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ANALISIS KESTABILAN MODEL DINAMIK NITROGEN DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN PERTUMBUHAN LOGISTIK ALGA widowati, widowati; sutimin, sutimin; ps, hermin; is, Tarita
MATEMATIKA Vol 12, No 3 (2009): JURNAL MATEMATIKA
Publisher : MATEMATIKA

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The nitrogen dynamics model  related to algae growth is proposed. The form of the model is nonlinear differential equation system. From these model, the stability of the equilibrium point is disscussed. The stability is analized through the eigen values of the Jacobian matrix that is obtained from linearized system.  From the simulation results is found that ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen concentration will achieve to a certain value. The changed of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen,  and nitrate-nitrogen concentration are effected by the algae density. If the alga density increase then the ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen concentrations will increase but the nitrate concentration will decrease.  
MODEL LOGISTIK DENGAN DIFUSI PADA PERTUMBUHAN SEL TUMOR EHRLICH ASCITIES Nirwansah, Hendi; Widowati, Widowati
MATEMATIKA Vol 10, No 3 (2007): JURNAL MATEMATIKA
Publisher : MATEMATIKA

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This paper presents an approach of the Ehrlich ascities tumor growth modelling based on the logistic equation with diffusion. This model is constructed by using the concept of the reaction-diffusion equation. Besides that by using the principle of the travelling wave, a model equation with diffusion at tumor cell growth can be formed into the two non linear differential equation system. Then the equilibrium points of the non linear system will be obtained so that the stability of the model can be analized.
KESTABILAN SISTEM KONTROL JARINGAN TERHADAP WAKTU TUNDA br. Ginting, Juliana; widowati, widowati
MATEMATIKA Vol 13, No 3 (2010): JURNAL MATEMATIKA
Publisher : MATEMATIKA

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. In this paper, we proposed the stability analysis of networked control system with time delay. Delay in a network is something that can not be avoided when transmitted digital data over control devices. Network control system is discussed here consists of clock driven sensor, event driven controller, actuator, and plant. In the network control system usually contains delays and sampling period with effect the system stability. Stability region in a network control system can be represented through the relationship between Maximum Allowable Transfer Interval and sampling period.
PROTES SOSIAL DALAM NOVEL PULANG KARYA LEILA S. CHUDORI: PENDEKATAN SOSIOLOGI SASTRA Tariska, Peka; Widowati, Widowati
CARAKA Vol 5, No 1 (2018): CARAKA
Publisher : CARAKA

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The aims of the research are to describe these subjects. (1) Facts story from the novel Pulang; (a) plot, (b) characters and characterization, (3) The sttinngs which used by the author to show socialogical probtem in the novel. (4) Civilians  pitcrures in  the  novel  “Pulang”. (5) Social protest in the novel  Pulang.  This rescarch  is  one  of the descriptiv ,qualitative  rescarch’s  kind . Data used in the from of senteces  and pragrahs.  These  data   are  obtained   from  the  second  colition   of  the  novel “Pulang”  by  Leila  S . Chundori.  The instruments of  this  research  is  the  researsher   herself   with  several  theories  of  intrinsic and  literature‘s  socialogical as  the  knife  of  analysis.  The  method and techniques of data collection used in this study are non-interactive and reading and note techniques.  The method and techniques of data analysis in this research is descriptive method and descriptive analysis. The results  of  this  research   are   as   follows. (1) Facts story from the novel “Pulang”; (a) showing  that  the author  applied  a flashback  plot, (b) characters  and   characterizations  from the novel  “Pulang”  are  composed of one main character and four additional character  with a simple gesture,  (c)  the  setting  in  this  novel  are  tateing  place  from  some  cities  of  different  countrry. by  using  time  interval  on  1998’s   social incident. (4)  Pictures  of  the  society  captured  in  this novel   are  from  exiled  families,  political  families,  their   limitness  from  some  access  in  the  country  and   their love to their  nation. (5) The kind of social protest shown in the novel “Pulang” is a social-politics protest for the ruler  and  social- politic  protest  for society.
UNSUR PEWAYANGAN CERITA MAHABARATA VERSI NANO RIANTIARNO DALAM NOVEL WISANGGENI SANG BURONAN KARYA SENO GUMIRA AJIDARMA: KAJIAN INTERTEKSTUAL Wibisono, Muhammad Agung; Widowati, Widowati
CARAKA Vol 4, No 2 (2018): CARAKA
Publisher : CARAKA

