Efi Toding Tondok
Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Potensi Cendawan Endofit sebagai Agens Pengendali Hayati Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Penyebab Busuk Buah Kakao Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Widodo, ,; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Black pod disease (BPD) of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora(Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cacao plantation worldwide. Endophytic fungi (EF), fungi that live asymptomatically inside healthy plants, were examined to study their potentials as biocontrol agent of the disease. Six of EF selected from 37 species (from 2843 isolates), isolated from healthy pods of cacao from Marena in Central Sulawesi were tested for their abilities to control BPD. Pods on living trees in the field were sprayed with each EF propagules. The inoculated pods were harvested two weeks later and subsequently inoculated with P. palmivora. Scoring of disease development was performed and quantified as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Latent period, infection rate and effectiveness were also recorded. In vitro growth inhibition of pathogen and induced plant defense mechanisms due to EF were also investigated. Xylariaceaeand Calocybe gambosatreatment generated the highest effectiveness control level, i.e. 38.8% and 33.8% respectively, followed by Resinicium friabileand Aschersoniatreatment, i.e. 17.4% dan 12.7% respectively.  Pestalotiopsisand Fusariumwere not effective to control BPD. There was a strong connection between disease severity of BPD with the latent period of pathogen. Growth inhibition of pathogen and induced resistance of plant were partially responsible for disease suppression by Xylariaceae, C. gambosa, R. friabileand Aschersonia. Keywords: Calocybe gambosa, induced resistance, peroxidases, salicylic acid, Xylariaceae
Kajian pemanfaatan limbah organik cair untuk pembiakan masal agens antagonis pseudomonas flourescens serta uji potensinya sebagai bio-pestisida Giyanto, Giyanto; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 14, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Pseudomonas fluorescens has been well known as biological control agent for plant diseases control. The ;:>roblem to apply the agents widely in the field or in the level of farmer is limited technology of mass production Nith low cost, due to the simple technology of propagation has not been yet available. The objective of this research is to study the potency of liquid organic wastes as media for mass production of P. f/uorescens and toformulate them as bio-pesticide. The results showed that modification of coconut water to pH of 7.0 could be used as media for growing P. flourescens. The P. fluorescens also could grow well in livestock liquid waste by adding 10% meat extract. On the other hand, the liquid tofu waste and liquid compost waste became good media for growing of P. fluorescens by addition of 10°/o meat extract and 1.2S0/o sugar. Tetes tebu will be very good media for P. f/uorescens at S% final concentration and by adding of 10°/o meat extract and 2.S0/o of sugar. The P. fluorescens showed high antagonistic effect to Ralstonia solanacearum and Sclerotium rolfsii in all of modified liquid organic wastes media. Survival and antagonisctic activity of P. fluorescens in modified organic liquid wastes stored at S°C or room temperature were 12 weeks. In vivo antagonistic and plant growth promoting activity showed that P. fluorescens grown in liquid organic waste suppressed the incidence of stem rot diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and increased the vigor of plant growth on watermelon. Formulation of the P. Fluorescens grown in modified coconut water gave the best performance of P. fluorescens in supppressing of plant diseases and inducing plant growth. The product of BeMOR(e) (beneficial microorganism) from the result of this research will be proposed to be patented.
Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Semangka di Karawang, Jawa Barat Budiastuti, Kartini; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 8, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Wilt disease of watermelon is an important disease in Indonesia, but determination of the causal agent has not been reported yet. Postulat Koch based approach was conducted to determine the pathogen causing wilt of watermelon from Karawang, West Java. Fungi associated with wilt symptoms were isolated from stem and root, then the fungal colonies were identified based on their morphological characters. Pathogenicity tests were performed using soil media and wet paper. Host range study involved other Cucurbitaceae plants, i.e. cucumber, melon and paria. Three species of Fusarium were successfully isolated from plants showing wilt symptom, i.e. F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. semitectum. The fungus F. oxysporum consistently caused the most severe wilt symptom on watermelon, but developed no symptom on other tested cucurbits. The two fungi, F. solani and F. semitectum, caused necrotic on roots and stem of watermelon followed by wilting of the plant. The symptom was different than those of the initial symptoms from the field. Therefore it concluded that wilt symptom of watermelon is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. Key words: Cucurbitaceae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum, species identification, wilt
Kajian pemanfaatan limbah organik cair untuk pembiakan masal agens antagonis pseudomonas flourescens serta uji potensinya sebagai bio-pestisida Giyanto, .; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 14, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1989.032 KB)

