Imam Widhiono
Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University Jl. Dr. Soeparno No 63 Purwokerto 53122.

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Keragaman dan Kelimpahan Kupu-Kupu Endemic Jawa (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) di Hutan Gunung Slamet Jawa Tengah

Biospecies Vol 7, No 02 (2014)
Publisher : Biospecies

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Penelitian keragaman spesies kupu-kupu endemik Jawa (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) pada berbagai tipe hutan dan ketinggian di Gunung Slamet dilakukan pada bulan Juni sampai Oktober 2010. Tipe hutan yang diteliti meliputi hutan alam kayu lain (HAKL, hutan sekunder), hutan produski terbatas Damar (HPT Damar), hutan wisata (HW) dan agroforestry (AGF). Variasi ketinggian tempat yang diteliti hanya di hutan damar mulai ketinggian 600 m dpl, 800 m dpl, 1000 m dpl dan 1200 m dpl. Pengambilan sampel kupu-kupu dilakukan pada 4 transek tetap untuk setiap kategori. Data kekayaan spesies dan kelimpahanya dianalisis dengan Shannon-Wienner, Simpson Indeks, Indeks kemerataan (E) dan Indeks Kesamaan Jaccard dengan bantuan program BDPro 7 (Mc Neely, 1997). Hasil penelitian menemukan 10 spesies kupu-kupu endemik Jawa (71%), yaitu Cynitia iapsis Fruhstorfer, Cyrestis lutea Zinken-Sommer, Elymnias ceryx Boisduval, Euploea gamelia Hubner, Rohana nakula Moore, Tannecia trigreta Moore, Mycalesis sudra Felder, Ypthima nigricans Snellen, Neptis nisea De Niceville dan Prioneris autothisbe Hubner dengan jumlah individu 542 pada keempat tipe habitat dan 9 spesies dengan jumlah individu 781 pada keempat ketinggian berbeda. Pada semua lokasi penelitian menunjukan bahwa indeks keragaman kupu-kupu endemik sangat rendah dan didominasi oleh dua spesies yaitu Mycalesis sudra dan Ypthima nigricans dengan jumlah lebih dari 50% dari total individu spesies kupu-kupu endemik yang ditemukan. Selain kedua spesies tersebut, spesies kupu-kupu endemik kelimpahannya sangat rendah dan dapat dikategorikan sebagai “rare species”. Hutan di Gunung slamet masih mampu mendukung keberadaan spesies kupu-kupu endemik Jawa.

Keragaman Serangga Penyerbuk dan Hubunganya dengan Warna Bunga pada Tanaman Pertanian di Lereng Utara Gunung Slamet, Jawa Tengah (Diversity of insect pollinators and its relationship with flowers colors on Agricultural Crops in the Northern slopes of ...)

Biospecies Vol 8, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Biospecies

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Reseach on insect pollinators diversity and abundance on eight cash crops wasconducted at Serang, Sub District Karangreja, Purbalingga, Central Java, during June to oktober2012. The aims of this research were to observethe diversity and abundance of insect pollinators ateight food crops and their relationship with flowers colours. Sampling of insect pollinators specieswas done using scane sampling and direct observation of insect stay at the flowers. Insect diversitywas calculated using Shannon´s index, Simpsons index and, and Shannon Eveness. Species turnover was calculated using Jaccard index. the calculations was performed using BD Pro(McAleece, et al., 1997). Sevententh species of insect pollinators was identified. Wings bean wasvisited by 12 species of insect pollinators with highest diversity indeces (H=2.14, D=0.86, and E=0.86,) followed by cucumber (11 species) with diversity indeces (H=1.89, D=0.75, and E= 0.75,),and the lowest was strawberry with only visited by 7 species with diversity indeces(H=1.25,D=0.64, and E= 0.64,).The most abundance insect pollinator species was local honeybees ( A. Cerana), followed by stingless bees (Trigona sp) and the lowest was Ropalidia romandiwith consist only 2 individual.There is no corelation between flowers colors with either insectpollinators diversity or abundance.

Faktor-Faktor Ekologis yang Berpengaruh terhadap Struktur Populasi Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros L. )

Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 33, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

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Kumbang badak (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) dapat hidup dengan optimal dengan dukungan dari faktor ekologis yang cocok. Faktor ekologis meliputi habitat limbah material organik di vegetasi tersebut, musuh alami, musim, dan faktor cuaca (suhu, curah hujan dan kelembaban) diteliti pengaruhnya terhadap struktur populasi kumbang badak pada Oktober-Desember 2015. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian survei dengan pengambilan sampel dilakukan sebanyak empat kali, dua kali pada musim kemarau dan dua kali pada musim penghujan. Data dianalisis dengan analisis ANOVA dan untuk mengetahui faktor ekologis yang paling berpengaruh dilakukan uji lanjut dengan Duncan. Berdasarkan ANOVA, ada perbedaan antar habitat F=0,012 untuk perbandingan antara jerami dan serasah daun, 0,002 antara jerami dan tanpa limbah, 0,000 antara serasah daun dan tanpa limbah, serta 0,001 untuk batang pohon dan tanpa limbah (P<0,05). Untuk stadium pupa dan imago hasil analisis ANOVA menunjukkan hasil tidak berbeda nyata. Faktor musim memberikan hasil bahwa terjadi peningkatan di ketiga stadium yang ditemukan dengan jumlah yang berbeda. Stadium larva mengalami peningkatan sebanyak 381 larva, stadium pupa sebanyak 25 pupa, dan peningkatan sebanyak 166 ekor kumbang badak stadium imago. Setelah dilakukan uji statistik dengan uji t, jumlah populasi kumbang badak pada musim kemarau dan penghujan berbeda nyata dengan nilai uji t =0,000 untuk stadium larva, sedangkan pada pupa, t = 0,038 (P<0,05). Setelah dilakukan uji lanjut diperoleh hasil habitat limbah material organik merupakan faktor ekologi yang paling berpengaruh. Habitat limbah material organik yang paling berpengaruh adalah batang pohon, disusul dengan habitat serasah dan jerami.