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This research aims to describe the structure of Mahabarata story version of Nano Riantiarno and novel Wisanggeni Sang Buronan by Seno Gumira Ajidarma to find the similarities and differences as well as teh intetertextual relationship of the two stories. This type of research is qualitative research. Data collection techniques are done by reading, identifying, and recording all the identifications contained in the two stories. The technique of data analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis obtained by recording and identification then the result is explained by referring to intertxtual theory. The results can be concluded that there are similarities and differences that form the basis of the story of Mahabarata and the novel Wisanggeni Sang Buronan. Novel Wisanggeni Sang Buronan has an intertextual relationship from Mahabarata story especially Wisanggeni figure in term of plot, character, and background which both share the bird of the figure of Wisanggeni. The story of Mahabarata especially the Wisanggeni figure became the hypogram of the creation of the novel Wisanggeni Sang Buronan by concreting the puppet element especially the Wisanggeni character in the Mahabarata story.  
Perancangan dan Realisasi Model Sistem Monitoring Ruangan Menggunakan Webcam Berbasis Mikrokontroler ATMega16 ZUHRO, MURISA FARINA; SUSANA, RATNA; WIDOWATI, WIDOWATI
REKA ELKOMIKA Vol 1, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : REKA ELKOMIKA

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Abstrak Webcam pada umumnya digunakan sebagai media komunikasi dunia maya. Namun pada model sistem monitoring yang direalisasikan, penulis menggunakan webcam sebagai sensor yang mengganti indra penglihatan untuk melakukan monitoring di dalam ruangan. Dalam melakukan monitoring, webcam dapat digerakkan secara horizontal dan vertikal menggunakan 2 buah motor servo yang dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroller Atmega 16. Pada model sistem ini, dikembangkan pula program motion detection untuk mendeteksi adanya pergerakan di dalam ruangan. Jika terjadi pergerakan, maka tampilan gambar dari webcam akan direkam pada PC, dan mikrokontroler akan mengaktifkan buzzer.  Karena webcam memiliki keterbatasan pencahayaan ketika ruangan gelap, maka dilakukan penambahan modul infra merah yang dilengkapi sensor LDR. Dengan modul ini, pergerakkan di dalam ruangan yang gelap dapat terdeteksi sejauh 6 m. Untuk jarak antara ruang pengawas dan ruang yang dipantau, didapatkan panjang kabel sejauh 10 m. Kata kunci: webcam, program motion detection, mikrokontroler ATMega16, motor servo, buzzer. ABSTRACT Webcam is generally used as a medium of cyberspace communication. However, the monitoring system model that was realized, the authors used a webcam as a sensor that replaced the sense of sight to monitor in the room. In conducting the monitoring, the webcam could be moved horizontally and vertically using 2 pieces of servo motors were controlled by microcontroller Atmega16. In this model system, it was also developed a motion detection program to detect movement in the room. If there was movement, the display image from the webcam would be recorded by the PC, and the microcontroller would activate the buzzer. Since the webcam had a limited lighting when the room was dark, so at it was required a module additionthat equipped with infrared sensor LDR. By this module, the movement in the dark room could be detected as far as 6 m. For the distance between supervisor and monitored rooms, it was as far as10 m cable length. Keywords: webcam, program motion detection, microcontroller ATMega16, servo motor, buzzer.
ANALISIS PUISI “SURAT CINTA” DAN “MALAIKAT DI GEREJA ST. JOSEF” KARYA W. S. RENDRA: PENDEKATAN SEMIOTIKA RIFFATERRE Ona, Yohanes Vianey; Widowati, Widowati
CARAKA Vol 3, No 2 (2017): CARAKA
Publisher : CARAKA

