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KADAR ANTIBODI-TIROPEROKSIDASE DAN ANTIBODI-TIROGLOBULIN PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI DAERAH ENDEMlS GAKI

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 Jun (2010)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Thyroid hormones play a critical role in human. Disorders of the thyroid gland result primary from autoimmune processes that either stimulate the over production of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroid) or causes glandular destruction and hormones deficiency (hypothyroid). Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) a common organ specific autoimmune disorder is seen mostly in women. AITD are complex disease that are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental trigger such dietary iodine. The development of antibodies to Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and Thyroglobulin (TG) is the main hall mark of AITD. Method: Thirty respondents from were analyzed. The blood were collected for TSH, FreeT4, Tyroglobulin Antibody and Tyroperoxidase Antibody analyzed and DNA isolation. Circulating TSH, FreeT4, autoantibodies to TPO and TG are measured by ELISA. Result: 50% respondent in normal thyroid hormones and 50% in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid status. TPO antibodies  and thyroglobulin antibodies found in all of respondent with thyroid disorder. Conclusion: Antibodies to TPO and TG is seen in respondent with thyroid disorder   Keywords: AITD, TSH, FreeT4, TPO antibodies, TG antibodies.

ANALISA MODIFIKASI INTAKE MANIFOLD TERHADAP KINERJA MESIN SEPEDA MOTOR 4 TAK 110cc

ENGINEERING Vol 12, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Pancasakti Tegal

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Abstract

Saat ini ada banyak tuntutan dalam industri otomotif yaitu untuk menghasilkan kendaraan yang mampu menghasilkan performa yang tinggi (high performance), dan juga harus dapat menghemat pemakaian bahan bakar.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh  dari  variasi  bentuk,  panjang,  dan  diameter  Intake  manifold  terhadap  kinerja mesin. Pengujian dilakukan dengan pemasangan intake manifold standart yang sudah divariasi terhadap Torsi, Daya, dan Konsumsi  bahan bakar sepeda motor Jupiter Z. Analisa data menggunakan metode uji coba langsung yang dilakukan dengan cara mencatat data- data hasil pengujian yang akan dilakukan, dengan percobaan pemasangan Intake Manifold Standart dengan panjang 75 mm dan diameter 20 mm, Intake Manifold Variasi 1 dengan panjang 75 mm,  diameter  17  mm,dan penambahan Ulir pada lubang out,  serta  Intake manifold Variasi 2 dengan panjang 55 mm, diameter 17 mm, dan penambahan Ulir pada lubang out, terhadap kinerja mesin motor pada putaran mesin ditentukan pada 1500 sampai 10.000 rpm dengan variabel dari bentuk,diameter dan panjang   intake manifold. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Intake manifold variasi 2 lebih unggul dengan nilai Daya 7,2 Hp, Torsi 7,92 N.m dibanding intake standart dan konsumsi bahan bakar lebih irit 36,83% sedangkan Intake manifold variasi 1 lebih rendah dibanding standart dengan nilai Daya 5,7 Hp, Torsi 6,8 N.m namun konsumsi bahan bakar lebih irit 40,66%, jadi Intake manifold terbaik adalah Intake manifold variasi 2.Kata Kunci : Intake Manifold, Torsi, Daya

PENGARUH PEMANASAN ELEKTRODA LAS PADA SUHU 80-120ºC TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK

ENGINEERING Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

This Research purpose to know :  (1) Nature of mechanic to influence of warm-up of electrode las (2) Require to do of further research by adding the further variation that is examination Penetran and Radiografi (3) Menetahui hardness of result pengelasan after electrode in heating with selected heat.Pursuant to hypothesis test that writer only using the steel type to in ujikan that is type become militant ST 41 by using electrode las type RD 260 with diameter of 4,0 x 350 mm. Examination result show the existence of the influence signifikan [among/between] electrodes which have through warm-up process and the electrode tampa through warm-up, specially for interesting examination, impack or beat, and examination of hardness where in each;every examination of writer do 3 spesiment in each;every his examination.Way obtain;get the data by using temperature grader [at] industrial kitchen [of] electrics ( Heater Elektroda Las) that is to know the hardness storey;level found on electrode membrane las specially type RD 260 with electrode diameter of 4,0-350mm.Influence of warm-up of electrode las [at] temperature of 80-120°C to nature of mechanic done [by] during 15-30 minute in kitchen induce the electrics [so that/ to be] obtaining the maximal result. used machine for interesting examination  is machine test the type Shimadzu UH 1000 kNI, for examination beat [is] to the type test : Hang Ta, HT-8941, is while examination of hardness of writer use the machine test the type : A ffri 206 RT.Keywords: Nature of mechanic to of warm up of elektroda

