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Analysis of amphibian and mammalian DNAs, the polymerase chain reaction products using primers designed from SOX9 gene

Jurnal Kedokteran Yarsi Vol 11, No 2 (2003): Jurnal Kedokteran Yarsi
Publisher : Jurnal Kedokteran Yarsi

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Abstract

ABSTRACTSOX9 in vertebrates is one of the genes which play roles in sex determination. Sex determination of homomorph chromosomal amphibians is not yet known. This fact motivated this research with the intention of analysing the sequences ofamphibian DNAs and comparing them with mammalian DNA which have been produced by means of amplification using primers of a Homo sapiens SOX9 gene. Results of PCR using primers SOX9, which are modification of that of Chaudhary et al., (2000), were purified using GFX columns, after that they were cloned using pGEM-T vector and E. coli JM 109 host and were finally sequenced. Results of the analysis of DNA sequencing from two Fejervarya cancrivora clones showed heterogenous DNA sequences and they also showedthat DNA sequences of Limnonectes macrodon, Fejervarya cancrivora and Rattus argentiventer had similarities with vertebrate DNA sequences, but revealed no Sox9 gene.KEYWORDS Sex determination; Sox9; PCR, cloning; sequencing

Role of Autophagy in Cancer Therapy

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 60 No. 7 July 2010
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system which plays important roles in regulating protein homeostatis and is essential for survival when cells are faced with metabolic stress. Autophagy is one of programmed cell deaths. Studies showed the role of autophagy as a tumor suppressor, but the effect of autophagy in tumor growth and its roles in cancer therapy remain controversial. Further studies are required for application of various autophagy-targeting therapeutic strategies.Keywords: autophagy, cell death, tumor, cancer therapy

Peran Gen p63 dalam Regulasi Proliferasi Sel

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

p63 gene that exits in chromosome 3q27-28 has two promoters and three different C ends, namely a, b, and g so that the transcription of p63 gene produces 6 variants. Various researches show that p63 gene plays a role in inducting the stoppage of cell cycles in the form of G1 arrest and G2 arrest. The products of p63 gene also have a role in activating the extrinsic/death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway and the intrinsic/mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Understanding of the role of p63 gene in regulating cell proliferation and the synergic effect of p63 and chemotherapy medicines is essential to develop strategies for cancer therapy.

Deteksi Mycobacterium tuberculosis dengan Teknik PCR pada Cairan Efusi Pleura Penderita Tuberkulosis Paru

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Tuberculosis pleural effusion is a manifestation of  extrapulmonal tuberculosis, which is rampant in various countries in  the world, including Indonesia. Nowadays one-third of the world population has been infected by tuberculosis. Every year there are approximately 8 million new tuberculosis patients throughout the world and nearly 3 million people die of this disease every year. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis pleural effusion is a pleural hypersensitivity reaction accompanied by a small number of  Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this research was to detect  Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural effusion liquid by means of PCR technique to establish diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusion. On this research, detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR technique was compared with microscopic examination by means of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method. The research result showed that 9 out of 11 samples were positive by using PCR technique whereas with ZN method all samples showed negative result. The conclusion of this research was that Mycobacterium tuberculosis in small numbers could be detected in pleural effusion liquid by means of PCR technique so that diagnosis could certainly be established.

Efek Gelombang Elektromagnetik Telepon Seluler terhadap Spermatozoa Mencit Galur BALB/C

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Nowadays, cellular phones are widely used, but most people seem do not aware of the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) on human body, especially the male reproduction system.   The objective of this study is to  investigate the biological effects of RFEMR of cellular phone  on sperm  motility and sperm count. Sixteen mice of BALB/c strain were divided into four groups: mice in the control group were not exposed to RFEMR, mice in the the first group were exposed to 20 times/day intensity, the second group to 40 times/day, and the third group to 80 times/day.  Mice were exposed to 1900MHz at specific absorption rate of 96 mW/kg for 7 days. Sperm motility and sperm count  were analyzed by means of Oneway ANOVA using SPSS 13.0. There were highly significant differences of sperm  motility between the exposed mice groups and the control group (p<0.01), but no significant differences among the three exposed groups (p>0.05). There were also highly significant differences of sperm count between the exposed groups and the control group (p<0.01), and the differences among the three exposed group were significant too (p<0.05). It can be concluded that exposure to cellular phone electromagnetic radiation may reduces mice sperm motility and sperm count.

