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Journal : Tropical Medicine Journal

TRANSOVARIAL TRANSMISSION INDEX OF DENGUE VIRUS ON AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS MOSQUITOES IN MALALAYANG DISTRICT IN MANADO, NORTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA Sorisi, Angle Maria Hesti; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1415.333 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.4571

Abstract

Introduction: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an infectious vector-borne disease caused by Aedes sp mosquitoes still cause serious health problem in Indonesia. Based on Manado Health Office Report, Malalayang was identified as dengue-endemic areas. In 2010, number of DHF cases in Malalayang is 211 cases with Incidence Rate (IR) 328 per 100,000 populations. Dengue viruses (DENV) survive in nature by two mechanisms; by horizontal transmission through infected vertebrates and mosquitoes, and by vertical (transovarial) transmission in the mosquitoes. Transovarial transmission is assumed as an important aspect in the maintanance of DENV during inter epidemic, but this problem has not been studied in Malalayang District, Manado. An effort to prevent and control DHF requires knowledge of an Aedes sp Dengue virus transovarial infection.Objectives: To prove the existence of Dengue virus transmission in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes and its relationship with the incidence of DHF in Malalayang District in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.Methods: The method of this research was an observational analytic study with cross-sectional design. Study samples were unbloodfed Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes on the F1 generation from ovitrap placed in five selected villages based on the number of cases in the District Malalayang. The secondary data of DHF patients from Malalayang district was obtained from Health Office Manado and the Community Health Center in 2010. The presence of dengue antigen in head squashes preparation were detected using monoclonal antibody against dengue (DSSE10) based on immunohistochemical streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex (ISBPC) technique to confirm the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus both in Ae. Aegypti and Ae. Albopictus, and to obtain the data of transovarial transmission index. Fisher?s Exact test and Pearson correlation are used to analyze those data.Results: Transovarial transmission of Dengue virus in Aedes sp was found from 5 villages in Malalayang district with Transovarial Transmission Index (TTI) ranges 6.1%-17.1%. Statistic test showed significant differences in positive rate (p-value=0.00<0.05) on Ae. aegypti higher than Ae. albopictus. It is also known that there is no statistically significant correlation (p-value=0.528>0.05) between the Aedes sp. Dengue virus TTI and DHF IR in Malalayang district.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the existence of Dengue virus transovarial transmission in Aedes sp in Malalayang district. Ae. aegypti?s TTI is higher than that of Ae. Albopictus, and no significant correlation between TTI and DHF IR in Malalayang district.Keywords: DHF, transovarial transmission, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus
LABORATORY TESTING OF TRANSOVARIAL TRANSMISSION IN AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITO Hutadjulu, Guntur Benedict; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah; Thobari, Jarir At
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2012): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3188.67 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.4291

Abstract

Introduction: Ae. aegypti is one of the vectors causing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) that feeds on human blood suffering from DHF and transmit it to another healthy human. The ability of Dengue Virus (DENV) to survive in nature is due to 2 mechanisms i.e. horizontal transmission among viremic vertebratae infected by Aedes mosquitos and vertical (transovarial) transmission from infected female mosquito to another generation.Objectives: To know the differences between next generation?s viral carriage, percentage ofmosquito descendants carrying DENV, and the distribution of DENV in its infected mosquitos.Methods: Study design was a quasi experimental posttest-only design with control group. The study was conducted on 53 second-generation female Ae. aegypti mosquitos which are grouped into treatment and control groups. Dengue Viral antigen in both groups were detected by immunohistochemistry method using Streptavidin Biotin Peroxidase Complex (SBPC) in paraffin embedding preparation of mosquitos aged 1-7 days. Fisher exact test was used to compare proportion of virus detected in moaquitos between 2 groups.Results: The virus detected in second generation of DEN-infected and uninfected mosquitos were 100% and 85.7%, respectively. The virus was distributed from day 1 to 7 in all organs such as brains, thorax, salivary gland, gastric epithelial cells, and ovarium of the infected mosquitos. Similar distribution was not detected in control mosquitoes.Conclusion: There was no difference in next mosquito generation?s transovarial infection among DENV-infected and uninfected Ae. aegypti mosquitos.Keywords: Ae. aegypti mosquito; Dengue virus (DENV); transovarial transmission; immunohistochemistry method, Streptavidin Biotin Peroxidase Complex (SBPC).
THE DIFFERENCES OF THE PREVALENCES AND SEROTYPES OF DENGUE VIRUS ON AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITOES FROM PAGUTAN AND PAGUTAN TIMUR IN THE SUB DISTRICT OF MATARAM Inayati, Nurul; -, Supargiyono; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2012): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5671.85 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.4290

