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Phytochemical Assay and Antiplatelet Activity of Fractions of Velvet Bean Seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.)

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 17, No 2 (2010): June 2010
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Platelet aggregation is an important factor contributing to the formation of thrombus due to an uncontrolled blood clotting. An antiplatelet agent is a compound which decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. The objectives of this study were to determine the class of compound employing phytochemical assay and to determine the in vitro antiplatelet activity of four fraction, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.) using epinephrine (EPN) as agonist of platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activities were tested in human platelet rich plasma with hyperaggregation. To determine the activities, EPN was arranged at 4 level of concentrations  (300, 150, 75, and 30 μM), and antiplatelet agents were at 500 µg/ml. The results indicated that ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction contained high flavonoids and moderate phenols. The water, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of velvet bean seeds exhibited potential inhibition of EPN-induced platelet aggregation at all concentrations. The strongest antiplatelet agent was water fraction and had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at level 150, 75, and 30 μM of EPN. Butanol fraction had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at the lowest EPN (30 μM).

The Potency of Xanthones as Antioxidant and Antimalarial, and their Synergism with Artemisinin in Vitro

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 63 No. 3 March 2013
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Introduction: Artemisinin in artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) was used to overcome the resistance caused by free radical overproduction. Xanthone as antioxidant can also inhibit in vitro heme polymerization, therefore it is predicted has anti-malaria activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potency of alpha mangostin, gamma mangostin, garcinone C, and garcinone D as antioxidant by determination of DPPH scavenging activity, falciparum antimalarial, and their synergism with artemisinin as antimalarial falciparum in vitro.Method: Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity was examined according to Unlu,et al.’s technique and the IC50 was determined by correlation regression analysis. Antimalarialactivity of each xanthone and its combination with artemisinin was evaluated in P. falciparumstrain 3D7 culture according to Budimulja, et al. Their IC50 was calculated by probit analysis and FIC50 was counted according to the formula.Results: All of these xanthones had IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity <200 μM. Alpha mangostin, gamma mangostin, and garcinone C had anti-malaria activity with IC50<1 μg/ml, but garcinone D had IC50 1-10 μg/ml. FIC50 of all xanthone and artemisinin combinations were <1.Conclusions: All of xanthones have antioxidant potency by determination of DPPH scavengingactivity, antimalarial potency and work synergisticaly with artemisinin as falciparum antimalarialin vitro. J Indon Med Assoc. 2013;63:95-9.Keywords: xanthone, DPPH, falciparum antimalarial, artemisinin, synergism

Uji Fitokimia dan Potensi Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Kayu Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.)

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 11, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Penyakit degeneratif dan penyakit kronis sering disebabkan oleh stres oksidatif yang dipicu oleh radikal bebas. Untuk mencegah terjadinya stres oksidatif diperlukan antioksidan. Kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) sering dikonsumsi sebagai minuman seduhan karena dipercaya dapat menyembuhkan berbagai jenis penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji kadar senyawa fitokimia dan kadar total fenol ekstrak etanol dalam kayu secang dengan menggunakan standar epigalokatekin (EGC) dan epikatekin galat (ECG), serta menguji aktivitas antioksidan dengan menggunakan metode pemerangkapan radikal bebas 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH). Penelitian ini membandingkan aktivitas antioksidan dalam ekstrak kayu secang dengan EGC dan ECG dalam 6 level konsentrasi (100; 50; 25; 12,5; 6,25; 3,125 μg/ml). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis rancangan acak lengkap dan dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Uji fitokimia secara kualitatif serta uji total fenol menggunakan standar ECG dan EGC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak kayu secang mengandung senyawa terpenoid, fenol sangat tinggi, tetapi tidak mengandung steroid dan tanin. Ekstrak kayu secang mengandung kadar total fenol ekivalen EGC adalah 849,11 μg/mg dan ekivalen ECG 825,11 μg/mg. Ekstrak kayu secang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan tinggi yaitu 80,46-89,13%

Free Radicals Scavenger Potency of Betel Leaves (Piper betel L.) Extract and Various Fractions

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 10, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

The imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the biology system can cause various diseases. Betel leaves (Piper betel L.), parts of a medicinal plant, are popularly used as a herbal remedy for diseases, but the scientific basis especially of their antioxidant properties remains unknown. To evaluate free radicals scavenger activity of ethanol extract and various fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroperoxide (H2O2) scavenging activity were determined. To determine the DPPH and H2O2 scavenging activity, betel leaves extract and fractions were prepared in 10 concentrations. The result of this research showed that betel leaves extract and fractions had higher H2O2 scavenger and lower DPPH scavenger activities than gallic acid. The highest DPPH scavenging activity with Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) was found in gallic acid 0.732 μg/mL, ethyl acetate fraction 3.156 μg/mL, and ethanol extract 5.489 μg/mL. The highest H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 was found in butanol fraction 0.223 μg/mL, gallic acid 0.597 μg/mL, and ethyl acetate fraction 0.783 μg/mL. In conclusion, betel leaves extract and fractions were potential free radicals scavenger; they could be potential candidates to inhibit oxidative stress. Gallic acid and ethyl acetate fraction were the highest free radicals scavenger both in DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity.Keywords: free radical, betel leaves, DPPH, H2O2, antioxidant

Hubungan antara Kadar Karbon Monoksida (CO) Udara dan Tingkat Kewaspadaan Petugas Parkir di Tiga Jenis Tempat Parkir

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 10, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Tingkat polusi udara di Indonesia semakin meningkat, salah satu sebabnya adalah bertambahnya jumlah kendaraan bermotor yang meningkatkan jumlah emisi gas buang. Salah satu senyawa di dalam emisi gas buang adalah karbon monoksida (CO). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar CO udara di 3 jenis tempat parkir dan pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat kewaspadaan petugas parkir. Desain penelitian ini adalah observasional analitik yang bersifat komparatif. Data yang diukur adalah kadar CO udara di tempat parkir terbuka (TPB), semi terbuka (TPSB), dan tertutup (TPT). Subjek penelitian adalah 18 orang petugas parkir yang bekerja di 3 jenis tempat parkir. Kadar CO udara diukur menggunakan alat CO–CO2 meter SIBATA, sedangkan tingkat kewaspadaan diukur dengan Jhonson Pascal Test. Data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA satu arah, uji lanjut Duncan’s Post Hoc Test dengan α = 0,05 dan uji regresi korelasi linier. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan bahwa kadar CO udara di TPT (13,86 ppm) lebih tinggi daripada di TPB (1,96 ppm) dan TPSB (2,32 ppm) dan tingkat kewaspadaan petugas parkir tidak dipengaruhi oleh kadar CO udara baik di TPB (r = 0,35), TPSB (r = 0,001), maupun di TPT (r = 0,044). Simpulannya, terdapat perbedaan kadar CO udara di 3 jenis tempat parkir, akan tetapi tidak ada hubungan antara kadar CO udara dan tingkat kewaspadaan petugas parkir.Kata kunci: CO, tingkat kewaspadaan, tempat parkir terbuka, tempat parkir semi terbuka, tempat parkir tertutup.

Potensi Antioksidan sebagai Antidiabetes

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome  that is marked by elevated blood sugar level. DM is  categorized into two types:  type 1 DM is called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and type 2 DM is  called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose can be oxidized before or after bound with protein (glycated protein), producing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Diabetic patients indicate lipid peroxide and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Subtances  (TBARS) plasma levels that are higher than normal individuals. The combination of glycation and glucose oxidation forms AGEs (Advanced Glycogen End-products). Glycated protein and AGEs modified protein can cause oxidative stress by  releasing  O2*- ,H2O2 and  carbonyl  toxic can damage protein. Many kinds of plants contain  active compounds that can inhibit carbohydrate hydrolysis and glucose absorption, regenerate β-cells so as to increase the release of insulin, inhibit aldose reductase and control the glucose level. Synthetic as well as natural antioxidant compounds from various plants can control glucose level and inhibit diabetic complications. Polyphenolic active compounds in  plants have antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. To reduce the amount of type 1 DM patients it is necessary to change the life style, among others by consuming  enough vegetables and fruits as antioxidant sources.