Peran Bioinformatika dalam Bidang Kedokteran

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 5, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Bioinformatika merupakan kajian yang memadukan disiplin ilmu biologi molekul, matematika dan teknik informasi. Bioinformatika berperan dalam bidang klinis dalam bentuk informasi klinis, identifikasi mutasi gen-gen penyebab penyakit, terapi gen, dan pengobatan individual sesuai profil genetik setiap pasien. Bioinformatika juga berperan dalam identifikasi agen penyakit baru, diagnosis penyakit baru dan dalam penemuan obat. Aplikasi dari bioinformatika dalam penemuan obat ini menggunakan pendekatan genomik untuk identifikasi target-target obat dan desain senyawa untuk obat yang akan berikatan dengan DNA target.Bioinformatika merupakan suatu bidang interdisipliner yang saling menunjang dengan disiplin ilmu lain. Bidang yang terkait dengan bioinformatika adalah biofisik, biologi komputasi, informatika medis, informatika kimiawi, genomik, proteomik, farmakogenomik dan farmakogenetik.Sarana utama bioinformatika adalah berbagai perangkat lunak yang didukung oleh basis data yang tersedia pada world wide web. Bioinformatika merupakan disiplin ilmu yang sedang berkembang dengan pesat dan para ahli terus menyempurnakan program-program perangkat lunak yang kompleks untuk mencari, memilah-milah, menganalisis, memprediksi, dan menyimpan data-data biologi molekuler yang terus bertambah jumlahnya.

Terapi Gen pada Penyakit Kanker

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 4, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Kemajuan dalam bidang biologi molekuler telah memunculkan teknologi untuk memanipulasi gen-gen in vivo untuk pengobatan penyakit melalui terapi gen. Akhir-akhir ini, penyakit-penyakit target untuk terapi gen telah meluas dari kelainan metabolik kongenital menjadi penanganan terhadap penyakit kanker. Pendekatan terapi gen untuk pengobatan kanker meliputi koreksi kecepatan tumbuh sel-sel kanker, pengontrolan kematian sel-sel kanker, upaya untuk membuat sistem imun membunuh sel-sel kanker, dan strategi bunuh diri.Berbagai metode yang telah dicoba digunakan dalam pengiriman gen-gen ke dalam sel-sel target pada terapi gen kanker adalah dengan menggunakan virus, liposom, dan nanosphere; penyuntikan DNA secara langsung; dan teknik gene gun. Terapi gen untuk kanker payudara meliputi penggantian gen supresor tumor dan terapi antionkogen. Sedangkan terapi gen untuk kanker paru-paru dan kanker kepala dan leher dilakukan melalui penggantian gen supresor tumor p53 dengan menggunakan vektor retrovirus LTRp53A, adenovirus Adp53 dan virus Onyx-015 yang sedang dalam tahap uji klinis.Studi terapi gen pada glioma maligna melalui terapi gen interferon-β masih dalam tahap penelitian dan dalam pengembangan untuk aplikasi klinis. Banyak tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam terapi gen kanker namun sejauh ini telah menunjukkan kemajuan pada hasil uji klinis. Berbagai penyakit kanker sedang berada pada fase uji klinis lanjutan dan sedang dipelajari untuk dapat mencapai standar penggunaan klinis.

