Group P1 received Chemphedon trunk shell extract 100 mg/kg BW/day per sonde two times per day for 5 days. Group P2 received 36.4 mg artesunate/kg BW/day for 3 days followed by CMC Na per sonde for 2 days, and group P3 received placebo (CMC Na) for 5 days. On day 16 the mice were dissected on 16 days of pregnancy and the placenta was taken and preparations were made to observe histopathological classification of the placenta according to Rogerson. Grouping was performed accor-ding to placental histopathological classification by Rogerson.Results: Groups receiving cemphedon trunk shell capsule extract, artesunate and placebo revealed p=0.004 (p<0.05), showing that there were two groups with significant difference. To determine which group had significant difference, the test was followed by Mann-Whitney post-hoc test. The results showed chempedon trunk shell capsule group and placebo obtained p=0.007 (p<0.05), indicating significance. Artesunate and placebo groups revealed p=0.003 (p<0.05), also indicating significance. The test results of chemphedon trunk shell capsule extract and artesunate groups showed p=0.475 (p<0.05), indicating no significant differences.Conclusion: Placental histopathologic classification on pregnant mice malaria’s model that received antimalarial chemphedon trunk shell capsule extract of 100 mg/kg BW is better than place-bo and equivalent to artesunate of 36.4mg/kg BW.

Sambiloto (AS201-01) is better than standard antimalarial drug (DHP) in reducing Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) on placenta malaria model

Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi Vol 26, No 2 (2018): August
Publisher : Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University

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Abstract

Objectives: To compare the TLR2 expression in the placenta between treated by sambiloto EA-96 fraction tablet (AS201-01) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate (DHP)Materials and Methods: Experimental study using 24 pregnant mice. All sample divided into 4 groups with randomization are uninfected group, Plasmodium infected group and given placebo, sambiloto (AS201-01) and DHP. Then performed surgery and placental sampling were staining with adopting in tunnel assay method to measure the TLR2 expression of placental.Results: The expression of TLR2 in uninfected group has the lowest rate compared to other groups. The infected and placebo treated group has the highest TLR2 expression campared with sambiloto and DHP. The sambiloto group has not differ signi-ficantly with the group uninfected and lower than DHP.Conclusion: Tablet of sambiloto EA-96 fraction (AS201-01) decreased TLR2 expession better than with DHP tablet.

The effect of sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) on placental Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA) expression of pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei

Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi Vol 26, No 2 (2018): August
Publisher : Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University

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Abstract

Objectives: To determine the effect of Sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) in reducing the placental Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA) Expression of pregnant mice infected Plasmodiumberghei.Materials and Methods: Experimental study using 24 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups with randomization. Uninfected group, the placebo group, the Sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) group and the DHP tablet (as a standart drug) group. The last three groups, were infected with P. bergheion day 9th of pregnancy, and the treatment was started at day 11th of pregnancy, and samples were terminated at day 15th of pregnancy by surgery. Placental sampling were stained with Tunnel assay to measure placental CSA antibodies.Results: The placental Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA) expression. Uninfected group compared to Sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) groups was not significantly different (p>0.05), uninfected group compared with the other treatment groups differ meaningfully (p<0.05). Placebo group compared with all groups significantly different (p<0.05). Sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) group compared to uninfected group (p>0.05) was not significantly different, with another group was significantly different (p<0.05). DHP tablet group compared to all the groups was significantly different (p<0.05).Conclusion: Placental Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA)expression of mice infected by Plasmodium berghei treated with Sambiloto tablet (AS201-01) lower than DHP tablet. 

MEKANISME AKSI α-MANGOSTIN DARI GARCINIA TETRANDA PIERRE TERHADAP P.FALCIPARUM SECARA IN VITRO

Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 1 No 1 (2010): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117

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Abstract

ABSTRACT   Development stage of parasite resistance assay and the Globin accumulation using SDS-PAGE Method has been done to parasite P. falciparum by giving α-mangostin from G. tetranda. α-Mangostin cause delays in the development stage of the parasite P. falciparum from stage schizont to stage trofozoit and cause parasite death after 48 hour. Swelling of the parasite of abnormal parasite food vacuole occurred after administration of α-Mangostin show from the results of SDS-PAGE.   Key word : α- Mangostin, G. tetranda, P. falciparum,  globin accumulation   ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan pengujian hambatan perkembangan stadium parasit dan akumulasi globin menggunakan metode SDS- PAGE terhadap P. falciparum dengan pemberian α-Mangostin dari G. tetranda. Diketahui α-Mangostin menyebabkan penundaan perkembangan parasit P. falciparum dari stadium trofozoit menjadi stadium skizon dan menyebabkan parasit mati setelah jam ke 48. Pembengkakan vakuola makanan parasit yang abnormal terjadi setelah pemberian α- Mangostin terlihat dari hasil SDS-PAGE.   Kata Kunci : α-Mangostin, G. tetranda, P. falciparum, , akumulasi globin