Abstract

Introduction: Sub district of Mataram is one of endemic area of Dengue Haemoraghagic Fever in the West of Nusa Tenggara province, the number of dengue cases are reported increasing every years. Pagutan is a village that has been reported as higth case incidance area and Pagutan Timur as low case insidance area.Objectives: The aims of this study is to determine the density of the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and to know the prevalence and dominant serotypes of dengue virus in the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from the village of Pagutan and Pagutan Timur Mataram sub district.Methods: The Collection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were conducted by ovitrap provided indoor and outdoor of randomly selected houses. The mosquitoes density was determined by calculating the average number of mosquitoes emerged from eggs collected each houses. The prevalence of dengue virus were calculated by the percentage of mosquitoes that containing of dengue virus as examined by immunocytochemistry method, using the monoclonal antibody anti-dengue DSSE10, while dengue virus serotypes determined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction using Lanciotti specific primers.Results: The density of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Pagutan is significantly higher than Pagutan Timur Village (p<0.05). The confirmed statistical analysis with Paired t test were obtained. The prevalence of dengue virus in Pagutan and Pagutan Timur are 18.4% and respectively 14.3%. The serotypes of dengue virus in Pagutan areas is dengue 1, dengue 2 and dengue 3, whereas in Pagutan Timur areas is dengue 1.Conclusion: There is diffences of mosquitoes density, prevalence and the serotypes of dengue virus found in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Pagutan and Pagutan Timur in the sub district of Mataram.Keywords: Mosquito density, Aedes aegypti, dengue virus, prevalence and serotype
THE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN AGAINST DENGUE-2 VIRUS BASED ON IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY TECHNIQUE Marbawati, Dewi; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2013): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2351.105 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.5860

Abstract

ABSTRACT           Introduction: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne flavivirus disease. The number of Dengue cases in Indonesia in 2010 range from 150,000 cases with the deaths of around 1,317 people. Huge number of cases have made Indonesia was the first ranked as the state with the highest Dengue cases in the ASEAN region and the world's second ranking after Brazil. The drugs  or antibiotics that can be administered effectively to cure this disease has not been found yet. Many study have been done and some that have been reported include viral RNA synthesis inhibitors, protein inhibitors of NS3 helicase and protease and inhibitors that inhibit Dengue virus maturation. Curcumin have preventive activity against several viruses: vasicular stomatis ( VSV ), HSV 1 and 2, parainfluenza - 3, reovirus - 1, feline corona virus, feline herpes virus . Curcumin also known have ubiquitin proteasome inhibition system was able to decrease the production of Japanese ensefalitis virus.Objectives: This study aims to determine safe concentrations of curcumin against vero cells (cytotoxic test results) and know the Dengue-2 antiviral potency of curcumin.Methods: Including quasi-experimental study. The anti viral potency of curcumin seen from the result of immunocytochemistry Streptavidin Biotin Peroxidase Complex (SBPC).  Data were analyzed by ANOVA.Results: The results showed that secure concentrations from cytotoxic of curcumin against vero cells is 6.25 ppm. The calculation of positive rate from immunocytochemistry in vero cells infected by Dengue - 2 incubation 1 and 3 days were the result is significantly different than the control.Conclusion: The secure concentration of curcumin against vero cells was 6.25 ppm and curcumin was able to lower the positive rate due to Dengue-2 infection.Key Words : Dengue virus, Curcumin, Immunocytochemistry.
COMPARISON OF IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD AND IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY METHOD IN RAPID DETECTION OF NS-1 ANTIGEN IN DENGUE INFECTION Jack, How Tien; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah; Murhandarwati, Elsa Herdiana
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 3, No 1 (2013): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1430.552 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.5840

