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PENGARUH SUHU DALAM PROSES TRANSESTERIFIKASI PADA PEMBUATAN BIODESEL KEMIRI SUNAN (Reautealis trisperma)

Jurnal Material dan Energi Indonesia Vol 7, No 01 (2017): Jurnal Material dan Energi Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Material dan Energi Indonesia

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Abstract

Biodiesel dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif penggunaan bahan bakar fosil. Biodiesel bersifat ramah lingkungan karena dibuat dengan bahan baku alami. Bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel pada penelitian ini adalah kemiri sunan (Reautealis trisperma). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu terbaik dan pengaruh suhu yang digunakan dalam proses transesterifikasi biodiesel tersebut. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan tiga kali ulangan dan lima variasi suhu yang digunakan, yaitu 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, 60°C dan 65°C. Karakteristik biodiesel kemiri sunan tersebut lalu dibandingkan dengan standar SNI 04-7182-2006. Karakteristik yang diamati adalah rendemen parsial, rendemen total, densitas, kadar air, bilangan asam, viskositas dan bilangan iod. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa biodiesel kemiri sunan terbaik memiliki karakteristik rendemen total, densitas, kadar air, bilangan asam, viskositas dan bilangan iod secara berturut-turut adalah 6,55%; 1,036 g/ml; 0%; 0,862 mgKOH/g; 6,241 cSt dan 32,11 gI2/100g. Biodiesel kemiri sunan tersebut dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi dengan suhu tertinggi 65°C. Kata kunci: Biodiesel, Kemiri Sunan, Suhu dan Transesterifikasi

KINETIKA FRENCH FRIES UMBI GARUT SELAMA PENGGORENGAN

Jurnal Teknotan Vol 2, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

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Abstract

French fries adalah produk olahan makanan siap saji berbentuk batang yang diolah melalui tahapan pemanasan dan pembekuan serta siap diproses lebih lanjut. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari perubahan kekerasan, dan kematangan serta membuat pemodelan kinetika perubahan karakteristik french fries umbi garut selama penggorengan.Sampel digoreng dengan perlakuan suhu pengorengan (155±2oC, 170±2oC, 180±2oC).Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggorengan dengan suhu minyak 180±2oC selama 2 menit menghasilkan karakteristik french fries umbi garut yang terbaik, yaitu tingkat kekerasan 52,875 mm/gram/detik, warna coklat keemasan, crust renyah, core lunak, tidak terjadi pemisahan core dan crust. Konstanta laju perubahan sifat mekanis mengikuti hubungan eksponensial kp = A e. Kenaikan Kp pelunakan sejalan dengan kenaikan suhu minyak penggorengan dan  kp pengerasan berbanding terbalik dengan kenaikan suhu minyak. Besar energi aktivasi fase pelunakan 40605,576 J dan faktor frekuensi 2,60 x 10-8, sedangkan fase pengerasan  23753,098 J dan faktor frekuensi  4,19 x 10-6. Pemodelan nilai kekerasan menunjukkan kesesuaian antara data kekerasan observasi dengan prediksi. Pemodelan nilai kekerasan dapat digunakan untuk perancangan dan pengendalian proses. Kata kunci: Umbi garut, French fries, Penggorengan, Kinetika

PEMANASAN OHMIC PADA BAHAN MAKANAN CAIR

Jurnal Teknotan Vol 1, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

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Abstract

Pada penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh kekuatan medan listrik dan konsentrasi cairan yang dipanaskan secara ohmic dalam pemanas ohmic statis. PEnelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Februari hingga Mei 2005. Bahan makanan cair yang digunakan adalah larutan garam, larutan CMC, larutan jus jeruk dan susu segar. Konduktivitas listrik bahan makanan cair sebanding dengan perubahan suhu serta bervariasi dengan kekuatan medan listrik. Kenaikan konduktivitas listrik seiring dengan kenaikan suhu untuk semua sampel uji mengikuti hubungan linier σ = aT + σ ref. Laju pemanasan meningkat dengan pertambahan konsentrasi cairan.Di dalam penelitian ini, distribusi suhu di bawah kondisi observasi pemanasan ohmic diperlakukan sebagai fungsi linear terhadap waktu. Model yang dikembangkan dapat memprediksi perubahan suhu selama pemanasan ohmic dengan baik.Kata kunci: Ohmic, pemanasan, makanan cair, konduktivitas listrik, suhu prediksi

PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN JENIS GULA DAN KONSENTRASI SARIBUAH TERHADAP KESUKAAN KARAKTERISTIK SIRUP JERUK KEPROK GARUT (CITRUS NOBILIS LOUR)

