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Candida albicans biofilm: formation and antifungal agents resistance Wibawa, Tri
Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) Vol 44, No 02 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Candida sp are the most common fungal pathogens causing fatal health care associated infections.Among the genus of Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequent species isolated frompatients. The notorious C. albicans infection is the ability of this dimorphic fungus to formbiofilm. Biofilm has been pointed as a dynamic phenotypic switching in bacteria and fungi,which may result in higher morbidity and mortality in human beings. This review addresses thebasic explanation of biofilm formation which is characterized by the antifungal agents resistance.The factors that influence C. albicans biofim formation and antifungal agents resistance arediscussed.Key words: Candida sp – antifungal – resistance – biofilm - pathogenecity
PERANCANGAN ALAT BANTU PROSES PEMBUATAN BATIK SARITA Soeryanto, Soleman May; Chaeron, Mochammad; Wibawa, Tri
OPSI Vol 9, No 2 (2016): ISSN 1693-2102
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Industri Fakultas Teknologi Industri UPN "Veteran" Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Pengrajin di Desa Karassik, Kecamatan Kesu’, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan masih menggunakan alat tradisional dalam proses pembuatan Batik Sarita, hal ini memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama mulai dari pembuatan sketsa sampai proses penorehan cairan malam di atas kain dan diperlukan teknik membatik untuk menghasilkan produk batik yang berkualitas.Selain itu dalam proses pembuatan Batik Sarita diperlukan banyak peralatan.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk merancang alat bantu untuk mempermudah proses pembuatan Batik Sarita.Dalam penelitian ini perancangan alat bantu proses pembuatan Batik Sarita menggunakan metode perancangan produk model proses perancangan deskriptif French. Perancangan dengan menggunakan metode ini diawali dengan menentukan kebutuhan konsumen untuk menganalisis masalah. Setelah itu dilakuak perancangan konsep dan mencari solusi alternatif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan konsumen. Setelah didapatkan solusi alternatif, langkah selanjutanya adalah membuat prototype,,dan langkah terakhir adalah melakukan uji coba terhadap alat bantu proses pembuatan Batik Sarita yang sesuai dengan konsep rancangan.  Penelitian ini telah berhasil mengembangkan alat bantu proses pembuatan Batik Sarita, dikembangkan dengan memodifikasi Pantograph dan merancang kompor elektrik dalam proses pembuatan Batik Sarita. Hasil yang diperoleh dari alat rancangan baru mampu mempermudah proses pembuatan Batik Sarita dimana pengrajin tidak perlu membuat sketsa atau pola di atas kain. Sketsa dapat dibuat di atas kertas yang bisa digunakan berkali-kali. Selain itu suhu dan keenceran cairan malam dapat dikontrol dengan mudah karena menggunakan kompor elektrik yang dilengkapi dengan sensor suhu. Dalam proses penorehan malam di atas kain dapat dilakukan dengan mudah, cukup menggerakkan Pantograph mengikuti pola yang sudah ada
Genotyping of Rotavirus by Using RT-PCR Methods Nirwati, Hera; Wibawa, Tri; Aman, Abu Tholib; Soenarto, Yati
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