PROSPEK SENYAWA FLAVONOID KULIT BATANG CEMPEDAK (Artocarpus champeden Spreng) SEBAGAI INHIBITOR DETOXIFIKASI HEME PARASIT MALARIA The detoxification inhibitory activity of heme malaria parasite by flavonoid in Cempedak bark (Artocarpus champeden Spreng)

Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia Vol 2, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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Abstract

 ABSTRACTThe reaserch on the prospect of cempedak (Artocarpus champeden Spreng) bark as heme malaria parasite detoxificationinhibitor has been conducted. The flavonoid content was isolated from the methanolic extract of thecempedak bark and had been determine the anti-malaria propertise by in-vitro technique. The methode used wasBHIA (β- hematin Inhibitor Assay) and ultra observation of malaria parasite structure. The results showed thatisolates ME2 (IC50 = 0.35μg/ml) and morakhalkon compound A (IC50 = 0:28 mg /ml or 0.83μM) were isolatedfrom the methanol extract of the Cempedak bark is potential as an antimalarial. Compounds A and isolates morakhalkonME2 has a mechanism of action as an inhibitor of heme detoxification process of the malaria parasite.Therefore flavonoid from Cempedak bark is prospective developed as a new antimalarial drug. ABSTRAKPenelitian tentang prospek kulit batang cempedak (Artocarpus champeden Spreng) sebagai inhibitor detoxifikasiheme parasit malaria telah dilakukan. Senyawa flavonoid diisolasi dari ekstrak metanol kulit batang cempedakdan diuji potensi antimalarianya serta hambatan detoxifikasi heme secara in vitro. Pengujian hambatandetoxifikasi heme dilakukan dengan metode BHIA (β-hematin Inhibitor Assay) dan pengamatan ultra strukturparasit malaria. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat ME2 (IC50=0.35μg/ml) dan senyawa morakhalkonA (IC50= 0.28 μg/ml atau 0.83μM) yang diisolasi dari ekstrak metanol kulit batang cempedak berpotensi sebagaiantimalaria. Senyawa morakhalkon A dan isolat ME2 memiliki mekanisme aksi sebagai inhibitor prosesdetoksifikasi heme parasit malaria. Oleh karena itu senyawa flavonoid dari kulit batang cempedak prospektifdikembangkan sebagai obat antimalaria baru.Kata kunci: Artocarpus champeden Spreng, antimalaria, inhibitor detoxifikasi heme 

Skrining Aktivitas Antimalaria Beberapa Tanaman Indonesia Hasil Eksplorasi Dari Hutan Raya Cangar, Batu-Malang, Jawa Timur

JURNAL FARMASI DAN ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA Vol 3, No 1 (2016): Jurnal Farmasi dan Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: Malaria is the most important parasitic disease. Malaria control which depends on specific chemotherapy now complicated by resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to most commonly available antimalarial drug. Such situation has heralded the need for alternative antimalarial therapy. Objective: This research aim was to find new antimalarial candidates from some Indonesia plants collected from Cangar National Forest, Batu-Malang, East Java. Methods: Eleven samples of leaves and stem extracts were screened against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 culture which maintained in RPMI-1640 Medium. Samples tested in concentration of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml. Probit analysis was used to determine IC50. Results: In vitro antimalarial activity revealed that only three crude extracts samples from Fraxinus griffithi stem extract, Piper sulcatum leaves extract and Eucalyptus globulus stem extract had good antimalarial activity with IC50 value of 0.33, 0.20 and 0.55 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: Fraxinus griffithi stem extract, Piper sulcatum leaves extract and Eucalyptus globulus stem extract might be a good candidate for antimalarial natural product resources.

Comparison of the effect of sambiloto (AS 201-01) tablet and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on macrophage MIF expression in mice placenta infected with Plasmodium berghei

Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi Vol 26, No 3 (2018): December
Publisher : Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University

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Abstract

Objective: To compare the administration of sambiloto tablets (AS201-01) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate tablets in pregnant mice infected by P. berghei on the expression of MIF in the placenta.Materials and Methods: Experimental laboratory research, 24 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups with randomization, ie. non-infected, placebo, sambiloto (AS201-01) and DHP groups. On day 9 P. berghei was infected, on day 11 the treatment was given, day 15 the surgery was performed, placental samples were taken, immunohistochemical staining was given, and MIF expression was assessed.Results: The expression of MIF in the group not infected with P. berghei had the lowest mean, while the highest mean was found in the placebo group. Uninfected groups were not significantly different from sambiloto (AS201-01) tablet group. Sambiloto tablet group (AS201-01) had lower MIF expression than DHP group, but it was not significantly different. Sambiloto tablet group (AS201-01) showed lower MIF expression than placebo. MIF expression in DHP group was lower than that in placebo group. From the lowest, the MIF expressions were as follows: group not infected with P. berghei, group receiving sambiloto (AS201-01) tablet, DHP group and placebo group.Conclusion: MIF expression in the placenta of pregnant mice infected with P. berghei and receiving sambiloto (AS20-01) tablets was not different from those receiving DHP tablets.