Jurnal Teknotan Vol 2, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

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Abstract

Penelitian untuk menentukan jenis gula dan konsentrasi saribuah yang tepat sehingga dihasilkan sirup Jeruk Keprok Garut yang mempunyai karakteristik baik dan disukai panelis telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Teknologi Pengolahan Pangan FTIP, UNPADBandungdari April sampai Oktober 2007. Metode percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dan terdiri dari 8 perlakuan, yang diulang sebanyak 4 kali. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah kombinasi penggunaan jenis gula (sukrosa, fruktosa) dan konsentrasi saribuah (30% v/v, 35% v/v, 40% v/v dan 45% v/v) terhadap karakteristik sirup Jeruk Keprok Garut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis gula sukrosa dengan konsentrasi saribuah 40% menghasilkan sirup Jeruk Keprok Garut yang lebih disukai dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lain dengan nilai kesukaan (skor  1 =  tidak suka; 2 = agak tidak suka; 3 = biasa; 4 = agak suka; dan 5 = suka); warna (4,42 = agak suka); aroma (3,42 = biasa); kekentalan (4,59 = suka); warna hasil pengenceran (4,33 = agak suka); aroma hasil pengenceran (3,33 = biasa); dan rasa hasil pengenceran (4,17 = agak suka); dengan kadar gula total 69,7%; kadar vitamin C 1,76 mg/100 g; dan nilai pH 3,15. Kata kunci: Jeruk keprok garut, Sirup, Karakteristik

The Effect of NaOH Concentration and Length of Transesterification Time on Characteristic of FAME from Reutealis trisperma (Kemiri Sunan)

International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Vol 5, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology

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Abstract

Biodiesel (FAME) is biofuel as a result from conversion process of triglycerides (oil) into FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esther).  Reutelis trisperma (Kemiri Sunan) is one of the plant that contains triglycerides, which is inedible oil due to its high poisonous component (alpha oleostearic acid), therefore this plant can be used as the nature source of biodiesel production.  The research aimed to study the effect of NaOH concentration and length of transesterification time on the yield and FAME characteristic.  The experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with two replicated.  The result indicated that 0.75% NaOH in two hours transesterification  produce the highest yield of FAME with density 0.8703 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity 5.325 cSt, acid value 0.552 mg KOH/g and iodine value 46.6972 g I2/g.

PENGARUH OHMIC DAN PASTEURISASI KONVENSIONAL TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN KUALITAS JUS CAMPURAN JERUK-WORTEL

Jurnal Teknotan Vol 6, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

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Abstract

Pasteurisasi ohmic dan konvensional dilakukan pada jus campuran jeruk-wortel dengan perbandingan (80 %:20 %, v/v) pada konsentrasi 10o Brix. Perubahan karakteristik fisikokimia dan kualitas jus campuran dapat dilihat dalam hal warna, pH, brix, browning, turbiditas, keasaman, rasio pulp-serum, dan rasio brix-asam, yang diukur dan dibandingkan dengan jus yang tidak diproses. Kecenderungan warna jus dengan perlakuan ohmic menunjukan sampel dengan warna sedikit kemerahan dan kuning cerah jika dibandingkan dengan metode pasteurisasi lainnya, akantetapi tidak berbeda nyata dengan jus campur segar pada tingkat kepercayaan 0,05 %. Hasil pengukuran CIE Lab menunjukkan bahwa CIE b* memiliki nilai korelasi positif sedangkan CIE a* cenderung memiliki nilai korelasi negatif ketika sampel mengalami perlakuan panas. Nilai kandungan gula, keasaman dan rasio brix-asam mengindikasikan ohmic dapat diterapkan pada kondisi yang tepat terutama untuk mengimbangi rasa dari jus campur. Sampel yang telah dipasteurisasi dengan ohmic juga menghasilkan warna, pH, turbiditas, keasaman dan rasio pulp-serum yang lebih baik dibandingkan metode yang lain. Secara umum, karakteristik  jus campur pasteurisasi dapat dipertahankan oleh pasteurisasi ohmic diikuti dengan pasteurisasi konvensional cepat, sedangkan pasteurisasi konvensional ringan menunjukkan pengaruh paling sedikit diantara semuanya. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pasteurisasi ohmic memiliki kemungkinan yang menjanjikan untuk diaplikasikan pada jus campur yang diproduksi industri minuman. Kata kunci: pasteurisasi ohmic, pasteurisasi konvensional, karakteristik fisikokimia, jus                             campuran jeruk-wortel 

Antibacteririal avtivities of Bacillus cereus and Shigella dysenteriae of white tea extract in several variation of solvents