There is a great diversity of rotavirus genotypes circulating worldwide, with dominant genotypes changing from year to year. Rotavirus genotyping was performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specifi c-primers. Since rotavirus is a RNA virus that has high mutation rate, there was a possibility of technical diffi culty in genotyping due to mutation in the primer binding sites. During Indonesian rotavirus surveillance study 2006-2009, it was reported that 17% of samples subjected for G type and 21% of samplessubjected for P type were untypeable. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of the samples that were untypeable previously using RT-PCR based on the method described by Das et al. (1994) and Gentsch et al. (1992). There were 30 samples subjected to G type and 61 samples subjected to P type to be re-typed using method described by Gouvea et al. (1990) and Simmond et al. (2008) for G and P typing, respectively. By using another set of primer, the genotype of all samples was identifi ed. This study highlights the importance of a constant reconsideration of primer sequences employed for the molecular typing of rotaviruses.Key words: rotavirus, G typing, P typing
Apoptosis and Phagocytosis Activity of Macrophages Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistant and Sensitive Isoniazid Clinical Isolates Rachmawaty, Farida J.; Wibawa, Tri; Soesatyo, Marsetyawan H.N.E.
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the main causative pathogen that cause the pulmonary tuberculosis.Intracellular M.tb was reported able to induce macrophages apoptosis, which may have crucial role in the regulationof immun response against M.tb infection. As an intracellular bacteria, M.tb able to live and replicate withinmacrophages. Phagocytosis is the first step to achieved this condition. The induction of macrophages apoptosis byINH resistant and sensitive M.tb clinical isolates, and H37Rv was studied. The macrophages apoptosis level weremeasured using an Ag-capture ELISA for histone and fragmented DNA (Cell Death Detection ELISAplus, RocheDiagnostic GmBH). Phagocytosis activity also analyzed, after staining using fluorescence dye (AcriFluorTM, ScientificDevice Lab.). The results showed that there was no significantly different between INH resistant and sensitive M.tbclinical isolates in respect their ability to induce apoptosis. The phagocytosis activity among the clinical isolates wasshown to be strain dependent, and undistinguishable between the Mtb clinical isolates. There was no associationbetween macrophages apoptosis level and the phagocytosis activity. These data suggested that among the virulentMtb clinical isolates, the ability to induce macrophages apoptosis and phagocytosis were consistently in comparablelevelKeywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis, phagocytosis, macrophages, isoniazid
Early Detection and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses Clinical Isolates Using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) 2 Primers Siregar, Abdul Rahman; Wibawa, Tri; Wijayanti, Nastiti
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 16, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Recently several methods for confirming Dengue Virus have been developed involve virus isolation, detection of virus antigen, and nucleic acid using PCR. It has been reported that rapid detection method for confirming DHF by Multiplex RT-PCR had been successfully developed. It was more effective than the other methods with a high sensitivity and specivicity were 100% at the early phase (day 1-3). This study was designed to develop rapid detection and serotyping methods for Dengue Virus using RT-PCR 2 primers (Dcon and preM) with annealing temperature was 57oC. The whole blood samples were collected from suspected dengue fever patients that had been confirmed with NS1 kit from R.S. Persahabatan DKI Jakarta and R.S. Prof. Dr. Sardjito DI Yogyakarta during Februari-August 2009. The PCR products showed that in 12 samples, 100 % were postitive with different pattern among the serotypes especially for DEN1 and DEN2, but not for DEN3 and Den4.  This method was also able to confirm the double infection DEN2-DEN3, but not for the other ones because of the unspecific pattern. From the results, it indicated that the 2 primers can be a promising early detection and serotyping method of Dengue Virus which infected the DHF patients. Key words: Dengue Virus, DHF, early detection, serotyping, RT-PCR 2 primers.
Effect of Oxidative Stress on AhpC Activity and Virulence in katG Ser315 Thr Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mutant Rintiswati, Ning; Wibawa, Tri; Asmara, Widya; Soebono, Hardyanto
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 16, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistance to INH is mainly caused by the alteration in several genesencoding the molecular targets. Mutation of katG at codon 315 especially Ser315Thr are responsible forINH resistance in a large proportion of TB cases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of stressoxidative on AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr of M.tuberculosis, and to find out the relation of AhpC and thevirulence of this mutant. The study design was laboratoric experimental, subjects of study were M.tuberculosisINH resistance strains, and the treatment were serial dose of H2O2. Eighty five M.tuberculosis INH resistantclinical strain were screened for mutation of katGSer315Thr by PCR/RFLP and characterized on the basis ofphenotypic properties (catalase activity and AhpC activity). AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr M.tuberculosisstrains in response to oxidative stress condition was evaluated by culturing the strains on liquid culturemedium containing 1mM H2O2. To ascertain role of AhpC in the virulence of katGSer315Thr mutant strains, themutants were infected into human macrophages culture, and several indicator of virulence were observed (i.e:replication competence, and apoptosis induction on human macrophages). The results showed that katG Ser315Thr were identified in 23 (27,05%) of 85 INH resistance strains, all mutant strains had decrease of catalaseactivity. AhpC activity of katG Ser315Thr of M.tuberculosis increased significantly with increase of hydrogenperoxide dose. In addition , it has been shown that increased AhpC activity related to replication ability ofmutant, and reduction of apoptosis macrophages induction significantly. We conclude that the productionof AhpC of katG Ser315Thr M.tuberculosis induced by oxidative stress. There was a role of AhpC in virulenceof the M.tuberculosis katG Ser315Thr strains by replication capability and macrophages apoptosis.Keywords : katG Ser315Thr Mycobacterium tuberculosis- oxidative stress - AhpC - virulence
Apoptosis and Phagocytosis Activity of Macrophages Infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistant and Sensitive Isoniazid Clinical Isolates Rachmawaty, Farida J.; Wibawa, Tri; Soesatyo, Marsetyawan H.N.E.
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (43.035 KB)