Contribution of Plantation Forest on Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Pollinators Conservation in Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 9, No 3 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

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Wild bee pollinators (Hymenoptera : Apiade) diversity and abundance were studied in three types of plantation forest on Mt. Slamet (Central Java Province, Indonesia). The aims of the research was to know the diversity and abundance of wild bee pollinators and to determine the possibility of plantation forest contribution on wild bees conservation. Sampling has been done at three stands: a pine forest (PF, with Pinus merkusii), an Agathis forest (AF, with Agathis damara) and a community forest (CF, with Albizia falctaria). Each habitat was divided into 5 line transect (100 x 5 m) and sweep nets were used to collect the wild bee samples. Sampling was done eah month from April to August 2015. The diversity of wild bees was high (12 species in 9 genera; members of the Apidae (7 species were dominant). The most abundant species across the forests were Apis cerana (343 individuals; 25.5% of total), Trigona laeviceps (195 individuals; 14.5%), and Megachille relativa (165 individuals; 12.3%). Measurements of species diversity (H), species evenness (E), habitat similarity (Ss) and species richness indicated that the wild bee species diversity in the region was relatively high (H = 1.275) to (H = 1.730);(E= 0.870) to (E = 0.93). The result showed that the diversity of wild bees in three different plantation forest habitats on Mt. Slamet were similar and can be concluded that plantation forest types were important for pollinator conservation, and an appropriate future preservation strategy should include of the areas of all plantation forest types.

Impact of Distance from the Forest Edge on The Wild Bee Diversity on the Northern Slope of Mount Slamet

Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 8, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

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In agricultural landscape in northern slope of Mount Slamet, diversity of wild bee species as pollinator depend on forested habitats. This study aimed to assess the effects of distance from the forest edge on the diversity of wild bees on strawberry and tomato crops. This study was conducted from July 2014 to October 2014. The experimental fields contained tomato and strawberry with a total area of 4 ha (2 ha each) and divided into five plots based on distance from the forest edge (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 m). Wild bee was catched with kite netting in 7.00 -9.00 in ten consecutive days. Wild bee diversity differed according to distance from the forest edge, the highest value was at 0 m for strawberry plots (H = 2.008, E = 0.72 and Chao1= 16) and for tomato plots, the highest diversity was at 50 m from the forest edge (H = 2.298, E = 0.95 and Chao1= 11) and the lowest was at 200 m in both plots. Wild bee species richness and abundance decreased with distance, resulting in the minimum diversity and abundance of wild bee at 200 m from forest edge in both crops.How to CiteWidhiono, I., & Sudiana, E. (2016). Impact of Distance from the Forest Edge on The Wild Bee Diversity on the Northern Slope of Mount Slamet. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2), 148-154.

SPIDER DIVERSITY (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE) OF THE TEA PLANTATION AT SERANG VILLAGE, KARANGREJA SUB-DISTRICT, DISTRICT OF PURBALINGGA

Scripta Biologica Vol 4, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

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Spiders are crucial in controlling insect pest population. The various cultivation managements such as fertilizer and pesticide application, weeding, pruning, harvesting, and cropping system affect their diversity. In the plantation, vegetation diversification has applied various practices, including monoculture, and intercropping, which influence the spider community. Thus, this study was intended to determine the spider abundance and diversity of the tea plantation, and the intercropping field (tea and strawberry) at Serang village, Karangreja Sub-District, District of Purbalingga. A survey and purposive sampling techniques were conducted, then the spiders were hand collected. Shannon-Wiener diversity (H’), Evenness (E), Simpson’s dominance (D), and Sorensen’s similarity (IS) indices were used to measure the spider diversity. The results revealed a total number of 575 individual spiders from 10 families, i.e., Araneae, Araneidae, Clubionidae, Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Nephilidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Tetragnathidae, Theridiidae, and Thomisidae. Araneidae was the most abundant in both fields. The total abundance of spiders in tea plantation (379 individuals), however, was greater than that in the intercropping field (196 individuals). Shannon-Wiener diversity reached H’= 1.873 in the plantation, and H’= 1.975 in the intercropping field.

KERAGAMAN SERANGGA PENYERBUK PADA PERTANAMAN STRAWBERY YANG DISELINGI DENGAN TANAMAN Borreria laevicaulis

Scripta Biologica Vol 1, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

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The productivity of strawberry (Fragaria sp.) depends on the presence of pollinator insects that need nectar or pollen as their food. The diversity and the population size of pollinator insects can be increased by the companion planting of Borreria laevicaulis among the strawberry. This research aimed to determine the diversity of pollinator insects of strawberry plantation companion by B. laevicaulis and to determine the relationship between the diversity of pollinator insects with the strawberry fruit produced. This research was conducted in the strawberry plantation of Serang Village, of the District Karangreja, Purbalingga, from June to August 2012. The research was designed to determine the effect of companion planting of B. laevicaulis at the 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the total individuals of strawberry. The results showed that the companion planting of B. laevicaulis in the strawberry field did not affect the species diversity of pollinator insects. But the B. laevicaulis companion planting affected the amount of strawberry yielded. The maximum yield was obtained by planting B. laevicaulis at the 10% of the strawberry individuals; it was increased by 76.12% of the control without companion planting.