Potensi Tumbuhan Erythrina (Leguminosae) sebagai Antifertilitas

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Erythrina plants (Leguminosae) were used as traditional antifertility agents. In the continuing research for novel plant with antifertility capacity from Indonesian plants, the methanol extract of Erythrina plants showed significant antifertility activity in an in vitro assay of spermatozoa of white rat (R. norvegicus). The methanol extract was separated using bioassay-guide n-hexane, ethylacetate, and n-buthanol fractionation. The ethylacetate fraction was tested in vitro on spermatozoa of white rat (R. norvegicus) at a concentration of 0.25 x 10-3 μg/μL. It showed a decrease of their motilities and viabilities, as well as an increasing abnormality of the spermatozoa.

Penapisan Aktivitas Superoksida Dismutase pada Berbagai Tanaman

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 5, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Free radicals can be damaged on cell integration, because free radicals very reactive to cell component either structur component or functional component. To scavenge and inhibit chain reaction of free radicals were required exogen antioxidant. Natural antioxidant from plant was more interested because its more safe than synthetic antioxidant. Plant in the world such as spices, vegetables, fruits, medicine plants much contain antioxidant. Antioxidant activity to dismutate superoxide radical (O2-) from various plant was expected capable to help know potential natural antioxidant resources. This research was found out that salam leaf (Eugenia polyanta Wight), sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.), seed and fruit guava have (Psidium guajava L.) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity 100%.

EFFECT OF ETHYL ACETATE AND BUTANOL FRACTIONS OF VELVET BEAN SEED (Mucuna Pruriens L.) TO IMPROVE LIPID PROFILE IN DYSLIPIDEMIC RATS

Jurnal Medika Planta Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Jurnal Medika Planta

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Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays many people had dyslipidemic, affected by dietery habits and unhealthy lifestyle. High blood lipid can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). The CHD mortality rate are increasing and known as first leading cause of death in Indonesia. Objective: to find out the effect of ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of velvet bean seed (M. pruriens L.) to improve lipid profile in dyslipidemic rats. Methods: laboratory experimental prospective design, in vivo  preclinical test used dyslipidemic rats, which given ethyl acetate and butanol fractions in concentration at 15, 30, 60mg/kgBW/day, simvastatine 27mg/kgBW/day during ten days. The parameters used respectively are HDL, LDL, triglyceride, and total cholesterol level on dyslipidemic rats. Data were  analysed  with  Anava  and continued Post Hoc Duncan with level of significancy  95%. Results : Ethyl acetate fraction 15mg/kgBW/day significantly decreased total cholesterol level (56.667mg/dL) compared to positive control (70.667mg/dL), and ethyl acetate fraction 60mg/kgBW/day significantly decreased LDL level (7.333mg/dL) compared to positive control (14.333mg/dL), butanol fraction 60mg/kgBW/day significantly decreased  triglyceride level (65.667mg/dL) compared to positive control (112.333mg/dL) and significantly  increased HDL level (30.333g/dL) compared to positive control (24.333g/dL). Conclusion:  Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of M. pruriens L. improve lipid profile such as decrease LDL, triglyceride, total cholesterol level and increase HDL level in dyslipidemic rats.

Apoptosis and Antioxidant Activities of Catharanthus rosues [L] G.Don Extract on Breast Cancer Cell Line

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Tapak dara or Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus [L] G.Don), a natural plant, is empirically reported to have promising anticancer activity. To elucidate its mechanism, a research was conducted to investigate the possible ethanol extract of  C.  roseus in inducing apoptosis on breast cancer cell line (T47D). Antioxidant activity of C. roseus was investigated as well. Sub-G1 flowcytometric apoptotic analysis result showed that extract of C. roseus at 6.25 μg/mL induced apoptosis for 26.365%. Increasing extract concentration resulted an increasing apoptotic level as well, extract at concentration of 12.5 μg/mL induced apoptosis for 22.235%.  Meanwhile doxorubicin at concentration of 10  μg/mL induced apoptosis for 36.055%. The antioxidant activity was determined by using  in vitro assay: inhibition of  2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging  activity. Antioxidant activity of  C. roseus extract were compared to quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), as positive controls.  The results showed that DPPH IC50 of C. roseus extract, quercetin and BHA were 358.411 μg/mL, 19.200 μg/mL  and  94.178  μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that  C. roseus extract had a potential anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis.