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Journal : Jurnal Agritech

Sistem Dinamis Industri Furniture Indonesia dari Perspektif Supply Chain Management yang Berkelanjutan Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Arbita, Kharies Pramudya Dwi; Abdullah, Aang
Agritech Vol 30, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9681

Abstract

This research aims to predict and describe the sustainability of Indonesian furniture development by considering 3 as- pects: economical revenue, social, and envieronment, as the main aspects in a sustainable supply chain. This research was started by identifying the basic model of supply chain of furniture industry. We, then, identified the potency and weaknesses from either internal or external, by using SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis. We used modeling and simulation to describe the system behaviour. The result showed the characteristics of this industry is un- certainty on consumer demand and that the industry depends on the availability of raw material from forest. There is a lack in supply in the average amount of 3.386.282 m3. The development of furniture industry needs to consider more the aspect of sustainability. Forest destruction is one of the parameters of environmental aspect, in which the decreasing rate of natural production forest and overall forest are 61,982 ha and 51,820 ha per year, respectively. Furthermore, as one of the economical aspects, the economical revenue achieved by this industry tends to constant. On the other hand, this industry can meet the consumer demand, representing the social aspect.ABSTRAKPerlu ada kajian untuk melihat dan memprediksi keberlanjutan pengembangan industri furniture Indonesia dengan melihat kepada 3 aspek, yaitu aspek ekonomi, aspek sosial dan aspek lingkungan, sebagai aspek utama dalam pengem- bangan supply chain management yang berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini diawali dengan identifikasi model dasar supply chain industri furniture. Selanjutnya, digambarkan potensi dan kelemahan yang ada, baik secara internal maupun ek- sternal, dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat). Untuk melihat perilaku sistem dilakukan pemodelan dan simulasi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik industri furniture adalah ketidakpastian permintaan konsumen dan sangat tergantung pada kondisi hutan untuk menjamin ketersediaan pasokan kayu. Setiap tahun terjadi kekurangan pasokan rata-rata sebesar 3.386.282 m3 dibandingkan kebutuhannya. Pengem- bangan industri furniture masih kurang memperhatikan aspek keberlanjutan. Kerusakan hutan menjadi salah satu pa- rameter keberlanjutan aspek lingkungan dimana tingkat penurunan luas hutan produksi alam dan hutan keseluruhan berturut-turut adalah sebesar 61.982 ha dan 51.820 ha. Selain itu, dari aspek ekonomi, pendapatan (revenue) yang bisa dicapai oleh industri furniture cenderung tidak mengalami peningkatan. Di sisi lain, industri furniture Indonesia cukup baik dalam memenuhi kebutuhan konsumen, sebagai indikator aspek sosial.
OPTIMASI KINERJA RANTAI PASOK INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DAN PRODUK TEKSTIL INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SIMULASI SISTEM DINAMIS Performance Optimation for Supply Chain of Indonesia Textile and Textile-Product Industries based on Dynamic System Simulation Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Ferdiansyah, Erdi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 30, No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to optimi�e supply chain performance of Indonesia textile and textile product indus� tries. Optimation was conducted by considering export and import quantity. Optimi�ing of supply chain performance was obtained by using dynamic system simulation  approach. The research was started by identifying  the basic supply chain system of Indonesia textile and textile�product industries. SWOT analysis was implemented to identify condition and needs of each suppply chain element based on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The next stage was by creating  supply chain system model using dynamic system software including with its validation.  The last stage was by simulating the model with scenarios to optimi�e the performance. The result showed that there are 3 scenarios to op� timi�e Indonesia textile and textile�product industries performance, those are short, middle and long term scenarios.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan kinerja rantai pasok dari industri tekstil dan produk tekstil �ITPT� Indonesia. Optimasi dilakukan dengan mempertimbangkan kuantitas ekspor dan impor. Pengoptimalan kinerja rantai pasok diperoleh berdasarkan pendekatan simulasi sistem dinamis. Penelitian diawali dengan mengidentifikasi sistem dasar rantai pasok ITPT Indonesia menggunakan analisis SWOT untuk menggambarkan kondisi dan kebutuhan dari masing�masing elemen rantai pasoknya berdasar kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan ancaman yang dimiliki. Tahap selanjutnya adalah dengan memodelkan sistem rantai pasok tersebut menggunakan perangkat lunak sistem dinamis beserta validasinya. Tahap terakhir adalah mensimulasikan model tersebut berdasar skenario�skenario yang menga� rah pada optimasi kinerjanya. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah diperolehnya 3 skenario optimasi, yaitu skenario jangka pendek, menengah dan jangka panjang.
Perbaikan Kinerja Supply Chain Perusahaan Keripik Singkong Berdasarkan Analisis Product Availability Kusuma, Parama Tirta Wulandari Wening; Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Purwadi, Didik
Agritech Vol 30, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9678

Abstract

Level of the product availability becomes a problem at the company, because of the fluctuation and the uncertainty of demand from the consumer and happened when the company determined the cycle service level which is the indica- tor of supply chain performance in fulfilling the availability of the product and avoiding either stock out or over stock in replenishment cycle. This research was conducted at UD As-Salam. The aim was to improve supply chain perfor- mance through determining the optimal cycle service level of product availability. Therefore, it was needed to set up the optimal level of product availability to optimize the profit. There were some steps that were taken in this research: determining the optimal cycle service level, optimal order size, expected profit, and sensitivity analysis between optimal cycle service level and expected profit. The result showed that the cost of under stocking and over stocking were 4,144 rupiahs and 6,573 rupiahs, respectively. The optimal cycle service level was 63 % with optimal order size was 2,842 kgs/month. This value improves the company’s profit in the amount of 11,043,570 rupiahs. The improvement of supply chain performance based on product availability analysis could increase profit up to 127,891 rupiahs.ABSTRAKLevel ketersediaan produk menjadi permasalahan pada objek penelitian ini karena adanya fluktuasi dan ketidak- pastian permintaan dari konsumen yang timbul ketika pelaku usaha telah menentukan cycle service level. Hal ini menjadi indikator kinerja supply chain dalam memenuhi ketersediaan produk dan menghindari kekurangan stok atau- pun kelebihan stok di siklus replenishment. Penelitian dilakukan di UD As-Salam, dan bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kinerja supply chain dari sisi product availability. Perlu ditetapkan optimal level of product availability agar mampu mengoptimalkan profit. Metode yang digunakan adalah dengan penentuan optimal cycle service level, optimal order size, expected profit, dan analisis sensitivitas terhadap optimal cycle service level dengan expected profit. Hasil peneli- tian menunjukan bahwa nilai cost of understocking adalah Rp 4.144,00 dan cost of overstocking adalah Rp 6.573,00. Nilai optimal cycle service level dapat dicapai pada level 63% dengan optimal order size 2.842 kg per bulan. Nilai ini mampu memberikan profit sebesar Rp 11.043.570,00. Peningkatan kinerja berdasarkan analisa product availability akan  memberikan peningkatan profit sebesar Rp 127.891,00 pada perusahaan.
Analisis Produktivitas Perusahaan Tempe "Murni" Yogyakarta di Masa Krisis Ekonomi Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Jumeri, Jumeri
Agritech Vol 19, No 3 (1999)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13725

Abstract

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Optimasi Model Persediaan Produk Makanan Ternak Pada Tingkat Distributor di Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Widodo, Kuncoro Harto
Agritech Vol 18, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.19353

Abstract

Inventory management is a general problem in manufactures, service companies, government institutions included feedmill distributor. Inventory policy in those institutions are determined by several objectives which the main are minimizing the total cost or investment inventory, the consumer satisfaction and maximizing the output efficiency. Structural problems related with feedmill inventory consists of total cost inventory, order quantity and reorder point. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model is one of tools in order to solve problems above, in detail this tool is used to optimize feedmill inventory in the distributor level, especially in the feedmill manufacturing product, the milled corn and the rice sifting components. The result of the research shows that by using the EOQ model, there is a total cost inventory reduction, such as the feedmill manufacturing product decrease from 8,046,778 rupiahs to 1,890,865 rupiahs, the milled corn component from 1,785,721 rupiahs to 103,310 rupiahs and total cost inventory for the rice siftings component decrease from 598,812 rupiahs to 96,686 rupiahs. Based on the final result above, it is summarized that the EOQ model instrument minimized the total cost inventory in feedmill product on the distributor level.
Perbaikan Teknik Pengemasan Buah-Buahan Segar Untuk Mengurangi Tingkat Kerusakan Mekanis, Studi Kasus di Propinsi Jawa Tengah Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Suyitno, Suyitno; Guritno, Adi Djoko
Agritech Vol 17, No 1 (1997)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.19324

Abstract

Mechanical damages of fresh fruits may happen in traditional packaging methods. The aim of research is to find some alternatives methods to reduce the mechanical damage during transportation. The variable used in the study are vibration and drop test, and the study was implemented for avocados. mangoes, bananas, and papayas. Using equivalent bruise index percentage, it is known that the packaging models suggested are capable to reduce the mechanical damages (% EBI) from 15,01%-22,33% through 1,57%-9,17%. The result obtained give alternatives for each commodity. The best packaging model for mangoes is the corrugated cartoon, followed by the wooden box V type, the plastic basket and traditional packaging (bamboo basket). Where as for avocados. the best packaging model is the plastic basket, followed by the corrugated. On the other hand, the corrugated cartoon is the best for papayas, followed by the wooden box V type, the plastic basket and traditional packaging (partition). The final result of the result suggests that the wooden box V type is the best for all commodities. This packaging uses a linked hinge which is easier for returning distribution, and surely it needs only little of space on transportation vehicles.
Pengelolaan Supply Chain untuk Mengoptimalkan Keseimbangan Antara Keuntungan Perusahaan Bakery dengan Customer Service Level Berdasarkan Skenario Product-Retur Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Eriyanthi, Nur Indah
Agritech Vol 27, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9492

Abstract

This paper deals with supply chain management within bakery industry from the perspectuve of material management. A better material requirement planning was proposed. The result showed that the proposed MRP can decrease cumulative material investment that the existing operation. By considering the impact of product-retur precentage scenarios (75%, 50%, 25%, 0%) to comapnys hplding cost, it was known that the decreasing of product-retur percentage is not significantly reduce the retrenchment of cost paid by the company. A low percentage level of product-retur might sacrify customer service because the retailer can not assure the product availability. On the other hand, a high percentage lebel ,ay give high level of customer service, however the cost is more expensive resulting in the reducing of the profit. This, represents a trade-off between profit to be obtained by the company and customer service level.ABSTRAKTulisan ini membahas tentang pengelolaan supply chain di dalam industri bakery dari perspektif manajemen material. Sebuah perencanaan kebutuhan material (MRP) yang lebih baik kami usulkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa usulan MRP dapat menurunkan jumlah investasi material daripada yang ada sekarang. Dengan mempertimbangkan pengaruh skenario persentase product-retur (75%, 50%, 25%, 0%) terhadap biaya persediaan perusahaan, diketahui bahwa penurunan persentase product-retur tidak begitu berpengaruh pada penghematan biaya yang menjadi beban perusahaan. Pada suatu tingkatan product-retur yang rendah akan bisa berakibat pada turunnya customer service karena retailer tidak bisa menjamin ketersediaan produk. Pada sisi lain, product-retur dalam jumlah banyak akan memberikan customer service lebih baik namun dengan biaya yang mahal sehingga akan ada pengurangan keuntungan. Hal ini menunjukkan adanya suatu trade-off antara keuntungan yang diperoleh oleh perusahaan dengan customer service level di dalam suatu supply chain. Oleh karena itu kita perlu mengoptimalkan keseimbangan antara keuntungan dan customer service level.
Analisis Kelayakan Pengembangan Industri Ulat Sutera : Studi Kasus di Kelompok Tani Sutera Alam Margowangsan, Sawangan, Kabupaten Magelang (Feasibility Study of Silkwarm Industry) Alvianus, Rushandi; Widodo, Kuncoro Harto; Purwadi, Didik
Agritech Vol 19, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.22345

