Heni Wahyuni
Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta

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INFANT HEALTH PRODUCTION FUNCTION: ROLE OF PRENATAL CARE Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 30, No 1 (2015): January
Publisher : Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (459.205 KB)

Abstract

This article reviews the economic concept of the health production function regarding the determinants of infant health and the results of previous empirical studies on the role of prenatal care in infant health production. The review will include a brief explanation about the health production function, followed by how the concept applies to infant health, explaining the derivation of the infant health production function, and finally the previous empirical studies on the role of prenatal care in infant health production. Grossman’s model on the demand for health and the framework of the infant health production function of Rosenzweig and Schultz explain that the following important factors will influence infant health and the demand for maternal medical care: age, wage/income, education, and knowledge. Furthermore, given that an infant inherits its health capital stock from its mother, there may be biological factors (e.g., a specific health endowment) that may be keys to determining infant health. In terms of the role of prenatal care, the review summaries that there is strong evidence that prenatal care does affect infant health. However, it is difficult to isolate the causal effect between the two without con-trolling for endogeneity, such as via a natural experiment. It is possible that there are unob-served heterogeneous factors of mothers that can affect prenatal care and infant health. Many studies have attempted to estimate the infant health production function, taking into account these selection biases. The merits and critiques of existing methods have also been discussed in the previously mentioned studies, which have mostly been conducted in relation to developed countries and have very rarely been conducted for the developing countries’ context. The find-ings of this review state that studies into this topic should consider many important aspects, such as selectivity bias, the determinants of infant health as stated in theory and previous empirical studies, and the need to use an appropriate measurement of adequate prenatal care, especially for the case of developing countries.Keywords: health production function, infant health production function, Grossman model, prenatal care
INEQUALITY OF DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY INCIDENCE IN THE ADJUSTMENT PERIOD AND ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT IN INDONESIA Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 19, No 3 (2004): July
Publisher : Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

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Abstract

Artikel ini menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketimpangan distribusipendapatan di Indonesia selama awal pembangunan (adjustment period) dan sebagaidampak krisis ekonomi menggunakan unbalanced panel method untuk 26 propinsi diIndonesia (tidak termasuk Timor Timur, Bangka Belitung, Banten, dan Gorontalo) untukperiode 1980-2002.Selama periode awal pembangunan (adjustment period), meskipun kemiskinan diIndonesia mengalami penurunan yang signifikan, namun ketimpangan distribusi cenderung konstan. Lebih jauh, isu ini menghangat sejak Indonesia mengalami keterpurukan akibat krisis ekonomi tahun 1997-1998.Studi empiris ini memberikan hasil bahwa semua variabel sosial ekonomi, yaituexpenditure per capita, school enrolment, poor people, average household size, populationdensity, dan revenue per capita, dan variabel yang menunjukkan krisis ekonomi signifikanmempengaruhi ketimpangan distribusi di Indonesia. Permasalahannya kemudian bukansaja ketimpangan distribusi, namun juga munculnya isu disintegrasi yang semakin marak.Oleh karena itu dalam artikel ini direkomendasikan bahwa kebijakan pemerintahseharusnya difokuskan kepada variabel kebijakan yang signifikan mempengaruhiketimpangan distribusi di Indonesia termasuk di dalamnya implementasi desentralisasiyang masih merupakan tantangan besar dalam menjawab isu disintegrasi.Kata kunci: Inequality, poverty, economic crises, adjusment period
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM ASIA AND PACIFIC COUNTRIES Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 19, No 1 (2004): January
Publisher : Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

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Abstract

Artikel ini menganalisis peran pemerintah dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi jangka panjangdi sebagian besar negara Asia Pasifik yang mempunyai kesamaan latar belakang ekonomi,periode 1980-2000. Studi yang menggunakan “unbalanced panel method”ini memberikan hasil bahwa koefisien pangsa pengeluaran pemerintah terhadap GDP adalah negatif signifikan dalam mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi di kawasan ini. Hubungan negatif ini menunjukkan bahwa komponen konsumsi mendominasi pengeluaran anggaranpemerintah. Hasil ini sejalan dengan kenyataan bahwa sebagian besar negara-negara dikawasan ini menemui masalah dalam manajemen pengeluaran pemerintah. Jadipengeluaran yang besar untuk konsumsi bagi kepentingan pemerintah sendiri menutupiefek positif investasi publik.Namun demikian, koefisien penerimaan pajak menunjukkan tanda positif. Hasil yangsignifikan menjelaskan adanya hubungan yang kuat antara penerimaan pajak danpertumbuhan ekonomi di mana meningkatnya penerimaan pajak mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi jangka panjang. Oleh karena itu, kebijakan pemerintah sebaiknya mendukung akumulasi penerimaan pemerintah yang mempunyai peran potensial dalam mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi.Selain itu, studi empiris ini juga menunjukkan bahwa di antara variabel yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi, menurut argumen teori pertumbuhan neoklasik,hanya variabel investasi modal yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi untuk negara di kawasan Asia Pasifik dalam analisis.Akhirnya, dalam artikel ini juga direkomendasikan studi lebih jauh yaitu analisis perankebijakan fiskal dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi yang memisahkan antara kebijakan fiskaluntuk kepentingan yang produktif, seperti investasi publik, dan kepentingan yang tidakproduktif, seperti konsumsi rutin.Keywords: economic growth, government expenditure, tax revenue, fiscal policy
INFANT HEALTH PRODUCTION FUNCTION: ROLE OF PRENATAL CARE Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 30, No 1 (2015): JANUARY
Publisher : Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (459.205 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jieb.7335

Abstract

This article reviews the economic concept of the health production function regarding the determinants of infant health and the results of previous empirical studies on the role of prenatal care in infant health production. The review will include a brief explanation about the health production function, followed by how the concept applies to infant health, explaining the derivation of the infant health production function, and finally the previous empirical studies on the role of prenatal care in infant health production. Grossman’s model on the demand for health and the framework of the infant health production function of Rosenzweig and Schultz explain that the following important factors will influence infant health and the demand for maternal medical care: age, wage/income, education, and knowledge. Furthermore, given that an infant inherits its health capital stock from its mother, there may be biological factors (e.g., a specific health endowment) that may be keys to determining infant health. In terms of the role of prenatal care, the review summaries that there is strong evidence that prenatal care does affect infant health. However, it is difficult to isolate the causal effect between the two without con-trolling for endogeneity, such as via a natural experiment. It is possible that there are unob-served heterogeneous factors of mothers that can affect prenatal care and infant health. Many studies have attempted to estimate the infant health production function, taking into account these selection biases. The merits and critiques of existing methods have also been discussed in the previously mentioned studies, which have mostly been conducted in relation to developed countries and have very rarely been conducted for the developing countries’ context. The find-ings of this review state that studies into this topic should consider many important aspects, such as selectivity bias, the determinants of infant health as stated in theory and previous empirical studies, and the need to use an appropriate measurement of adequate prenatal care, especially for the case of developing countries.Keywords: health production function, infant health production function, Grossman model, prenatal care
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON WELFARE IN INDONESIA Jumirah, Jumirah; Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 33, No 1 (2018): JANUARY
Publisher : Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (208.532 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jieb.29219

Abstract

Studies into the impact of social capital on welfare are currently growing. However, studies for the case of the developing countries, including Indonesia, are still very rare. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the impact of social capital on welfare in Indonesia. In this study, social capital is measured by three indicators, namely, trust, cooperativeness and the social network (a person’s participation in community activities).Welfare is measured by household expenditure for food and non-food items. The data are acquired from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys for the years 2007 (IFLS4) and 2014 (IFLS5). This research uses instrumental variables to address the endogeneity issue on social networking (participation in community activities), which is a potential two-way causal relationship. It means that individuals with higher welfare (income) have a higher possibility of participating in community activities, since their participation in community activities is a leisure activity and the utilization of leisure is higher for higher-income people.Using the Instrumental Variables (IV) method and marital status as an instrument, the study found that social capital has a significant impact on welfare. An increased participation in community activities will improve ones welfare by 11.7 percent. Moreover, an increase of cooperativeness by one percent, would increase the welfare by 0.2 percent. On the other hand, trust has a negative relationship with welfare. It means that an increase in trust among individuals by one percent will cause household expenditure on food and non-food items to drop by 0.3 percent.It may imply that higher trust will cause lower transaction costs, which will reduce the expense of individuals buying food and non-food items. Since the coefficient of IV is larger than the coefficient in the OLS estimation, it indicates the absence of reversed causality. The results of this study have an implication for policy decision making which suggests that the policy decision makers should consider the impact of social capital on welfare and support the increase of individuals’ participating in community activities.
PEMANFAATAN PELAYANAN KESEHATAN BERDASARKAN STATUS WILAYAH DAN KEPEMILIKAN JAMINAN KESEHATAN NASIONAL (KAJIAN SUSENAS TAHUN 2015) Ruhukail, Prisilya Prety; Hendrartini, Yulita; Wahyuni, Heni
2-TRIK: TUNAS-TUNAS RISET KESEHATAN Vol 9, No 1 (2019): FEBRUARI 2019
Publisher : WAHANA RISET KESEHATAN