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea is used in the food, cosmetic, and herbal drug industries. White tea is a kind of tea containing a relatively high polyphenol content compared to other kind of tea, and thus has the potential of being used as a natural antibacterial. The objective of this research was to study the antibacterial activity of of  white tea extract in several variation of  13 % (w/v) concentration of solvents to the activity of gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Shigella dysenteriae). Laboratorium experimental method was used in this descriptive study. The antibacterial activity study was comprised of estimating inhibition area and total of bacterial growth. The results revealed that white tea extract inhibited bacterial growth, indicating that white tea extract from the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and 96% ethanol solvents could be developed as an antibacterial material. The diameter of the inhibition area to Bacillus cereus bacteria for n - hexane , ethyl acetate, and  ethanol 13 % (w/ v)  solvents were 0.6 mm, 10.5 mm and 1.75 mm, respectively; while for Shigella dysenteriae bacteria were 0,5 mm, 9,86 mm  and 10,6 mm, respectively. The total growth of Bacillus cereus bacteria for n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol 13 % (w/v) solvent were 1.3 x 107, 6.0 x 106, and  1.1 x 104 CFU / ml , and of Shigella dysenteriae bacteria were  1.0 x 107,  6.5 x 106 and 4.6 x 106 CFU / ml, respectively.

Antibacterial activity of white tea extract against gram positive and negative bacteria

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

This research was carried out to deter­mine antibacterial activity of white tea extract against gram positive and gram negative bacteria based on its MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). Ethanol solution 96% were used to extract of white tea with a ratio of 1:9 (w/v) by using maceration method. Paper disc diffusion method was used to determination of the MIC. The concentrations were used of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% (w/v). The results of this research showed that MIC of white tea extract of 4%, 6%, 6% and 10% (w/v) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphy­lococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, respectively. The inhibition zone for 4 bacteria were 10.83 mm, 10.08 mm, 10.16 mm and 12.08 mm respectively. This result of research concluded that white tea extract have antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria

The making of transparent soap based on olive oil with the addition of white tea extract

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 20, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea is a popular drink in the world. Types of tea which is rarely used is white tea. Besides consumed as a beverage, white tea can also be used in extracted form. White tea extract contains polyphenols compound, particularly catechins that can be used as an antibacterial. One of white tea extract uses that can be added to production of olive oil transparent soap based. This study aimed to determine the process of transparent soap production, looking for the best concentration of white tea extract, determine the characteristic and quality of transparent soap, and look for the extend of inhibition zone of Staphylococcus aureus in transparent soap. The treatments given in this research were the concentration of white tea extract 1% (w / v) with the addition of A (control soap) = 0% (w / w), B = 0,5% (w / w), C = 1,0% (w / w), and D = 1,5% (w / w) of 300 grams of soap bases. Transparent soap characteristics observed were physical-chemical properties, antibacterial and organoleptic test. The analysis showed that all transparent soap baths complied the SNI 06-3532-1994 requirements of solid soap, except the water content and evaporated substance and the amount of fatty acids. The best result of this research was soap with treatment B (with 0,5% (w/w) extract addition), which was chosen based on organoleptic test (such as aroma, hardness and foam quantity) and Indonesian National Standard (SNI) qualities of solid soap with best result in unsaponified fraction test, hardness, and foam stability.

The study of transparent soap making from virgin coconut oil-based with the addition of white tea extract as an active ingredients

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Transparent soap was made using high quality materials that beneficial for skin health and beauty. The main ingredient of the transparent soap was virgin coconut oil (VCO), with the addition of white tea extract which was able to increase the benefits of transparent soap. This study aimed to create formulation of the transparent soap, to find the addition of the white tea extracts to produce transparent soap and to study the characteristics of the transparent soap after the addition of white tea extracts. The treatments in this study were the addition of white tea extracts A = 0% (w / w), B = 0.5% (w / w, C = 1.0% (w / w and D = 1.5% (w / w). Observations on the transparent soap were including chemical properties, physical properties of soap, antibacterial and organoleptic test. The results of the analysis showed that all transparent soap formulas met the requirements of solid soap SNI 06-3532-1994, except for the total fatty acid. The formula of transparent soap with treatment B (addition of white tea extract 0.5% w / v) was the best product with organoleptic test results reached 43.34%. The analysis results of those soap were 11.47% of water content and evaporating substances, 37.97% of total fatty acid, 0.519% of free fatty acid, 2.24% of unsaponified fraction, pH value of 9, hardness 0.0077 mm/g/sec, the foam stability of 76.88% and the activity of antibacterial inhibition diameter of 10.7 mm, respectively. This technology could be applied in the production of transparent soap with the addition of white tea extract and to be developed into some industrial scale.