APRIL HARI WARDHANA
Research Institute for Veterinary Science,

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Epidemiology of traumatic myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana in Indonesia Wardhana, April Hari; Abadi, I.; Cameron, M. M.; Ready, P. D.; Hall, M. J.R.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 23, No 1 (2018): MARCH 2018
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (661.083 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v23i1.1617

Abstract

Epidemiology of traumatic myiasis in Indonesia was studied by the widespread collection of fly larvae from infested livestock in passive case detection surveys involving veterinary clinics. In addition, monthly data from Kediri regency in Eastern Java were analysed from 2006-2009 to explore the seasonality of myiasis. Larvae from a total of 260 cases from the nationwide survey and 341 cases from Kediri were identified. Except for 5 cases of chicken infestation due to Musca species in the nationwide survey, all other cases were exclusively caused by the Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The monthly numbers of cases at Kediri were very variable, with cases in all months, but there was statistical evidence for an increase in cases in January and December, during the rainy season. The greatest numbers of infestations recorded were from cattle and goats. The most frequently infested sites nationwide and in Kediri were the vulva and umbilicus, associated with calving, which is a major risk period for traumatic myiasis. Mitochondrial DNA typing of 176 specimens was useful for detecting multiple infestations, but no association was found between genetic lineage and host. The equatorial climate of Indonesia, combined with poor husbandry systems are factors that help to support OWS fly development year round. Even if not considered a disease of strategic importance, screwworm myiasis remains a threat to livestock production in Indonesia and a major welfare issue that requires constant interventions by farmers. The new and collated epidemiological data presented represent the most extensive survey of traumatic myiasis in Indonesia to date and provide a valuable baseline to support integrated pest management programs.
Production of Recombinant Vaccine Cb Peritrophin-42 of Screwworm Fly in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NATALIA, DESSY; MUHARSINI, SRI; MASDUKI, FIFI FITRIAH; WARDHANA, APRIL HARI; WARDANI, SAVIRA EKA; MARIA, ELIZABETH; VAN DEN HEUVEL, JOOP
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 1, No 3 (2007): December 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The screwworm fly (Chrysomya bezziana) larva is an obligate parasite which causes myasis in mammals. Vaccination is thought to be a protective and an enviromentally friendly method for combating the pest. A gene encoding a peritrophic membrane protein Cb peritrophin-42 of C. bezziana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Cb peritrophin-42 fused with the outer membrane protein A signal sequence was produced as an aggregate in E. coli. Expression of an Cb peritrophin-42 gene fused with oligonucleotide of the invertase signal sequence in S. cerevisiae allowed the production of 14.4 mg l-1 soluble extracellular Cb peritrophin-42. Sheep vaccinated with recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a strong immunological reaction. In vivo assay following vaccination with the recombinant Cb peritrophin-42 showed a 27% reduction in the weight of recovered larvae.
Surra: Trypanosomiasis in Livestock is Potential as Zoonotic Disease Wardhana, April Hari; Savitri, Dyah H
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 28, No 3 (2018): September 2018
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (331.108 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v28i3.1835

Abstract

Trypanosoma evansi is one of blood protozoans having the most wide distribution region compared to other Trypanosome species. The parasite causes trypanosomiasis known as Surra. The disease may cause mortality to the infected animals. In general T evansi only attack animal and cannot infect humans due to apolipoprotein 1 (Apo L-1) in human serum. The protein possess trypanolitic activity feature against T. evansi and effectively eliminates the protozoa. However, the knowledge of Surra infecting animals changed because there were atypical human trypanosomiasis cases reported in some countries due to T. evansi. The human Surra case occurred in Vietnam demonstrated that person with Apo L-1 could be infected by T. evansi. There was resistant strain of T. evansi found which able to disrupt human immune system. This paper will discuss Surra cases in both humans and animals, including mechanism of Apo L-1 on eliminating the parasite. Surra cases in human and animal should be seriously concerned because Surra could be pontential zoonosis threating human health.
Cytokines profile of mice infected by high and low virulences of Indonesian T. evansi isolates Sawitri, Dyah Haryuningtyas; Wardhana, April Hari; Wibowo, Heri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 22, No 3 (2017): SEPTEMBER 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (531.049 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v22i3.1666