Abstract

This research investigated the feasibility study on the development of silkworm (ulat sutera) industry. First investigation was conducted on must aspect for demand and supply condition, product price, market share, and marketing strategy. Second, technical aspect includes product capacity, break even point, process technology, location, and lay out. Third, financial aspect was focused on the pay back period, profitability index, internal rate of return, and net present value. Finally, organization and management aspect was analyzed for companys effectivity and efficiency.
Peran Makanan Tradisional Berbahan Baku Ubi Kayu terhadap Sistem Ketahanan Pangan Ditinjau dari Perspektif Ekonomi Rumah Tangga Lestari, Andriyani Sekar Puji; Maksum, Mochammad; Widodo, Kuncoro Harto
Agritech Vol 27, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9491

Abstract

This study was aimed to find out the household economic condition, to compare food budget according to each consumption pattern of main food so that margin value can be known, to find out influence between rice and traditional food consumption toward food budget and influence of household income toward traditional food consumption, and to analyze the role of traditional food toward food security contemplated of household economical perspective. The measurement of income, budget and food consumption pattern was carried out using questinnaire distributed to household through structured interview technique. The comparison of food consumption pattern was carried out by grouping the main food sonsumption pattern based on type difference and consumption number and then converted in rupiah value. The result showed that traditional food consumption pattern can be a complement of the main food except rice, that were able to provide economical accessibility to enough food and have a low price, so real income of household can be increased. Traditional food in the food security could have a role as survival strategy for poor people that have limited income so they could built up the capacity to help their self and their family in providing cheapest main food.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahii kondisi ekonomi rumah tangga masyarakat, membandingkan pengeluaran pangan pada tiap pola konsumsi makanan pokok sehingga diketahui nilai margin yang dapat diperoleh, mengetahui pengaruh konsumsi makanan tradisional dan beras terhadap pengeluaran pangan serta pengaruh pendapatan rumah tangga dan konsumsi beras terhadap konsumsi makanan tradisional serta menganalisa peran makanan tradisional terhadap ketahanan pangan ditinjaui dari perspektif ekonomi rumah tangga. Pngukuran pendapatan, pengeluaran dan pola konsumsi pangan masyarakat dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuisioner kepada rumah tangga melalui teknik wawancara terstruktur. Perbandingan pengeluaran pangan pada tiap pola konsumsi makanan pokok dilakukan dengan mengelompojjan pola konsumsi makanan pokok berdasarkan perbedaan jenis dan jumlah konsumsi, kemudian dikonversi dalam nilai rupiah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pola konsumsi makanan tradisional dapat menjadi pelengkap makanan pokok selain beras, yang pada sisi lain dapat memberikan kemudahan ekonomis terhadap kecukupan pangan dan dengan harga rendah, sehingga pendapatan riil rumah tangga bisa meningkat. Makanan tradisional di dalam ketahanan pangan dapat berperan sebagai suatu survival strategy untuk orang miskin dengan pendapatan terbatas sehingga mampu membangun kapasitas dan kemandirian untuk menolong diri sendiri dan keluarganya dalam memenuhi kebutuhan makanan pokom termurah.
Optimasi Kualitas Tandan Buah Segar Kelapa Sawit dalam Proses Panen-Angkut Menggunakan Model Dinamis Krisdiarto, Andreas Wahyu; Sutiarso, Lilik; Widodo, Kuncoro Harto
Agritech Vol 37, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.17015

