Y Widiawati
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Effects of defaunator combined with microbial growth factors on ruminal digestibility ofrice Thalib, Amlius; Devi, D; Widiawati, Y; Mas’ud, Z.A
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (477.359 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.113

Abstract

A system of defaunating agent combined with microbial growth factors (FPM) was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw. Combination of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (EKM) with each FPM was added into anaerobic medium of ruminal fermentation. Rice straw was used as substrate and inoculum used was rumen fluid of sheep. Fermentation microbial of the substrate was incubated at 39°C for 96 hours. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments: control without EKM; control + EKM (1 .000 ppm); control +EKM combined with Zn (8 ppm), Cu (0 .8 ppm), folic acid (0.1 ppm), thiaminhydrochloride (0 .05 ppm), riboflavin (0.05 ppm), phenylpropionic acid (100 ppm), molasses (45 ppin), and mixture of all FPM used (Mix FPM). Measurements were: gas production; protozoal and bacterial populations; contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactic acid andNH3N; pH ofmedium. The results show that FPM increase EKM effects on rwninal digestibility of rice straw except treatments of thiaminhydrocloride and riboflavin. The highest cumulative gas production was obtained by treatment of EKM combined with Mix FPM (168 ml versus 91 nrl of treatment of EKM with out FPM). EKM individually or combined with FPM could eliminate 46-83% protozoal population, where the highest elimination of protozoal population was given by combination of EKM with Mix FPM(83%): Elimination of protozoal population caused increment of bacterial population on all treatments except on folic acid treatment. The highest increment ofbacterial population was given by treatment of combination EKMwith Mix FPM (>500%). Therefore combination of EKMwith Mix FPM is concluded to be the most effective in improving ruminal digestibility of rice straw.   Key words : Defaunating agent, microbial growth factors, rruninal digestion
The effects of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit on rumen microbes and performance of sheep Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H; Suherman, D; Sabrani, M
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (434.975 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.39

Abstract

Eighteen local sheep weighing approximately 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups . All animals received a mixture of elephant and native grasses (50 :50) ad libitum + concentrate (0.5% of liveweight) . The treatments given were : (1) no additive, (II) addition of placebo and (III) addition of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (MES) at level of 0.07% of liveweight. Placebo and MES were given orally every 3 days . Feeding treatments were conducted for 14 weeks . Rumen liquor of all animals were collected in the third week "and observed for rumen ecosystem and ruminal digestibility . Bodyweight gain and feed consumption were measured . The results showed that MES eliminates the protozoal population by 57% and sequently increases bacterial population by 69% when compared to control (1). Lowered protozoa population has no effect on lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids productions, and a consequence, does not change pH (Pa0.05) . However, lowered protozoa population decreased NH3-N content (P<0 .05) . Cumulative gas production resulting from substrate (rice straw) fermented by rumen liquor from sheep fed MES-added diet (III) increased by 13% when compared to control (1)). Compared to control (I), average daily gain of sheep fed MES-added diet (111) is increased by 44% with an improved efficiency by 28%.   Keywords : Saponin, protozoa, bacteria, performance of sheep
Effects of defaunator combined with microbial growth factors on ruminal digestibility ofrice Thalib, Amlius; Devi, D; Widiawati, Y; Mas’ud, Z.A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (477.359 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.113

Abstract

A system of defaunating agent combined with microbial growth factors (FPM) was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw. Combination of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (EKM) with each FPM was added into anaerobic medium of ruminal fermentation. Rice straw was used as substrate and inoculum used was rumen fluid of sheep. Fermentation microbial of the substrate was incubated at 39°C for 96 hours. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments: control without EKM; control + EKM (1 .000 ppm); control +EKM combined with Zn (8 ppm), Cu (0 .8 ppm), folic acid (0.1 ppm), thiaminhydrochloride (0 .05 ppm), riboflavin (0.05 ppm), phenylpropionic acid (100 ppm), molasses (45 ppin), and mixture of all FPM used (Mix FPM). Measurements were: gas production; protozoal and bacterial populations; contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactic acid andNH3N; pH ofmedium. The results show that FPM increase EKM effects on rwninal digestibility of rice straw except treatments of thiaminhydrocloride and riboflavin. The highest cumulative gas production was obtained by treatment of EKM combined with Mix FPM (168 ml versus 91 nrl of treatment of EKM with out FPM). EKM individually or combined with FPM could eliminate 46-83% protozoal population, where the highest elimination of protozoal population was given by combination of EKM with Mix FPM(83%): Elimination of protozoal population caused increment of bacterial population on all treatments except on folic acid treatment. The highest increment ofbacterial population was given by treatment of combination EKMwith Mix FPM (>500%). Therefore combination of EKMwith Mix FPM is concluded to be the most effective in improving ruminal digestibility of rice straw.   Key words : Defaunating agent, microbial growth factors, rruninal digestion
Study of effectiveness of bacteria isolated from rumen microbes with acetogen medium as methanogenesis inhibitor Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 4 (2004)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v9i4.432