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ABSTRACT Introduction: Rapid test kit based on immunochromatography test (ICT) in detecting dengue NS-1 antigen for early dengue infection is available in the market. Its availability allows earlier management for dengue infected patient but it remains costly to most people. Recently, Dengue Team of Universitas Gadjah Mada has developed monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of dengue NS-1 antigen in leucocytes of infected patients based on Streptavid in Biotin Peroxidase Complex (SBPC) immunocytochemistry method.Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the validity of the immunochromatography (SD Dengue NS1 Ag) method by determining kappa agreement index between two observers, and to compare the diagnostic performances of ICT and immunocytochemistry methods in detecting dengue NS1 antigen in the blood samples.Methods: A cross sectional study design is used. This study uses 35 blood plasma remains from a previous study conducted on RT-PCR method. Three drops of blood plasma were added into the well of SD Dengue Duo NS1 and results were read after 15-20 minutes. The diagnostic performances of ICT which defined by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated and compared to secondary data of immunocytochemistry result from the same blood samples, with reference of RT-PCR as a gold standard. A McNemar?s test was conducted and p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant different.Result: Detection of dengue infection by using SD Dengue NS1 Ag has strong agreements between two observers with kappa value of 1, and the sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 92% and negative predictive value of 45% with reference of RT-PCR as a gold standard. Meanwhile sensitivity and specificity value of the immunocytochemistry test were 88% and 100% respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 100.0% and 70.0% respectively with reference of RT-PCR as a gold standard. The immunocytochemistry assay showed overall accuracy of 91,0%.Conclusion: Immunochromatography (SD Dengue NS1 Ag) method to detect NS-1 antigen has less sensitivity and specificity compared to SBPC immunocytochemistry method.Keyword: Immunocytochemistry, Immunochromatography, Streptavidin Biotin Peroxidase Complex (SBPC), NS-1 Ag, dengue
THE EFFECT OF ANTICOAGULANT IN BLOOD MEAL SOURCE ON THE AEDES AEGYPTI REPRODUCTIVE ABILITY IN LABORATORY Lusiyana, Novyan; Mulyaningsih, Budi; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2013): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (284.018 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.5872

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ABSTRACTIntroduction: Aedes aegypti is one of the major vectors of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) that can be reared in laboratory. Artificial membrane feeding (AMF) assay is used as a simulated host to blood feeding mosquitoes in laboratory.Objectives: The purpose of this study are to investigate the effect of heater and the most widely used anticoagulant of K3EDTA, heparin and sodium citrate on blood feeding sucsses, feeding rate, fecundity, hatchability, preadult development and survival rate of Aedes Aegypti colonies maintained by AMF system compared to direct human feeding.Methods: The system consisted of AMF with parafilm membrane which are warmed and not warmed by a waterbath. Human blood samples were used to feed Aedes aegypti using AMF. The number of eggs were counted seven days after feeding after mosquitoes laid the eggs. Every eggs were hatched in a 500 mL of rearing glass to evaluate the hatchability and preadult development. Survival rate is evaluated after blood feeding until 30 days. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and paired t-tests and a p value <0.05 considered as significantly difference.Results: Blood feeding success of Aedes aegypti was not significantly differ when offered blood meal using anticoagulant heparin with heater (82.22%) compare to that of control groups (81.67%) (p=0.917). There was a significant difference in feeding rate (p=0.000), fecundity (p=0.000), hatchability (p=0.000) between groups. All results were higher in heparin than K3EDTA and sodium citrate, but in pre adult development and survival rate K3EDTA showed better result than that of control, heparin and sodium citrate groups. So this anticoagulant was acceptable for maintenance of laboratory colonies of Aedes aegypti.Conclusion: We conclude that heater can increase the blood feeding sucsses. The K3EDTA, heparin and sodium citrate can affect the feeding rate, fecundity, hatchability, and preadult development, but do not affect survival rate. Heparin can be used for routine colonization of laboratory strain of Aedes aegypti with  AMF assay.Keywords: Anticoagulants, artificial membrane feeding, reproductive ability, survival rate
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PREVALENCE OF HEAD LICE INFESTATION WITH HYGIENE AND KNOWLEDGE AMONG THE RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN YOGYAKARTA Munusamy, Hemelamariae; Murhandarwati, Elisabeth Elsa Herdiana; Umniyati, Sitti Rahmah
Tropical Medicine Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2011): Tropical Medicine Journal
Publisher : Pusat Kedokteran Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.325 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/tmj.4573

Abstract

Introduction: Pediculosis capitis causes considerable social distress. Rural children are in great risk because they live in conditions where poor knowledge and hygiene are related to this matter. However, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among school age children in rural area in Yogyakarta have not known yet.Objectives: The objective of this study is to find the prevalence of head lice infestation among the rural school children and associating it with hygiene and knowledge.Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in February 2011 in 2 primary public schools in the rural areas of Yogyakarta with 158 subjects age ranging from 8 to 16 years old. Questionnaires inclusive of hygiene and knowledge aspect were given prior to the gross visual head lice examination by trained personnel.Results: The prevalence of head lice infestation among the rural school children is 19.6%. There is no significant relationship between this with knowledge and hygiene.Conclusion: The prevalence of head lice infestation in rural school areas in Yogyakarta is 19.6%. There is no significant relationship between the prevalence of head lice infestation with hygiene and knowledge among the rural school children in Yogyakarta.Keywords: Pediculosis capitis, head lice infestation, hygiene, knowledge