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Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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During this time the humpback grouper broodstock spawning that comes from nature. Efforts to provide humpback grouper fish from cultured (F1) has been conducted and it has been spawn.  The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of broodstock first generation (F1) with a good maintenance management and monitoring evaluation of character growth, gonad development, and genetic characteristics through microsatelite marker.  Broodstock reared in concrete tank volume of 75 m3 with three different of hormonal implantation treatments: (1) estradiol, (2) 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), (3) a mixture of 17α-Methyl-testosterone by aromatase inhibitors, and control. The observed parameters were growth, gonad development, reproductive hormones in the blood composition and the performance of genetic through microsatellite analysis. The results showed that the humpback grouper F1 implantation treatment by methyl testosterone and estradiol showed good growth with an average body weight at the end of the observed ranged from 680 ± 60.5 to 820 ± 76,5g with an average body length of 34 -36 cm. In individual control growth better because during the maintenance of the population is not implanted. Analyses of testosterone and estradiol in the blood plasma showed that 40% of individuals in the population were males. Microsatellite analysis showed that F1 fish had good genetic variation (0.778-1.000) so that it can be used as broodstock candidate. 
PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC PERFORMANCES OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon HAVING FAST GROWTH TRAITS Haryanti, Haryanti; Muzaki, Ahmad; Wardana, Ida Komang; Fachrudin, Fachrudin; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Permana, I Gusti Ngurah
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 2 (2009): (December 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Shrimp breeding research focusing on fast growth traits is important to develop better phenotypic and genotypic characters of shrimp spawners. The aim of this research was to evaluate shrimp breeding technology to produce fry having fast growth traits. Selection was initiated from the breeding of wild shrimp spawners (F-0) based on full sib mating, probiotics, biosecurity, and viral diseases diagnosis. Viral disease diagnoses were performed using 7 viruses (TSV, WSSV, IHHNV, YHV, BP, MBV, and HPV) provided in the IQ-2000 kit. The result showed that 11 families of the first generation (F-1) shrimp were phenotypically varied (big, regular and small size). Number of fry from the first generation resulted from phenotypic selection that have fast growth trait ranged between 1.99% and 4.49% of the total fry population. Genotypic performance of the shrimp broodstock (F-0) and the first generation (F-1) showed different genetic variations. Heterozigosity values were 0.2872±0.0047 (female) and 0.5487±0.0103 (male) for shrimp broodstock (F-0), 0.704±0.0261 for the first generation (F-1) having fast growth trait, and 0.6224±0.023 for F-1 having slow growth. Gene markers of fast growth trait were indicated by the genes with molecular weights of 1,025; 1,280; and 1,325 basepairs and having different DNA sequences compared to that of slow growth shrimp.
KARAKTER GENETIK INDUK (F-0) DAN TURUNANNYA (F-1) PADA IKAN HIAS LAUT CLOWN (Amphiprion percula) MENGGUNAKAN MARKER RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorfism DNA) Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Haryanti, Haryanti; Wardana, Ida Komang
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 5, No 2 (2010): (Agustus 2010)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Studi analisis karakter genetik ikan hias laut clown menggunakan metode penanda DNA RAPD dilakukan dalam upaya membantu pengembangan perbenihan dan budidaya ikan hias laut clown di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeterminasi karakter genetik dengan menggunakan analisis individu dari populasi induk (F-0) dan turunannya (F-1) sehingga diperoleh tingkat penurunan keragaman genetik dan keterkaitannya dengan karakter morfologi. Sampel yang dianalisis terdiri atas 5 pasang induk ikan clown (10 sampel) dan masing-masing turunannya sebanyak 10 ekor (50 sampel) sehingga total 60 sampel. Nilai rata-rata keragaman genetik induk ikan clown dari semua lokus primer sebesar 0,253, sedangkan pada turunannya (F-1) adalah 0,157. Hal ini menggambarkan adanya pengaruh genetik terhadap perbedaan pola pemunculan band putih.Study genetic characteristic of clownfish, Amphiprion percula using RAPD DNA marker was conducted in order to support development of breeding and culture program of marine ornamental clownfish in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to determine of genetic characteristic of clown fish using individual analysis from F-0 population and its generations (F-1) to find specific marker which is related to its morphology. Total samples analyzed were 60, consist of 5 pairs of clownfish broodstock (10 samples) and 10 ind each generations (50 samples). Mean value of genetic diversity of clown fish broodstock from all primer loci was 0.253, while on its generation F-1 was 0.157. This result showed there was effect of genetic on the differences of white band pattern appearance.
THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC ON IMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT IN THE FRY AND SPAWNER PRODUCTION OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei Haryanti, Haryanti; Muzaki, Ahmad; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Fahrudin, Fahrudin; Permana, I Gusti Ngurah; Wardana, Ida Komang
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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In order to improve immune system of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei from any kinds of diseases, various probiotic agents were tested such as Bacillus sp. BC, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and mixed of both. The probiotics were cultured and added directly to the larval rearing tank (106 cfu/mL equal to 0.5 liter/m3) up to PL-12. In cultured shrimp spawners, probiotic was mixed with feed coated with chitosan, and without adding probiotic as control. In the present experiment, shrimp fry and spawners were reared in tank capacity of 5 m3 and 8 m3. Immunity response was analyzed by quantitative value of the immunity related gene expression with RTqPCR. The results showed that survival rate of shrimp fry cultured with mixed probiotic was 63.16% (PL-8) and 53.46% (PL-12), while control 13.35% (PL-8) and 12.48% (PL-12) respectively. The number of shrimp hemocytes starting from 420 to 530.5 x 104 cells/mL and after challenged with WSSV (for 72 hrs exposure) between two treatments of Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus cereus BC was not significantly different P>0.05 (402.5 and 432.5 x 104 cells/mL), while in mixed probiotic and control treatments were 391.75 and 229.0 x 104 cells/mL, respectively. The analysis of immunity gene expression revealed that the use of probiotic from larval stages up to spawner has been proved in increasing immunity responses quantified from ProPO activating system (prophenoloxidase/proPO) as much as 1.6-2.0 fold, clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein) of 1.5-2 fold, Antimicrobial Peptide System (anti-LPS factor, crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin2) of 1.5-2.8 fold, and Antioxidant defense mechanism (superoxidase dismutase/SOD, glutathione peroxidase/GPx) of 1.8-2.0 fold compared to control.
REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS OF CULTURED HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis) FOR SUPPORTING SEED PRODUCTION Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Hutapea, John Harianto; Muzaki, Ahmad; Wardana, Ida Komang; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya; Andamari, Retno
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 1 (2014): (June 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) has been successfully spawned in 2000 by IMRAD (Institute of Mariculture Research and Development) and there are already the third generation (F3) currently. The reproductive aspects need to be studied to support the success of seed production. Humpback grouper reared in floating cage (F1 and F3) had matured (gonad stage 4) while F2 fish reared in concrete tanks has spawned. Gonadal maturity stage of 38 fishes from first generation (F1) and 35 fishes from the third generation were observed in June 2013 and compared to gonadal maturity stage of 18 fishes from the second generation observed in June 2009. Samples were measured in total length and body weight and gonads were taken for histology preparation to determine gonadal maturity stage and the sex. From the histological observation of the gonads, it showed that all female humpback grouper were in early maturity stage (stage I and II) with gonadal maturity index between 0.12% and 5.45%. Further, it was observed that the same gonad was found in different maturity stage and concluded that humpback groupers were multiple spawners (asynchronous). By determining gonadal maturity level, it was also known the minimum size for grouper ready to spawn.
PERFORMA BENIH TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima) DARI HASIL PERSILANGAN INDUK ALAM Wardana, Ida Komang; Sudewi, Sudewi; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Muzaki, Ahmad
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 10, No 3 (2015): (September 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Tiram mutiara merupakan salah satu komoditas andalan dalam budidaya laut. Masalah utama yang dihadapi adalah pasok benih baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Upaya perbaikan dilakukan dengan perkawinan silang antar varietas tiram dengan tujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas benih Tiram Mutiara (Pinctada maxima) baik secara fenotip maupun genotip. Induk yang disilangkan secara resiprokal mempunyai karakter nacre putih (P) dan kuning (K) baik populasi Bali maupun Maluku. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persilangan dua populasi tersebut menghasilkan tiga varietas yaitu: varietas I (K x P), varietas II (K x K) dan varietas III (P x K). Nilai SR pada fase pediveliger dari ketiga varietas menghasilkan sintasan berturut-turut 65%, 59%, dan 45%. Pertumbuhan varietas III menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang cukup baik dengan kisaran panjang cangkang 3,0-4,5 cm pada umur dua bulan pemeliharaan. Analisis genetik dengan RAPD-DNA menunjukkan bahwa induk-induk yang berhasil memijah mempunyai variasi genetik 0,3755; 0,3938; dan 0,1600. Sedangkan turunan F1 mempunyai variasi genetik lebih rendah yaitu: 0,2738; 0,2667; dan 0,0924.
THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE Muzaki, Ahmad; Mahardika, Ketut; Mastuti, Indah; Andriyanto, Wawan; Asih, Yasmina Nirmala; Wardana, Ida Komang
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 2 (2012): (December 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control), 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract was the same on 1 DAH and 2 DAH. The digestive tract of 1 DAH larvae was still closed and still in the form of a simple tube. The mouth, buccopharynx, liver, pancreas, and rectum were found on 2 DAH. On 3 DAH, the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus started to develop. At this stage, the digestive tract of larvae treated with and without thyroxin started to become distinguishable. Several goblet cells were noticed in the rectum of the treated larvae but not in the control. Digestive tract developed earlier in treated larvae compared to the control group, such as appearance of tongue, gill raker, fundic, and cardiac stomach development, formation of pharyngeal tooth, and gastric gland. Metamorphosis of larvae into juvenile on treated larvae occurred than that the control larvae earlier.
PERFORMA BENIH TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra DARI SUMBER INDUK YANG BERBEDA Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Wardana, Ida Komang; Haryanti, Haryanti
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 11, No 2 (2016): (Juni 2016)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Upaya pengembangan perbenihan teripang pasir bagi kelestarian populasi di alam dan pengembangan budidaya patut dilakukan. Upaya ini diperlukan mengingat semakin intensifnya penangkapan teripang di alam yang dapat menimbulkan terganggunya kelestarian populasi ini. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi performa pertumbuhan benih teripang pasir, mendapatkan informasi keragaman genetik dan mengestimasi laju inbreeding dari 3 sumber induk teripang yang berbeda. Tiga sumber induk berasal dari perairan Bali, Sulawesi Selatan, dan Maluku Tenggara masing-masing sebanyak 20 ekor dianalisis menggunakan mikrosatelit (SSR/Simple Sequence Repeats) dengan 3 lokus, yaitu Hsc-28; Hsc-49 dan Hsc-59. Proses pembenihan mengikuti pedoman teknis yang sudah ada dengan beberapa modifikasi. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa panjang dan bobot benih umur 6 bulan yang dihasilkan dari induk Maluku Tenggara relatif lebih tinggi (5,67 ± 0,76 cm; 13,26 ± 5,63 g) dibandingkan dengan benih dari induk Sulawesi Selatan (4,75 ± 0,91 cm; 6,3 ± 2,22 g) dan Bali (4,85 ± 0,64 cm; 6,2 ± 3,6 g). Hasil analisis mikrosatelit menunjukkan bahwa keragaman genetik induk teripang pasir dari ke tiga populasi tidak berbeda nyata. Hal ini berdasarkan nilai differensiasi genetik (FST= 0,2475 atau 24,75%). Laju nilai inbreeding dalam populasi induk teripang pasir cukup tinggi (FIT= 0,4237 atau 42,37%) dibandingkan dengan laju inbreeding antar populasi (FIS) adalah 0,2342 atau 23,42%. The effort of sea cucumber seed production for culture development have to be carried out. This effort is also required due to the intensive exploration of sea cucumber in the nature which could threaten of its sustainability. The aims of this research is to evaluate sea cucumber juveniles growth performance, to obtain the information on genetic variation, and to estimate the rate of inbreeding from three different sea cucumber broodstock sources. Three sources of sea cucumber were collected from Bali, South Sulawesi, and Southeast Moluccas. The total of 20 pcs from each area were analyzed by microsatellite (SSR Simple Squence Repeat) with 3 locus namely Hsc-28; Hsc-49 dan Hsc-59. Hatchery production of sea cucumber seed followed the existing manual with some modifications. Result of the experiment showed that the length and weight of 6 months old juveniles produced by Southeast Moluccas’s broodstock were relatively higher (5.67 ± 0.76 cm; 13.26 ± 5.63 g) compared to the juveniles produced by South Sulawesi’s broodstock (4.75 ± 0.91 cm; 6.30 ± 2.22 g) and Bali’s broodstock ( 4.85 ± 0.64 cm; 6.2 ± 3.6 g). Results of microsatellite analysis showed that genetic variation of the three broodstock populations was not significant different. It is based on the genetic differentiation value (FST= 0.2475 or 24.75%. The result of inbreeding rate within the broodstock of sea cucumber population was high (FIT= 0.4237 or 42.37%) compare to the rate value of inter population (FIS= 0.2342 or 23.42%.