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Abstract

Background: Changes in funding towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) also have side risks such as inequitable availability of health facilities and health workers, as well as a lack of socialization on JKN policies. Indonesia's Health Profile in 2014 shows that there is still an imbalance in the utilization ratio of health services by region. This is due to the relatively small population, but has a large working area. The same thing is found in the aspects of health insurance membership. Injustice in accessing health services is a challenge faced to achieve equity in health services, where equity will occur if health services are distributed according to geography, socio-economy and community needs. Objective: To analyze the utilization of health services based on regional status and JKN ownership. Method: This research is a quantitative study that examines secondary data, namely Susenas in 2015, using a cross-sectional design. The unit of analysis in this study is the individual. This research uses descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The multivariate test uses a logistic regression test to determine the effect of regional status and ownership of health insurance on the utilization of health services. Results: Utilization of health services is mostly done by individuals in non-DTPK areas. A p value (0,000) indicates a relationship between the status of the area and the utilization of health services. Individuals in non-DTPK areas are more likely to utilize health services. Individuals who have private health insurance use more health services than those who JKN. There is a relationship between JKN ownership and health service utilization (p-value = 0,000). Individuals who have private health insurance, and who are more than one, are more likely to utilize health services. The control variables which include age, sex, education and occupation have a significant relationship with the utilization of health services. Conclusion: JKN ownership and territorial status are significantly related to the utilization of health services in Indonesia. Keywords: utilization; health services; JKN; Susenas 2015 ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Perubahan pembiayaan menuju Universal Health Coverage (UHC) juga memiliki resiko sampingan seperti ketidakmerataan ketersediaan fasilitas kesehatan dan tenaga kesehatan, serta kurangnya sosialisasi kebijakan JKN. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2014 menunjukkan masih adanya ketimpangan rasio pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan berdasarkan wilayah. Ini disebabkan oleh jumlah penduduk yang relatif sedikit, namun memiliki wilayah kerja yang luas. Hal yang sama ditemukan dalam aspek kepesertaan jaminan kesehatan. Ketidakadilan dalam akses pelayanan kesehatan merupakan tantangan yang dihadapi untuk mencapai ekuitas dalam pelayanan kesehatan, dimana ekuitas akan terjadi jika pelayanan kesehatan terdistribusi menurut geografi, sosial ekonomi dan kebutuhan masyarakat. Tujuan: Menganalisis pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan berdasarkan status wilayah dan kepemilikan JKN. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif yang mengkaji data sekunder yaitu Susenas tahun 2015, menggunakan rancangan cross-sectional. Unit analisis dalam penelitian ini adalah individu. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif, bivariat dan multivariat. Uji multivariat menggunakan uji regresi logistik untuk mengetahui pengaruh status wilayah dan kepemilikan jaminan kesehatan terhadap pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan. Hasil: Pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan lebih banyak dilakukan oleh individu yang berada di wilayah non-DTPK. Nilai p (0,000) menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara status wilayah dan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan. Adapun individu pada wilayah non-DTPK lebih berpeluang untuk memanfaatkan pelayanan kesehatan. Individu yang memiliki jaminan kesehatan swasta lebih banyak memanfaatkan pelayanan kesehatan dibandingkan dengan yang JKN. Ada hubungan antara kepemilikan JKN dan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan (p-value=0,000). Individu yang memiliki jaminan kesehatan swasta, dan yang lebih dari satu, lebih berpeluang untuk memanfaatkan pelayanan kesehatan. Adapun variabel kontrol yang meliputi umur, jenis kelamin, pendidikan dan pekerjaan memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan. Kesimpulan: Kepemilikan JKN dan status wilayah berhubungan secara signifikan dengan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan di Indonesia. Kata kunci: pemanfaatan; pelayanan kesehatan; JKN; Susenas 2015
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM ASIA AND PACIFIC COUNTRIES Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 19, No 1 (2004): January
Publisher : Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (285.393 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jieb.6590