ANALISA SISTEM PEMBANGKIT THERMOELEKTRIK DENGAN RANGKAIAN PARAREL PADA PEMANFAATAN PANAS BUANG MESIN TOYOTA COROLLA EFI

ENGINEERING Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

In the coming year is estimated to be growing energy needs increased by about 40% ofcurrent needs,  as  we know  from  100% fuel  used by  only  about 30% that  is used  to  drive thecar. part of the energy wasted in the form of the radiator and the gas is wasted purpose ofThis  analysis  is  to determine  how to  utilize  waste  heat  energy  in  toyota  corolla  engineefficiently  into  energy  useful  to the  system  and  to determine the  effect  thermolektrik  parallel circuit  thermoelektrik  components  generated  strong  currents  and  voltages  generatedelectricity in accordance with the type of materials used.In  writing  this essay  the author  collected  data  -  data  with  methods of  literature, interviews and observation.There results can be conclude (1) for exhausted heat energy in Corrola EFI Toyota engines are asw follows. Arranging thermoelektrik with parallel circuit which is mounted on the exhaust side, turn the machine with 1000 rpm engine speed, gradually up to 300 0 rpm. Start measuring the temperature of top and bottom of these thermoelektrik, and also a strong measure of current, voltage to be produced thermoelektrik. There we received the results from the engine exhaust heat is on with a series of parallel thermoelektrik. (2) there researchon the  influence of  these  parallel  series  of  studies  thermoelektrik  components  that  wereassembled  in  parallel  to  produce  strong  currents  and tension  resulting  from the  wasteexhaust  heat  is wasted.  at  1000  rpm  to produce  strong  currents  of  0.5  degrees  Celsiusampere  and  voltage  of  0.9  volt  temperature  -  average  above  45  degrees  Celsius,  the temperature  -  average  95  degrees  Celsius  below  1500  rpm  to produce  strong  currents  of  0.9ampere and voltage of 1 volt and temperature - average 59 degrees Celsius.temperature  -  average  below  111  degrees  Celsius.  2000  rpm  producing  a strong  current  of  1ampere  and  voltage  of  1.2  volts  and  temperatures  average  61  degrees  Celsius,  the temperature  -  average  below  119  degrees  Celsius,  2500  rpm  producing  a strong  current  of1.5  amperes  and the  voltage  at  1,  5  volts  and  temperature  -  average  56  degrees  Celsius,  the temperature – average below 123 degree Celsius. 3000 rpm to produce strong currents of 1.5amperes  and the  voltage  of  2  volts  and  temperature  -  average  61  degrees  Celsius,  the temperature  -  average  below  127  degrees  Celsius.  if  understood  parallel  pengaruhrangkaianis still very small to generate strong currents and voltages. the stronger the currents used, the greater the stronger the smaller the current and voltage and vice versa.Key words : ampere, temperature, voltase, thermoelektrik

ANALISA PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN CATALYTIC CONVERTER PADA MESIN MOTOR EMPAT LANGKAH TERHADAP PENURUNAN EMISI GAS BUANG

ENGINEERING Vol 3, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

Using the motorcycle which is more, it is influenced the pollution from the exhaust pipe in  the air. The contains of Carbonmonocsida (CO), Oksida Nitrogen (NOx), Hydrocarbon (HC) and the other things which are accumulated and will be influenced the human’s healthy and finally it is caused die.The collecting data is taken directly by researcher from the laboratory and also from the source from the person in  which  is called an interview and it had been documented in well, the documentation is connecting wich the gas and pollution. The development of Catalytic Converter had been reducing the pollution, but it is not maximize. Adding the plat of cooper in Catalytic Converter will be an alternative to reduce the pollution on it. From the research the writer get the data before using the Catalytic Converter the four stroke exhaust pipe produced 2,238 %  CO volume, HC 222,8 ppm volume. The second research on the standard exhaust pipe produced 1,66 % CO and HC 131 ppm volume. The research which is given the cooper Catalytic Converter produced only 1,66 % CO and HC 71,4 ppm volume. From the data the writer  can conclude that cooper Catalytic Converter able to reduce the pollution from the motorcycle.Keywords: Pollution, Catalytic Converter, Cooper.