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The purpose of this research is to describe and explain the following things: (1) indirect expressions; (2) heuristics and hermeneutic analysis; (3) matrix, models, and variants; (4) hipograms variable; which are contained in "Surat Cinta" and "Malaikat di Gereja St. Josef", poems written by W. S. Rendra. This is a qualitative research. The data which are used in this research are linguistic aesthetical units, consist of words, phrases, lines, and stanzas in the poems. The data resources are poems written by W. S. Rendra, entitled "Surat Cinta" and "Malaikat di Gereja St. Josef". The research instrument is the researcher himself who provides insight and experience about semiotic theory dealing with the analysis of the poems, especially Riffaterre semiotic theory. The data collecting method which is used in this research is a literature exploration which is conducted by reading and noting techniques. Qualitative is the method which is used to analyze the data, while qualitative descriptive is the conducted technique in term of analyzing the process. The process taken has brought the researcher to the following conclusions. 1) Indirect expressions includes the changing of words’ meaning, for example, /surat cinta/ caused by ambiguity, /bagai berjuta-juta jarum alit/ which is a linguistic term called kias simile or comparison, /tiada lebih buruk dan tiada lebih baik /, / orang yang bermula dari kata kata yang bermula dari kehidupan pikir dan rasa / which are linguistic kias epik simile or parable of the epic. /Engkau adalah putri duyung / is a personification stylistic. The whole part of "Surat cinta" is in allegory stylistic. Putri duyung is a kias sinekdoki. /Kutulis surat ini kala hujan gerimis bagai bunyi tambur/ shows the use of fantasy or imagination overview. The deviations meaning in "surat cinta" are caused by ambiguity, for instance, /surat cinta/, the new meaning of sentences caused by rhyme: an end rhyme, for example /Putri duyung dengan suara merdu lembut bagai angin laut/, straight rhyme, for example /Angin mendesah selalu mendesah/, while /kala langit menangis/ is an example assonance rhyme and /menangis minta mainan/ is an alliteration rhyme. The deviations meaning also can be caused by enjambments, for example, /Dan angin mendesah mengeluh dan mendesah/, and homologs, for example, /orang yang bermula dari kata kata yang bermula dari…/ 2) Heuristics and hermeneutic analysis, 3) Matrix, models, and variants. For example, the matrix of "Malaikat di Gereja St. Josef" describes something that God has planned to humankind which appears with the angel in St. Josef church. The models in that poem are "St. Josef" and "Angel", and those models are described by the following variant: /Malaikat di Gereja St. Josef/. 4) The hipograms of "Surat cinta" are: (a) expansion: “Sajak Putih” (1944) and “Derai-Derai Cemara” (1949) by Chairil Anwar. (b) modification: “Sajak Putih” (1944) by Chairil Anwar. (c) actual: “Lagu Gadis Itali” (1920s) by Sitor Situmorang and “Dalam Gelombang” (1920s) by St. Takdir Alysahbana, whereas the hipograms of "Malaikat di Gereja St. Josef" are: (a) Ekserp: “Turun Kembali” (1937) by Amir Hamzah. (b) Modification: “Panggilan Pagi Minggu” by Y. E. Tatengkeng. (c) Actual: poem “Barangkali” by Amir Hamzah.
ANALISIS STRUKTURAL GENETIK NOVEL AKULAH ISTRI TERORIS KARYA ABIDAH EL KHALIEQY Wigati, Novi Wening; Widowati, Widowati
CARAKA Vol 4, No 1 (2017): CARAKA
Publisher : CARAKA