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the main causative pathogen that cause the pulmonary tuberculosis.Intracellular M.tb was reported able to induce macrophages apoptosis, which may have crucial role in the regulationof immun response against M.tb infection. As an intracellular bacteria, M.tb able to live and replicate withinmacrophages. Phagocytosis is the first step to achieved this condition. The induction of macrophages apoptosis byINH resistant and sensitive M.tb clinical isolates, and H37Rv was studied. The macrophages apoptosis level weremeasured using an Ag-capture ELISA for histone and fragmented DNA (Cell Death Detection ELISAplus, RocheDiagnostic GmBH). Phagocytosis activity also analyzed, after staining using fluorescence dye (AcriFluorTM, ScientificDevice Lab.). The results showed that there was no significantly different between INH resistant and sensitive M.tbclinical isolates in respect their ability to induce apoptosis. The phagocytosis activity among the clinical isolates wasshown to be strain dependent, and undistinguishable between the Mtb clinical isolates. There was no associationbetween macrophages apoptosis level and the phagocytosis activity. These data suggested that among the virulentMtb clinical isolates, the ability to induce macrophages apoptosis and phagocytosis were consistently in comparablelevelKeywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, apoptosis, phagocytosis, macrophages, isoniazid
Rapid Detection and Molecular Typing of Dengue Virus by Using Multiplex-Nested-RT-PCR Wijayanti, Nastiti; Wibawa, Tri; Nirwati, Hera; Haryanto, Aris; S, Sutaryo1
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 11, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

world. We have evaluated the combination of one-step RT-PCR and multiplex nested PCR assays for detectingdengue viruses from clinical samples. Twelve patients were screened for the dengue virus, using a pair of primersthat conserve for several Flavivirus. The results showed that in 12 suspect patients, 100% were positive for Flavivirusand there are some genotypic variation among them, that indicated by several RT-PCR products higher than 511 bp,the expected product for RT-PCR. Further assay was performed to clarify the presence and serotypes of dengue virususing multiplex nested PCR. Serotyping results indicated that 83,3% of samples can be confirmed for dengue virus.Among the dengue virus positive 16,7 % are dengue-2, 16.7 % are dengue-3, and the most common 50% are dengue-4,whereas dengue-1 were not found among the patients. The combination of RT-PCR and multiplex nested PCR assaycan be used for rapid analysis dengue samples in early phase which is potentially useful for clinical, epidemiologyand also evolutionary studies.Key words: Flavivirus, dengue virus, serotype, RT-PCR, multiplex nested PCR
PREVALENSI TIKUS TERINFEKSI Leptospira interogans DI KOTA SEMARANG, JAWA TENGAH Ristiyanto, Ristiyanto; Wibawa, Tri; Budiharta, Setyawan; Supargiono, Supargiono
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Vol 7, No 2 OKT (2015)
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga

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Abstract

AbstrakLeptospirosis merupakan zoonosis.Penyakit ini sering dijumpai di daerah perkotaan terutama yang sering dilanda banjir.Manusia terinfeksi bakteri Leptospira melalui air atau tanah yang terkontaminasi dengan urin atau cairan tubuh inang reservoir.Tikus adalah inang reservoir leptospirosis.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui populasi tikus yang terinfeksi Leptospira dan interaksi antara pasien suspek leptospira dengan tikus­Kota­Semarang,­Jawa­Tengah.­Selain­itu­dilakukan­pula­identifikasi­serovar­Leptospira­padatikus­diKota Semarang, Jawa Tengah. Jenis penelitian adalah potonglintang (cross sectional).Dilakukan pengamatan di rumah dan lingkungan tempat tinggal 68 kasus leptospirosis. Penangkapan tikus menggunakan perangkap hidup sejumlah 100 buah.Pemasang perangkap di dalam dan di luar rumah selama 3 hari.  Tikus yang tertangkap­diidentifikasi­dan­diambil­serum­darahnya­untuk­mengetahui­serovar­Leptospira­dengan­uji­MAT.Seluruh 68 kasus leptospirosis dari Rumah Sakit di Kota Semarang memiliki riwayat interaksi dengan tikus. Prevalensi tikus terinfeksi bakteri leptospira  untuk tikus got (R. norvegicus) 33,43% dan tikus rumah (R. tanezumi)­13,69%.­Serovar­Leptospira­yang­diidentifikasi­pada­tikus­got­(R.­norvegicus)­adalah­Djasiman(40,55% dari 27 ekor), Icterohaemorhagie (22,22% ), Autumnalis (20,35) dan Bataviae (16,68%). Sementara pada­tikus­rumah­(R.­tanezumi)­dapat­diidentifikasikan­serovar­Autumnalis­(66,67%­dari­3­ekor)­dan­Bataviae(33,33%). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa tikus merupakan reservoir penting dari leptospirosis. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tikus got (R. norvegicus) dan tikus rumah (R. tanezumi) memiliki potensi besar untuk menjadi vektor penularan bakteri Leptospira di Kota Semarang.Kata Kunci : Leptospirosis, Tikus, Faktor Risiko, SemarangAbstractLeptospirosis­is­a­zoonosis.­The­disease­is­often­found­in­urban­areas,­especially­the­frequent­flooding.­Humansinfected­with­Leptospira­bacteria­through­water­or­soil­contaminated­with­urine­or­body­fluids­of­the­hostreservoir. Rats are the reservoir host of leptospirosis. This study aims to determine the population of mice infected with Leptospira and interactions between patients with suspected leptospirosis with rats Semarang, Central­Java.­In­addition­it­also­conducted­in­mice­Leptospira­serovar­identification­in­Semarang,­CentralJava. This type of research is potonglintang (cross­sectional). Observation at home and living environment 68 cases of leptospirosis.Catching mice using live traps some 100 pieces.Trapper inside and outside the house for­3­days.­Mice­that­were­caught­were­identified­and­taken­to­determine­blood­serum­test­leptospira­serovarMAT. The whole 68 cases of leptospirosis Hospital in Semarang has a history of interaction with the rats. 86Vektora Volume 7 Nomor 2, Oktober 2015: 85 - 92Prevalence of mice infected with the bacteria leptospira for sewer rat (R. norvegicus) 33.43% and the house mouse (R. tanezumi)­13.69%.­Leptospira­serovar­identified­in­rats­(R. norvegicus) is Djasiman (40.55% of 27 animals), Icterohaemorhagie (22.22%), autumnalis (20.35) and Bataviae (16.68%). While at the house mouse (R. tanezumi)­can­be­identified­serovar­autumnalis­(66.67%­of­3­tail)­and­Bataviae­(33.33%).­This­showsthat rats are an important reservoir of leptospirosis. This study shows that rats (R. norvegicus) and mice (R. tanezumi) has great potential to be a vector of transmission of the bacteria Leptospira in Semarang.Keyword : Leptospirosis, Rats, Risk Factor, Semarang
Genotyping of Rotavirus by Using RT-PCR Methods Nirwati, Hera; Wibawa, Tri; Aman, Abu Tholib; Soenarto, Yati
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (167.791 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijbiotech.7863

Abstract

There is a great diversity of rotavirus genotypes circulating worldwide, with dominant genotypes changing from year to year. Rotavirus genotyping was performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specifi c-primers. Since rotavirus is a RNA virus that has high mutation rate, there was a possibility of technical diffi culty in genotyping due to mutation in the primer binding sites. During Indonesian rotavirus surveillance study 2006-2009, it was reported that 17% of samples subjected for G type and 21% of samplessubjected for P type were untypeable. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of the samples that were untypeable previously using RT-PCR based on the method described by Das et al. (1994) and Gentsch et al. (1992). There were 30 samples subjected to G type and 61 samples subjected to P type to be re-typed using method described by Gouvea et al. (1990) and Simmond et al. (2008) for G and P typing, respectively. By using another set of primer, the genotype of all samples was identifi ed. This study highlights the importance of a constant reconsideration of primer sequences employed for the molecular typing of rotaviruses. Key words: rotavirus, G typing, P typing