Abstract

Artikel ini menganalisis peran pemerintah dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi jangka panjang di sebagian besar negara Asia Pasifik yang mempunyai kesamaan latar belakang ekonomi, periode 1980-2000. Studi yang menggunakan ?unbalanced panel method?ini memberikan hasil bahwa koefisien pangsa pengeluaran pemerintah terhadap GDP adalah negatif signifikan dalam mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi di kawasan ini. Hubungan negatif ini menunjukkan bahwa komponen konsumsi mendominasi pengeluaran anggaran pemerintah. Hasil ini sejalan dengan kenyataan bahwa sebagian besar negara-negara di kawasan ini menemui masalah dalam manajemen pengeluaran pemerintah. Jadi pengeluaran yang besar untuk konsumsi bagi kepentingan pemerintah sendiri menutupi efek positif investasi publik. Namun demikian, koefisien penerimaan pajak menunjukkan tanda positif. Hasil yang signifikan menjelaskan adanya hubungan yang kuat antara penerimaan pajak dan pertumbuhan ekonomi di mana meningkatnya penerimaan pajak mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi jangka panjang. Oleh karena itu, kebijakan pemerintah sebaiknya mendukung akumulasi penerimaan pemerintah yang mempunyai peran potensial dalam mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi. Selain itu, studi empiris ini juga menunjukkan bahwa di antara variabel yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi, menurut argumen teori pertumbuhan neoklasik, hanya variabel investasi modal yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi untuk negara di kawasan Asia Pasifik dalam analisis. Akhirnya, dalam artikel ini juga direkomendasikan studi lebih jauh yaitu analisis peran kebijakan fiskal dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi yang memisahkan antara kebijakan fiskal untuk kepentingan yang produktif, seperti investasi publik, dan kepentingan yang tidak produktif, seperti konsumsi rutin. 
INEQUALITY OF DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY INCIDENCE IN THE ADJUSTMENT PERIOD AND ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT IN INDONESIA Wahyuni, Heni
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business Vol 19, No 3 (2004): July
Publisher : Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (346.554 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jieb.6598

Abstract

Artikel ini menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi ketimpangan distribusi pendapatan di Indonesia selama awal pembangunan (adjustment period) dan sebagai dampak krisis ekonomi menggunakan unbalanced panel method untuk 26 propinsi di Indonesia (tidak termasuk Timor Timur, Bangka Belitung, Banten, dan Gorontalo) untuk periode 1980-2002. Selama periode awal pembangunan (adjustment period), meskipun kemiskinan di Indonesia mengalami penurunan yang signifikan, namun ketimpangan distribusi cenderung konstan. Lebih jauh, isu ini menghangat sejak Indonesia mengalami keterpurukan akibat krisis ekonomi tahun 1997-1998. Studi empiris ini memberikan hasil bahwa semua variabel sosial ekonomi, yaitu expenditure per capita, school enrolment, poor people, average household size, population density, dan revenue per capita, dan variabel yang menunjukkan krisis ekonomi signifikan mempengaruhi ketimpangan distribusi di Indonesia. Permasalahannya kemudian bukan saja ketimpangan distribusi, namun juga munculnya isu disintegrasi yang semakin marak. Oleh karena itu dalam artikel ini direkomendasikan bahwa kebijakan pemerintah seharusnya difokuskan kepada variabel kebijakan yang signifikan mempengaruhi ketimpangan distribusi di Indonesia termasuk di dalamnya implementasi desentralisasi yang masih merupakan tantangan besar dalam menjawab isu disintegrasi.