Abstract

Ruminal methanogenesis has disadvantageous effects on ruminant animals and environment of atmosphere. Inhibition of methane produced through reduction of carbondioxide has been conducted by bacteriological approach. The approach involved the isolation of bacteria from rumens of sheep (IBD) and buffalo (IBK) using medium for CO-utilizing acetogens. The isolate of bacterium was multiplied with the usual culture medium and then used as inoculum to degrade a substrate of King grass under constant temperature (390C) for 48 hours. Fresh rumen fluid of sheep (CRDS) was used as comparing inoculum. Measurementswere carbondioxide and methane gasses, pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and NH3-N contents, bacterial count, and dry matter digestibility (in vitro DMD). The data measured were analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that morphological cell of IBD was oval pleomorphic with Gram negative type, and cell of IBK was rod with Gram negative type. Percentage of CH4 produced by inoculum of IBD was lower than CRDS but was not significantly different (29.47 vs. 33.07%), while the percentage of methane produced by inoculum of IBK was very significantly lower than CRDS (24.29 vs. 33.07%) (P<0.01). Acetate/propionate ratio as a result of substrate fermentation by inoculum of IBD (3.55) and IBK (3.79) were very significantly higher than that of CRDS (2.43) (P<0.01). It is concluded from this experiment that isolates used were effective to inhibit the methanogenesis and the species contained in the isolates were indicated to be homoacetogenic bacteria.   Key words: Bacterial isolate, acetogen medium, methanogenesis, inhibitor
Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen A, Thalib; Bestari, J; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H; Suherman, D
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 5, No 1 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (190.142 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i1.172

Abstract

Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP), II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr), and ID. Elephant grass (RG). All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein) and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate). The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours) by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%). Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation) confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%). All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P<O.OI). Measurements of rumen ecosystems did not show differences between treated animals (P>0.05), except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri).   Key words: Rice straw, silage, microbes, cattle and buffalo
Fermentation kinetics (in vitro) of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra callothyrsus leaves (3) the pattern of gas production, organic matter degradation, pH, NH3 and VFA concentration; estimated CH4 and microbial biomass production Widiawati, Y; Winugroho, M; Teleni, E; Thalib, A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i3.486

Abstract

In high protein feeds, plant proteins may be shielded from degradation in the rumen by lignification of the cell wall or because of the present of plant secondary compounds e.g. tannin, which is present in most of the leguminous trees/shrubs. Thus it might have an effect on organic matter degradation and the pattern of other end product of rumen microbial fermentation (VFA, NH3, microbial cell, CH4 and total gas). The in vitro method was used to determine the organic matter degradation and the pattern of rumen fermentation end product of high protein feeds, namely Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricida sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus. The results shows that Gliricidia has the highest amount of OM degraded (505 mg); microbial cell and NH3 produced (2676 g and 1.91 mmol/100 mL) than followed by Leucaena (423 mg; 2656 g; 1.61 mmol/100 mL) and Calliandra (340 mg; 2644 g; 1.61 mmol/100mL), but Gliricidia produced the lowest amount of gas total and CH4 (0.192 mL and 0.07 mole per mg OM deraded) then Leucaena (0.249 mL and 0.097 mole per mg OM deraded) and Callliandra (0.196 mL and 0.126 mole per mg OM deraded). In conclusion, Gliricidia is more efficient in term of using the dietary energy for the animals’ production compared to the Leucaena and Calliandra. Key Words: Legumes Tree, Organic Matter, NH3, VFA, CH4, Microbial Cell
Comparison of fermentation kinetics (in vitro) of grass and shrub legume leaves: The pattern of gas production, organic matter degradation, pH and NH3 production Widiawati, Y; Thalib, A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 4 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.536