PENGGUNAAN TEOREMA PI BUCKINGHAM PADA PENYELIDIKAN LOST HEAD UNTUK PIPA MENDATAR DENGAN ALIRAN TAK KOMPRESIBEL TURBULEN

ENGINEERING Vol 3, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

Lost  head  can be interpreted  as a decrease  in  the pressuregradient  and is a measure  of  resistance  to  flow  through the  pipe. Barriers  to  flow  through the  pipeline  will greatly  affect  the  power needed  in  moving the  fluid  so that the  investigation of the  losthead  on  pipe  important thing to do.  Use of  Buckingham  Pitheorem  for  dimensional  analysis  will make it easier  to analyzeand  make the  move  quicker  and directed  experiments.  With theinitial data  is a function  of the  barrier  pipe diameter,  fluidviscosity,  fluid density,  pipe length, the fluid velocity  and theroughness of  the pipe.  The results indicate  a lost  connection  headper  weight of  the fluid  (w p /)  is proportional to  the piperoughness  factor  (f) is proportional to  the length of  pipe  per  pipe diameter  (L  /  d) is proportional to  the  fluid velocity  kuwadrat  pertwo times gravity (v2/2g)Keywords: Lost head, turbulent flow, the flow channel is closed

ANALISA PENGARUH BAHANBAKAR BIOETHANOL E-30 (BENSIN 70% -ETHANOL30%), E-50 (BENSIN 50% - ETHANOL 50%), E-100 (ETHANOL 100%) TERHADAP DAYA DAN TORSI MESIN 4 LANGKAH

ENGINEERING Vol 4, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

Bahan bakar alternatif bioethhanol E-10, E-15 sudah banyak dipergunakan pada kendaraan bersilinder 1 dan kendaraan bersilinder 4 karena angka oktan pada bahan bakar tersebut tinggi sehingga dalam pembakaran dalam ruang bakar akan sempurna karena pada pembakaran yang sempurna akan menaikan angka torsi.Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bahan bakar alternatif bioethanol (E-30, E-50, E-100) terhadap daya dan torsi mesin 4 langkah dengan menggunakan bahan bakar bioethanol E-30, E-50, E-100 yang akan diuji dengan metode eksperimen menggunakan dynotest untuk di peroleh hasil daya dan torsinya. Hasil eksperimen menunjukan bahwa penggunaan bahan bakar alternatif bioetahanol E-30, E-50, E-100 pada pengujian  daya diperoleh daya tertinggi pada 3000 Rpm yaitu 1.01 HP terletak pada E-50, pada, 3500 Rpm yaitu 2.35 HP terletak pada E-50, pada 4000 Rpm yaitu 2.40 HP terletak pada E-50, pada 4500 Rpm yaitu 3.73 HP terletak pada E-50, pada 5000 Rpm yaitu 3.77 HP terletak pada E-50, pada 5500 Rpm yaitu 3.68 HP terletak pada E-30, pada 6000 Rpm yaitu 3.68 terletak pada E-50 sedangkan pada pengujian torsi diperoleh torsi tertinggi pada 3500 Rpm yaitu 0.215 kgf.m terletak pada E-50, pada 4000 Rpm yaitu 0.380 kgf.m terletak pada E-50, pada 4500 Rpm yaitu 0.498 kgf.m terletak pada E-50, pada 5000 Rpm yaitu 0.515 terletak pada E-50, pada 5500 Rpm yaitu 0.497 terletak pada E-50, pada 6000 Rpm yaitu 0.450 kgf.m terletak pada E-30.Kata Kunci : Bioethanol, Dynotest, Daya, Torsi

PENGARUH JARAK KERENGGANGAN ELEKTRODA BUSI TERHADAP KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR PADA MOTOR BENSIN MEREK TOYOTA 5 K KIJANG

ENGINEERING Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

One part of car producinginq moving power is called as an engine. The type of engine used in most cars is reciprocating piston and. 9 intenal combustion engine can. The internal combustion engine can be divided into (1) gasoline motor, which its mixing process between air and fuer takes place in the carburator and transfried into ttu cylinder. These mixed substsnces are pressed by the reciprocating piston and burned to produce power (2) Diesel motor which only the air is entered into the cyrinder, then, after the air is presed by the reciprocating piston, diesel fuel is injected in the cylinder using fuel injector systern that enables the combustion and the expansion for producing power.Reciprocating piston gasorine motor is one of the basic power plants, which is the widely used today for moving the this reciprocating piston gasoline molor change the het energy energy to mechanical energy which is gained by fuet combustion in that engine. one of the combustion proccsses in that engine is igniting process. This paper discuses about theinfluence of spark plug elektroda gap adjustment. The experimental result conducted on the Toyota Kijang 5K engine show ,that spark plug elektode gap influences spark resulted for igniting fuel and air mixture and the most ideal gap is 0.8 mm which resurlt in the best combustion process. Therefore it can be concluted that this gap resurlt. The most eficient fuel consumption.Keywords: gasoline motor, spark plug electrode , fuel consumption.