PENGGUNAAN GEN PENYANDI TUMBUH CEPAT DALAM PRODUKSI BENIH UDANG WINDU Penaeus monodon Haryanti, Haryanti; Mahardika, Ketut; Fachrudin, Fachrudin; Wardana, Ida Komang; Permana, I Gusti Ngurah; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 7, No 3 (2012): (Desember 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Dalam upaya mengembalikan kesuksesan produksi udang windu P. monodon maka langkah perbaikan dan antisipasi mengatasi kegagalan terus dilakukan. Di antara kegagalan yang terjadi adalah penurunan sifat genetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengaplikasikan gen penyandi tumbuh cepat pada benih udang windu yang diproduksi melalui pembenihan. Pembenihan menggunakan sistem yang mengaplikasikan biosecurity, probiotik, pakan alami, dan buatan. Ada 35 populasi benih F-1 (PL 12-15) yang dapat diproduksi dengan jumlah yang bervariasi. Gen penyandi tumbuh cepat yang telah diperoleh pada locus PmMS-11A dari mikrosatelit/SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), selanjutnya digunakan sebagai indikator tumbuh cepat pada benih-benih yang diproduksi melalui amplifikasi PCR dan dikonfirmasi dengan metode SSCP (Single Strand Confirmation Polyacrilamide). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa gen penyandi tumbuh cepat dapat ditunjukkan oleh locus PmMS11-A pada benih udang windu. Tingkat keakuratan gen penyandi tumbuh cepat tersebut pada benih udang windu turunan F-1 terekspresi pada allel 144 bp. Hal ini juga ditunjukkan keakurasian prediksi dari karakter fenotipnya setelah budidaya di tambak. Produk benih yang dihasilkan sebanyak 838.021 ekor (tumbuh cepat) dan kontrol 172.526 ekor.
KULTUR MIKROALGA Haematococcus pluvialis UNTUK MENGHASILKAN ASTAXANTIN Muzaki, Ahmad; Fahrudin, Fahrudin; Wardana, Ida Komang; Haryanti, Haryanti
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 3, No 3 (2008): (Desember 2008)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Mikroalga merupakan sumberdaya biologis yang eksklusif dan berperan sangat luas untuk aplikasi penyedia komponen bernilai tinggi di bidang perikanan dalam rangka peningkatan ekonomi. Tujuan riset ini adalah mendapatkan teknik pengkulturan Haematococcus pluvialis dan teknik stimulasi melalui penyinaran sel untuk menghasilkan produk astaxantin. Media tumbuh Bold (PIV metal) dan modifikasi Bold (Clewat-32) diujikan untuk pengkulturan. Pengkulturan juga diterapkan dengan menggunakan 6 jenis air tawar dari sumber berbeda (mata air alam, sumur artesis, air mineral kemasan I, air mineral kemasan II, air sumur, dan air PAM). Efek stres dilakukan melalui penyinaran dengan UV selama 3 jam dan inkubasi lanjutan dengan menggunakan penyinaran intensitas cahaya tinggi untuk mendapatkan sel merah yang mengandung astaxantin. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan sel H. pluvialis pada media Bold (PIV metal) lebih baik (55 x 104 sel/mL) dan air tawar yang berasal dari mata air alam menghasilkan kepadatan sel lebih tinggi (166 x 104 sel/mL) pada hari ke-5 dan 245 x104 sel/mL pada hari ke-13 dibandingkan air dari sumber lainnya. Penyinaran UV dan dilanjutkan dengan penyinaran intensitas cahaya tinggi mempercepat perubahan warna sel dan produksi metabolit sekunder sebagai astaxantin. Microalgae are exclusive biological resources to provide valuable compounds in fisheries. The purpose of the research was to evaluate culture technique of H. pluvialis and stimulation technique through UV irradiation to produce astaxanthin. Growth media of Bold (PIV metal) and Bold (clewat-32) modifications were tested to culture microalgae. Other culture technique applied by using 6 fresh water from various sources (natural fresh water, deep well water, mineral water I, mineral water II, well water, and municipal water supply sample). Stress effects were tested by using UV irradiation for 3 hours and incubation with high light intensity to find red cells containing astaxanthin. Result showed that growth cell of H. pluvialis in BOLD media (PIV metal) was higher (550 x 104 sel/mL) than that of in BOLD modification media. Cell density of H. pluvialis cultured with fresh water from natural source was higher (166 x 104 sel/mL) on day 5th and 245 x104 sel/mL on day 13th compared to other water sources. Effect of UV irradiation and high light intensity stimulated cells color change and produced secondary metabolite of astaxanthin.