Abstract

Surra in livestock is caused by Trypanosoma evansi, a homoflagella blood protozoa that circulate in extracellular. This disease is widespread in Asia, Africa, South and Central America. According to the immunological aspect, the severity of surra in livestock and mice which infected by trypanosoma is associated with an inflammatory response. On the other hand, the survival time of mice depends on the regulation of Th1 synthesis and proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. The aim of this study was to observe the responses of proinflammatory cytokines IFN γ, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10 which result from interaction with parasites. This information is needed for improvements in the management of prevention of Surra in animals. A total of 30 mice were divided into 3 groups. The group was infected with a low virulency T. evansi (Pml287); high virulence (Bang87) respectively and one group was not infected as control. Mice sera were collected in every 4 days for cytokine measurement using an Enzyme Link-Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The result showed a difference response of proinflammatory and antiinflammation cytokine profile between the infected mice by isolates Bang 87 and Pml 287. Early deaths in mice infected by Bang 87 isolate were suspected as a result of the response of systemic inflammation syndromes characterized by elevated IFN-γ levels that were not adequately compensated by anti-inflammatory. Anemia contributes to the cause of death in mice that support multiple organ failures (multiple organ disfunction).
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 26, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.454 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1327

Abstract

Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed.
Giardia intestinalis assemblage E as an Emerging Zoonosis in Livestock Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 27, No 4 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (333.017 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1787

Abstract

Giardia intestinalis is a gastrointestinal parasite causing giardiasis that infects animals and humans. Giardiasis generates diarrhea, malabsorption, decreased body weight and milk production, dehydration, and mortality especially in young animals. This paper describes G. intestinalis assemblage E in humans and livestock, including molecular identification and disease distribution. The incidence of giardiasis in humans and livestock has been reported in some countries, particularly in young host living under poor sanitation and hygiene. Based on genotype, the parasite is divided into eight assemblages (A-H) and some infect specific hosts. At the moment, assemblage E is known as genotype that infects animal. This statement is controversial since assemblage E was also detected in humans who contacted with animals. This condition assumes that assemblage E is an emerging zoonosis that needs special attention.
Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed Wardhana, April Hari
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 26, No 2 (2016): JUNE 2016
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1218

Abstract

Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed. 
Anticoccidial activity of Artemisinin and Extract of Artemesia annua leaves in chicken infected by Eimeria tenella Wiedosari, Ening; Wardhana, April Hari
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 22, No 4 (2017): DECEMBER 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v22i4.1622

Abstract

The continuous use of anticoccidial drug in chicken often continuously generates drug resistance and tissue residue; so thatconsequently, a safe alternative anticoccidial drug based on herb is fundamentally required. The aim of thise study was to examine anticcocidial activity of artemisinin and extract of Artemesia annua leaves in chicken infected by Eimeria tenella. A total of 35 chickens of Cobb strain was divided into seven groups with five replicates birds per group, i.e. uninfected chicken group (P I), infected but untreated chicken group (P II), infected and treated chicken group with 8.5 ppm, 17 ppm, 34 ppm, for P III, P IV and P V respectively, infected and treated chicken with 17 ppm of A. annua extract (P VI) and infected and treated chicken with Sulfa (P VII). All chicken, except the uninfected group, whereas infected with 2000 infective oocyst of E. tenella except the uninfected group. Treatment was delivered by oral, once per day for eight days. The criteria observed were clinical manifestation of chickens, number of oocyst in feces, body weight, cecal lesion score, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin value. The results showed that extract of A. annua leaves (P VI) was the most effective treatment to reduce the number of oocyst in feces (74.18%), followed by 34 ppm of artemisinin group (P VII). In addition, application of A. annua extract and artemisinin was significantly able to decreased the cecal lesion score (P<0.05). Even though body weight and Hb value were not indifferent significantly different (p>0.05), however A. annua extract and artemisinin treatments were significantly able to hold PCV value on normal level compared to P II and P IV (P<0.05). It concluded that extract A. annua leaves and artemisinin could be used an alternative anticoccidial in chickens.
Aktivitas Larvasida Biji Bengkuang sebagai Insektisida Nabati terhadap Larva Lalat Crysomya bezziana Mustika, Aulia Andi; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Wardhana, April Hari; Rahminiwati, Min; Wientarsih, Ietje
Acta VETERINARIA Indonesiana Vol 4, No 2 (2016): Juli 2016
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/avi.4.2.68-73