Perkembangan Mutakhir Genetika Biomolekuler pada Autisme

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 2, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

For the past few decades it has been known that autistic abnormalities are hereditary. In order to determine what genes are involved in autism, researchers carry out genome screening by means of chromosome maps and markers. Markers that are consistently found in the patient’s family members give indication as to which chromosome contains candidate genes that are related to the markers. Candidate genes are studied in two ways, namely on the basis of location and function of the genes. Researchers test the existence of mutation in candidate genes. If mutation is found in the patient’s genes, it means that those candidate genes cause abnormalities in the patient. For the past few years researchers have studied 5 chromosomes, namely 2, 3, 7, 15 and X, and candidate genes, namely GABA, UBE3A, GATI, OXTR, FOXP2, WNT2 and RELN. Testing has been made on a great number of genes but no satisfactory result has been achieved and further analysis is still required. However, researchers have recently succeeded in finding out a complete human genome map so that genes that are related to the disease can be more easily identified. Behind the taxing effort and toil in the biomolecular genetic study of autism, there are great hopes that the study will succeed in providing answers to the questions concerning the causes, preventive measures and treatment of autistic abnormalities.

Varian Molekular Defisiensi Glukosa-6-Fosfat Dehidrogenase

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 1, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Defisiensi Glukosa-6-Fosfat Dehidrogenase (G6PD) adalah penyakit genetik terpaut kelamin yang telah menyerang kurang lebih 400 juta orang di seluruh dunia dan mempunyai frekuensi yang tinggi di Afrika, Mediterranean, dan populasi Asia yang merupakan wilayah endemik malaria (Gelehrter et al., 1998). Kelainan enzim yang pa1ing umum terjadi pada manusia ini menyebabkan bayi yang baru lahir berwarna kuning, yang dapat menyebabkan "kernicterus" dan kematian atau kelumpuhan. Kelainan ini juga dapat menyebabkan krisis hemolitik yang mengancam jiwa penderita apabila berinteraksi dengan obat-obatan tertentu atau kacang "fava". Lebih dari 400 varian alelik G6PD telah dideskripsikan pada tingkat protein (Gelehrter et al., 1998; Saha et al.,1995) melalui identifikasi karakteristik secara biokimiawi. Dewasa ini penelitian tentang varian G6PD dilakukan pada tingkat molekular dan terdapat 97 mutasi atau kombinasi mutasi pada berbagai lokasi sepanjang gen G6PD (Beutler et al., 1996)

Nilai Etika Transplantasi Organ

Majalah Komunikasi Maranatha Vol 11, No 9 (2003)
Publisher : Majalah Komunikasi Maranatha

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Abstract

Dewasa ini ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi di bidang kedokteran berkembang dengan pesat. Salah satunya adalah kemajuan dalam teknik transplantasi organ. Transplantasi organ merupakan suatu teknologi medis untuk penggantian organ tubuh pasien yang tidak berfungsi dengan organ dari individu lain. Sejak kesuksesan transplantasi yang pertama kali berupa ginjal dari donor kepada pasien gagal ginjal pada tahun 1954, perkembangan di bidang transpIantasi maju dengan pesat. Kemajuan ilmu dan teknologi memungkinkan pengawetan organ, penemuan obat-obatan anti penolakan yang semakin baik sehingga berbagai organ dan jaringan dapat ditransplantasikan. Dewasa ini bahkan sedang dilakukan uji klinis penggunaan hewan sebagai donor. Dibalik kesuksesan dalam perkembangan transplantasi organ muncul berbagai masalah. Semakin meningkatnya pasien yang membutuhkan tranplantasi, penolakan organ, komplikasi pasca transplantasi, dan resiko yang mungkin timbul akibat transplantasi telah memunculkan berbagai pertanyaan tentang etika, legalitas dan kebijakan yang menyangkut penggunaan teknologi itu. Pada makalah ini akan dibicarakan berbagai masalah etika yang timbul sejalan dengan perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi transplantasi organ, masalah etika utama dalam transplantasi, bagaimana kebijakan di Indonesia mengenai  transplantasi dan betapa pentingnya nilai-nilai etika dalam mempertahankan suatu sistem nilai dan dalam penentuan kebijakan pemerintah.