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The purpose of the research is to describe the following things. 1. Structurally novel Akulah Istri Teroris. 2. The fact of humanity in the novel Akulah Istri Teroris. 3. The collective subject in the novel Akulah Istri Teroris. 4. The world view in the novel Akulah Istri Teroris. 5. The discriminatory behavior against the wives of suspected terrorist in the novel Akulah Istri Teroris. 6. The value of character education. The research is a qualitative research. The data in this research is a set of form events sentences and paragraphs relating to problems in the research. The source of data used in this research is the novel Akulah Istri Teroris by Abidah El Khalieqy. The research instrument is the researcher itself. Data collection methods using descriptive methods. Data collection techniques using observation and documentation. Methods of analysis data using qualitative methods. Data analysis techniques using analysis techniques model of Miles and Huberman. The results of the research are as follows. 1. The structure of the novel examined included the characters, plot, and setting. The main character of the novel is Ayu. In addition, there are some other figures, which acts as an additional character or story developers only. The groove of this novel is forward groove. The background of place in this novel is Jepara and Yogyakarta. The background of time occurred between the years 2000-2013. The social background which shows the intermediate social groups. 2. The fact of humanity showed social conditions, economic conditions, the condition of education, culture conditions, and social activities that occurred at the between the years 2000-2013. 3. The collective subject is shown through the social class that can be seen from the condition of education, economic, social or cultural. 4. The view of the world showing the world view of the main character. 5. The behavior of the wife discrimination against suspected terrorists include the violation of privacy rights, the right of secure, and the rights to justice. Behavior of discrimination experienced by Ardianto characters (Ayu's husband) who lost their legal rights and the right to presumed innocent until proven guilty. In addition, Ayesha (Ayu's children) also lose the right to education. 6. Character value includes religious character, honesty, tolerance, discipline, democratic, curiosity, love of homeland, friends / communicative, like reading, environmental care, social care.
DESAIN UMPAN BALIK KEADAAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION DAN DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTIONALGORITHM STUDI KASUS GERAK LATERAL PESAWAT F-16 Anis, Madchan; Widowati, Widowati
Jurnal Matematika Vol 1, No 1 (2012): jurnal matematika
Publisher : Jurnal Matematika

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The purpose of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) optimal control system is to stabilize the system, so that the output of the system towards a steady state by minimizing the performance index. LQR-invinite horizon is a special case of LQR in thecontinuous time area where the terminal time of the performance index value for infinite time and infinite outputsystem is zero. Performance index will be affected by the weighting matrix. In this paper will be discussed about the application of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) and Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) to determine the state feedback of a closed loop system and weighting matrices in the LQR to minimize performance index. PSO algorithm is a computational algorithm inspired by social behavior of flocks of birds and fishes in searching of food. While the DEA is an optimization algorithm that is adopted from evolution and genetics of organisms. Simulations of the PSO algorithm will be compared with DEA. Based on case study, DEA is faster then PSO to get convergence to the optimum solution.
TINJAUAN SEMIOTIKA RIFFATERRE PADA CERPEN “BULAN KUNING SUDAH TENGGELAM” KARYA AHMAD TOHARI Demokrawati, Heisma Arya; Widowati, Widowati
CARAKA Vol 1, No 2 (2015): CARAKA
Publisher : CARAKA

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            The objective of the study is to describe Riffaterre semiotika’s meaning of “Bulan Kuning Sudah Tenggelam” based on: 1) indirect expression, 2) reading of heuristic and hermeutik (retroactive), 3) finding matrix, model, and variant, 4) finding hipogram of ‘Bulan Kuning Sudah Tengeelam” short story. The research data were analyzed by qualitative techique. The source of the data was “Bulan Kuning Sudah Tenggelam” short story by Ahmad Tohari. The population of the data was sentences and paragraphs of an event that contained meaningful sign in “ Bulan Kuning Sudah Tenggelam”. The research instrument was researcher who were armed with the concept of meaningful sign system by semiotic theory. The data collecting method of this study was hermeneutika method and  the data collecting techniques were read, write, and book. For the data analysis techinque, the researcher used descriptive qualitative and descriptive analysis method. The results of this research were: 1) the indirect expression consisted of (a) change of meaning, such as kiri-kanan (metomini) replaced by neighbour (b) deviation meaning, such as Oh that was a deviation meaning of admiration, apologetic, wonder, and understanding (c) the creation of meaning, such as //Apabila//, //Apabila//, //Apabila//, //Apabila// that was ended by same vocal //a// //a// //a// 2) reading of heuristic could be found by explicit and reading by hermeneutik could be found by implicit 3) the matrix was rebellion: the model was moon: the variants were the main problems in the story 4) the hipogram was Roman Bumi Manusia novel by Pramoedya Ananta Toer.