Abstract

Oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) handling processes, i.e harvesting, loading, and transporting to the Palm Oil Mill are interrelated activities because each of them contributed to the degradation of oil palm fruit quality. This paper presented studied among factors that together in series interfere FFB quality. FFB quality parameter observed was Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content. Experiment was conducted by measuring FFA content of FFB at each step of handling processes, i.e harvesting, transportation in plantation block, loading into truck, and transportation to the palm oil mill. Interrelationship among factors was built using dynamic modelling. Output of dynamic model simulation showed that there was differences of FFA content among different handling conditions. A slight difference on FFA content was observed between harvesting in mineral land and peatland and among different plant heights. Loading into truck was a handling step that had biggest contribution to quality degradation due to FFB bruise. FFBs laid on the base of truck bin suffered more bruise that resulted in higher FFA content. Manual loading of FFB harvested from mineral soil by throwing to the bottom of truck bin resulted in FFA content of bruised fruit by 5.5%, higher compared to those of the top layer which was 4.5%. Model also showed that FFA content increased due to series handling steps, compared with natural degradation. Proportion of good FFB can be used to control the whole FFA content. Without mixing, bruised FFB produced FFA content of 9.95 %, while mixing bruished and good fruit at a ratio 20 % : 80 % resulted in FFA content of 2.82 %. Increasing bruise fruit proportion from 10 % to 20 % resulted in higher FFA content of fruit harvested on mineral land than those harvested on peat land (0.88 % compare to 0.80 %), and resulted in 0.92 % increment for 3rd maturity level fruit harvested compared to 0.72 % for 1st maturity level harvested fruit. Recommendations related to harvesting were: 1) If the road and truck bin was in bad condition, FFB should be harvested at 1st or 2nd level of maturity; 2) The optimum harvesting-transportation condition for FFB quality was at 1st maturity level in peat land and transported by wood bin truck. While recommendations related to transportation were: 1) The manual loading by throwing to truck bin should be avoided; and 2) In order to maintain FFB quality, loading and transportation delay was better than waiting or queing in oil palm mill. ABSTRAKProses penanganan Tandan Buah Segar (TBS) kelapa sawit, yaitu pemanenan, pemuatan, dan pengangkutan ke pabrik minyak kelapa sawit merupakan kegiatan saling terkait, karena masing-masing berkontribusi terhadap penurunan kualitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari keterkaitan antar faktor-faktor yang bersama-sama secara berurutan mempengaruhi kualitas TBS. Parameter kualitas TBS yang diamati adalah kadar Asam Lemak Bebas (ALB). Metode yang digunakan adalah mengukur kadar ALB TBS pada setiap tahap proses penanganan bahan, yaitu pemanenan, pengangkutan di dalam blok kebun, pemuatan ke bak truk, dan pengangkutan ke pabrik minyak kelapa sawit. Keterkaitan antar faktor dibangun dengan model dinamis. Keluaran dari simulasi model dinamis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kadar ALB antar kondisi penanganan TBS yang berbeda. Terdapat sedikit perbedaan kadar ALB antara TBS yang dipanen pada lahan mineral dan lahan gambut dan antara ketinggian pohon yang berbeda. Tahap penanganan TBS yang berkontribusi paling besar kepada penurunan kualitas akibat memar adalah pemuatan ke bak truk. TBS yang dimuat di dasar bak truk mengalami memar lebih banyak sehingga kadar ALB-nya lebih tinggi. Kadar ALB TBS yang dipanen di lahan mineral dan dimuat pada dasar bak truk 5,5 %, sedangkan yang di lapisan atas 4,5 %. Model menunjukkan bahwa kadar ALB meningkat pada penanganan bahan berurutan, berbeda dengan penurunan kualitas secara alami. Proporsi buah utuh dapat digunakan untuk mengendalikan kadar ALB secara keseluruhan. Bila seluruh buah memar, kadar ALB dapat mencapai 9,95 %, sedangkan campuran 20 % buah memar dan 80 % buah utuh, kadar ALB-nya 2,82 %. Peningkatan proporsi buah memar dari 10 % menjadi 20 % untuk buah yang dipanen dari lahan mineral menyebabkan penambahan kadar ALB lebih besar daripada buah yang dipanen dari lahan gambut, yaitu 0,88 % dibanding 0,80 %. Hal yang sama menyebabkan perbedaan kadar ALB 0,92 % untuk buah yang dipanen pada fraksi 3 dan 0,72 % untuk buah dipanen pada fraksi 1. Rekomendasi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah: 1) Pemuatan dengan pelemparan TBS secara manual sebaiknya dihindari; 2) Bila kondisi bak truk dan jalan buruk, sebaiknya TBS dipanen pada fraksi 1 atau 2; 3) Titik optimum kualitas TBS saat panen dan angkut adalah pada fraksi 1 di lahan gambut dan diangkut dengan truk bak kayu, dan 4) Dari sisi kualitas TBS, penundaan pengangkutan lebih menguntungkan daripada menunggu proses (mengantri) di pabrik minyak kelapa sawit (PMKS).