Abstract

Rumen microbes convert carbohydrate in a feed to useful product such as VFA, microbial protein and B-vitamin; and some waste products such as CH4 and CO2. The amount and pattern of each product depend on the type of feed Sonsumed by the animal. High fiber diet produce high gas and VFA, while high protein diet produce high NH3. Two types of feeds, grass and legume, have different cell structure and content, thus might have different pattern of rumen fermentation and product. In vitro method developed by Theodorou and Brooks was used to determine the pattern of rumen fermentation and product of two types of feeds, namely grass and legume. Result shows that legume has higher amount of OM degraded and produce higher amount of NH3 compared to grass. On the basis of OM degraded, the grass yielded higher volume of gas than that of legume. The two types of feeds did not change the pH of rumen fluid. Key Words: Grass, Shrub Legume, Gas And Ammonia Production, Organic Matter Digestibility
Comparison fermentation kinetics (in vitro) of grass and shrub legume leaves: The pattern of VFA concentration, estimated CH4 and microbial biomass production Widiawati, Y; Thalib, A
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i2.546

Abstract

In the process of fermentation, rumen microbes normally convert major fractions of carbohydrates and proteins in a feed to useful end-products (i.e. VFA, microbial protein and B-vitamins) and some waste products (i.e. CH4 and CO2). The pattern of these end-products depend largely on the fraction contained in the feed eaten by the animal. Two types of feeds, namely grass and shrub legume, leucaena have different fraction proportions. Grass contains more fibre but less protein compared to shrub legumes. Thus in the rumen they might be fermented to produce different pattern of end products. The experiment was conducted in order to examine the pattern of VFA, CH4 and microbial protein products of the two types of feeds when fermented in the rumen. In vitro method was used to determine the pattern of these end products. Results showed that the grass produced more total VFA/mg organic matter degraded (0.0229 mM/mg vs 0.0075 mM/mg) and CH4 gas  (0.20 mole/mg  vs 0.09 mole/mg) but less propionate in partial and less microbial protein (2646 g vs 2656 g ) compared to the legume. Approximately 32% less CH4 (per mg OM degraded) would be produced from leucaena compared to that produced from grass, which mean that there will be less energy loss as CH4 thus more energy for animal production. Key Words: Grass, Shrub Legume, Volatile Fatty Acids, CH4, Microbial Protein
The effects of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit on rumen microbes and performance of sheep Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H; Suherman, D; Sabrani, M
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (434.975 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.39

Abstract

Eighteen local sheep weighing approximately 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups . All animals received a mixture of elephant and native grasses (50 :50) ad libitum + concentrate (0.5% of liveweight) . The treatments given were : (1) no additive, (II) addition of placebo and (III) addition of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (MES) at level of 0.07% of liveweight. Placebo and MES were given orally every 3 days . Feeding treatments were conducted for 14 weeks . Rumen liquor of all animals were collected in the third week "and observed for rumen ecosystem and ruminal digestibility . Bodyweight gain and feed consumption were measured . The results showed that MES eliminates the protozoal population by 57% and sequently increases bacterial population by 69% when compared to control (1). Lowered protozoa population has no effect on lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids productions, and a consequence, does not change pH (Pa0.05) . However, lowered protozoa population decreased NH3-N content (P<0 .05) . Cumulative gas production resulting from substrate (rice straw) fermented by rumen liquor from sheep fed MES-added diet (III) increased by 13% when compared to control (1)). Compared to control (I), average daily gain of sheep fed MES-added diet (111) is increased by 44% with an improved efficiency by 28%.   Keywords : Saponin, protozoa, bacteria, performance of sheep
The effects of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit on rumen microbes and performance of sheep Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H; Suherman, D; Sabrani, M
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (434.975 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.39

Abstract

Eighteen local sheep weighing approximately 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups . All animals received a mixture of elephant and native grasses (50 :50) ad libitum + concentrate (0.5% of liveweight) . The treatments given were : (1) no additive, (II) addition of placebo and (III) addition of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (MES) at level of 0.07% of liveweight. Placebo and MES were given orally every 3 days . Feeding treatments were conducted for 14 weeks . Rumen liquor of all animals were collected in the third week "and observed for rumen ecosystem and ruminal digestibility . Bodyweight gain and feed consumption were measured . The results showed that MES eliminates the protozoal population by 57% and sequently increases bacterial population by 69% when compared to control (1). Lowered protozoa population has no effect on lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids productions, and a consequence, does not change pH (Pa0.05) . However, lowered protozoa population decreased NH3-N content (P<0 .05) . Cumulative gas production resulting from substrate (rice straw) fermented by rumen liquor from sheep fed MES-added diet (III) increased by 13% when compared to control (1)). Compared to control (I), average daily gain of sheep fed MES-added diet (111) is increased by 44% with an improved efficiency by 28%.   Keywords : Saponin, protozoa, bacteria, performance of sheep