PENENTUAN JUMLAH SUHU YANG OPTIMAL KIPAS KONDENSOR TERHADAP LAJU PENDINGINAN PADA AC 1 PK

ENGINEERING Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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The purpose of this paper is to determine the best blade number on the l PK refrigeration .rate of "Changhong" air conditioner with various number of fan blades apptied.This paper examines the installation of "Changhong" indoor air conditioner with a 1 pK capacity by mixing fan blade number, which are 3, 4, and s blades, measured using the measuring tools, such as thermo-couple, tlrcrmo-laser, pressure gouge and ampere meter. Used as the substitution of a room, a cabin having 1,5 m3 uolumes is used to obtain the steady temperature. After it is siady (the moueients of mrasuring tools and temperature on the permanent room are minimal) the data are collected by each fan usageThe data collected in this papper is annlyzed using the refrigerator characteristics table R-22 to obiain ilu pressure and enthatply values on enclr fan. Entlntpy unrue is used to find out the refrigeration rate characteristics values of each fan.The conducted test to achieue the results of using ile condenser fan with 3 blades are mref = 0,069504 kg/s, Qe, = 13.80602 kW, Qk= 11,75043 Kw, RE = 198,635 kj/kg, COP = 16.51438. The result using the fan with 4 blades are mref = 0,073904 kg/s, Qe = 14.9084 kW, Qk = 12.4525 kW, RE = 201,77 kj/kg, COP = 17,83301. Whereas, for the 5_bladed fan, the results are mref = 0.072425 kg/s, Qe = 14.52415 Kw, Qk = 12.2033 kW, RE = 20,541 kJ/Kg, COP, = 17.37339.From the results of "Changhong" air conditioner with 1 PK capacity analysis, the best result is achieved by using the condenser fan with 4 blade.Keyword : fan blades, R-22, evaporator capacity, condensing Capacity refrigerator effect, COP

PENGGUNAAN KATALIS PADA HYDROGEN REFORMER UNTUK PERCEPATAN REAKSI DAN PENINGKATAN FREKWENSI LEDAKAN PADA REAKSI JATROPHA OIL DAN AIR

ENGINEERING Vol 6, No 1 (2013): April
Publisher : ENGINEERING

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Abstract

Hidrogen memiliki nilai ekonomis yang tinggi. Diharapkan dalam jangka menengah dan panjang, hidrogen akan menjadi pemain kunci dalam ekonomi global. Saat ini, sejumlah besar hidrogen yang digunakan secara komersial untuk produksi amonia dan proses penyulingan dihasilkan dari bahan bakar fosil seperti gas alam, minyak berat, nafta dan batubara melalui reformasi proses oksidasi parsial, hidrogen juga dipergunakan untuk industri penyamakan kulit dan dapat digunakan untuk pengelasan, peluncuran roket dan industri pertahanan. Dengan demikian pengembangan produksi hidrogen dari bahan baru dan terbarukan penting dilakukan Tujuan secara umum penelitian ini adalah medapatkan waktu kerja katalis heterogen pada peningkatan produksi hydrogen pada pemecahan hydrogen berbahan dasar jatropha oil ada juga mengetahui besar hasil produksi menggunakan katalis heterogen jika dibandingkan dengan yang tidak menggunakan katalis.Metode yang dilakukan yaitu membuat reaksi minyak jarak dan air dengan tambahan energi pemanas. Perbandingan minyak jarak dengan air dilakukan pada 1:1 atau satu bagian minyak jarak dicampur dengan satu bagian air dengan pembanding percobaan awal tanpa katalis dan percobaan berikutnya menggunakan katalis berbahan dasar alumunium. Dari hasil penelitian didapat: perbandingan kedua data didapat kecepatan ledakan produksi hidrogen tanpa menggunakan katalis didapat data pada waktu detik ke 23 sedangkan pada kecepatan ledakan produksi hidrogen menggunakan katalis didapat data ledakan pada waktu detik ke 2 dengan demikian penggunaan katalis mempercepat proses hasil hidrogen. Hasil analisa pada frekwensi dari kecepatan ledakan produksi hidrogen tanpa menggunakan katalis didapat data ledakan T = 60/10 didapat T = 10 detik frekwensi ledakan f = 1/10 detik sedangkan data pada frekwensi dari kecepatan ledakan produksi hidrogen menggunakan katalis didapat data ledakan T = 60/24 = 2,5 detik frekwensi ledakan f =1/ 2,5 detik. Dengan demikian penggunaan katalis dapat meningkatkan ledakan pada produksi hidrogan menggunakan katalis.Kata Kunci: Hydrogen Reformer, Katalis, Frekwensi Ledakan