Abstract

Bengkuang merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang berpotensi sebagai bioinsektisida. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efektivitas biji bengkuang sebagai insektisida nabati terhadap larva lalat Crysomya bezziana (C. bezziana) agen penyebab miasis secara in vitro. Penelitian ini terbagi menjadi 5 kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing sebanyak 20 Larva instar 1 (L1), Larva instar 2 (L2), dan Larva instar 3 (L3) C.bezziana digunakan untuk pengujian in vitro menggunakan pot plastik yang berisi media larva dan ekstrak ethanol biji bengkuang dengan konsentrasi bertingkat 0,06, 0,12, dan 0,25%. Coumaphos 0,06% dan akuades steril digunakan sebagai kontrol positif dan negatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada konsentrasi 0,25% mampu menyebabkan 100% kematian larva dan 100% pupa tidak menetas. Pengujian L3 menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak ethanol biji bengkuang mampu menyebabkan penurunan daya tetas pada semua konsentrasi. Pengujiaan L1 dan L2 untuk mengindikasikan efektifi tas ekstrak sebagai racun perut, sedangkan pengujian pada L3 sebagai indikasi racun kontak. Biji bengkuang memiliki daya larvasida terhadap beberapa jenis larva serangga C. bezziana.
Deteksi Parasit Darah pada Sapi Perah Berdasarkan Analisis Pcr Duplex Akbari, Rizal Arifin; Tiuria, Risa; Wardhana, April Hari; Savitri, Dyah Haryuningtyas
Acta VETERINARIA Indonesiana Vol 6, No 2 (2018): Juli 2018
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/avi.6.2.48-55

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi parasit darah pada sapi (Babesia spp., Theileria spp., dan Trypanosoma spp.) secara molekular berdasarkan analisis duplex PCR. Seratus sampel darah sapi perah Friesian Holstein diambil secara acak untuk deteksi parasit darah dengan pemeriksaan ulas darah. Sebanyak tiga puluh dari seratus sampel diseleksi untuk analisis PCR single berdasarkan jenis parasit dan tingkat parasitemia yang terdiri dari 5 sampel positif Babesia spp, 15 sampel positif Theileria spp., dan 10 sampel negatif parasit darah untuk dilanjutkan pada tahap PCR single. Optimasi PCR single dilakukan menggunakan tiga primer spesifik untuk B. bovis (Bover2A), T. annulata (Cytob 1) dan T. evansi (ITS 1). Hasil optimasi PCR single menunjukan bahwa suhu anneling 56 °C merupakan suhu optimal untuk deteksi Babesia bovis dan T. evansi sedangkan T. annulata tidak menunjukan hasil positif pada kondisi tersebut. Hasil analisis PCR single menunjukan 28 sampel positif B. bovis, 1 sampel positif T. evansi, 1 sampel negatif semua parasit darah dan 0 sampel positif T. annulata sehingga hanya B. bovis dan T. evansi yang dilanjutkan ke tahap analisis duplex PCR duplex. Teknik duplex PCR berhasil dioptimasi dengan dilakukannya modifikasi penambahan MgCl2 (25 ?M) sebanyak 0.5 ?L/tube sehingga dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi parasit darah B. bovis dan T. evansi pada sampel di lapang