Abstract

Pseudomonas fluorescens has been well known as biological control agent for plant diseases control. The ;:>roblem to apply the agents widely in the field or in the level of farmer is limited technology of mass production Nith low cost, due to the simple technology of propagation has not been yet available. The objective of this research is to study the potency of liquid organic wastes as media for mass production of P. f/uorescens and to?formulate them as bio-pesticide. The results showed that modification of coconut water to pH of 7.0 could be used as media for growing P. flourescens. The P. fluorescens also could grow well in livestock liquid waste by adding 10% meat extract. On the other hand, the liquid tofu waste and liquid compost waste became good media for growing of P. fluorescens by addition of 10?/o meat extract and 1.2S0/o sugar. Tetes tebu will be very good media for P. f/uorescens at S% final concentration and by adding of 10?/o meat extract and 2.S0/o of sugar. The P. fluorescens showed high antagonistic effect to Ralstonia solanacearum and Sclerotium rolfsii in all of modified liquid organic wastes media. Survival and antagonisctic activity of P. fluorescens in modified organic liquid wastes stored at S?C or room temperature were 12 weeks. In vivo antagonistic and plant growth promoting activity showed that P. fluorescens grown in liquid organic waste suppressed the incidence of stem rot diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and increased the vigor of plant growth on watermelon. Formulation of the P. Fluorescens grown in modified coconut water gave the best performance of P. fluorescens in supppressing of plant diseases and inducing plant growth. The product of BeMOR(e) (beneficial microorganism) from the result of this research will be proposed to be patented.
Trichoderma dan Gliocladium untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Busuk Akar Fusarium pada Bibit Kelapa Sawit Juariyah, Siti; Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 14, No 6 (2018): IN PRESS
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

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Abstract

Trichoderma and Gliocladium for Controling Fusarium Root Rot Disease of Oil Palm SeedlingsFusarium spp. have been reported as the causal agent of common spear rot and crown rot diseases on oil palm.  An effective strategy to control these diseases is not available yet. This research was aimed to find biocontrol agents for effective control of crown rot disease on oil palm seedlings caused by Fusarium spp. The experiment consisted of 3 parts i.e. pathogenicity test of 3 isolates of Fusarium, identification and in vitro test of biocontrol agents, and in planta test of biocontrol agents against Fusarium spp. In vitro test was done through dual culture test and test for volatile compound produced by the biocontrol agents. In planta test was conducted through inoculation of Fusarium spp. into oil palm seedlings growing on medium containing  selected biocontrol agents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, T. inhamatum, and Gliocladium fimbriatum. In vitro test showed that Gliocladium fimbriatum 1 and 2 were inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on the dual culture test, whereas T. harzianum Gadingrejo 2 was inhibited effectively the growth of Fusarium spp. on volatile compound test. The application of biocontrol agents was effective to protect oil palm seedlings from Fusarium spp. infection.
Cendawan Endofit Nonpatogen Asal Tanaman Cabai dan Potensinya sebagai Agens Pemacu Pertumbuhan Ramdan, Evan P.; Widodo, Widodo; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9, No 5 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been reported to have mutual symbiosis with their host. This research aimed to obtain nonpathogenic isolates of endophytic fungi from roots, stems, and branches of chili pepper. Endophytic fungi were isolated on 10% malt extract agar (MEA) after serial surface sterilization of plant parts. The effect of endophytic fungi on the development of chili pepper seeds were tested by growing seeds on media containing endophytic fungi isolate. As many as 138 isolates of endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from chili pepper plants from Garut and Bogor. Based on colony morphology the isolates can be differentiated into 9 morphotypes. Among the total isolates, 13.04% are nonpathogenic. Some of them (7,25%) do not effect seedling significantly compared to control and some isolates (5.79%) caused better seedling growth than control. Endophytic fungi having the potential to promote plant growth was identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., sterile hyphae 1, 2, and 3.
Black pod disease (BPD) of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora(Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cacao plantation worldwide. Endophytic fungi (EF), fungi that live asymptomatically inside healthy plants, were examined to study their potentials as biocontrol agent of the disease. Six of EF selected from 37 species (from 2843 isolates), isolated from healthy pods of cacao from Marena in Central Sulawesi were tested for their abilities to control BPD. Pods on living trees in the field were Tondok, Efi Toding; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Widodo, ,; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.11 KB)

Abstract

Black pod disease (BPD) of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora(Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cacao plantation worldwide. Endophytic fungi (EF), fungi that live asymptomatically inside healthy plants, were examined to study their potentials as biocontrol agent of the disease. Six of EF selected from 37 species (from 2843 isolates), isolated from healthy pods of cacao from Marena in Central Sulawesi were tested for their abilities to control BPD. Pods on living trees in the field were sprayed with each EF propagules. The inoculated pods were harvested two weeks later and subsequently inoculated with P. palmivora. Scoring of disease development was performed and quantified as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Latent period, infection rate and effectiveness were also recorded. In vitro growth inhibition of pathogen and induced plant defense mechanisms due to EF were also investigated. Xylariaceaeand Calocybe gambosatreatment generated the highest effectiveness control level, i.e. 38.8% and 33.8% respectively, followed by Resinicium friabileand Aschersoniatreatment, i.e. 17.4% dan 12.7% respectively.? Pestalotiopsisand Fusariumwere not effective to control BPD. There was a strong connection between disease severity of BPD with the latent period of pathogen. Growth inhibition of pathogen and induced resistance of plant were partially responsible for disease suppression by Xylariaceae, C. gambosa, R. friabileand Aschersonia. Keywords: Calocybe gambosa, induced resistance, peroxidases, salicylic acid, Xylariaceae
Metode Deteksi Cendawan Penyebab Infeksi Laten pada Buah Jeruk Impor Nurholis, Nurholis; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Tondok, Efi Toding
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 25, No 4 (2015): Desember 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

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Abstract

Infeksi laten adalah hubungan parasitik patogen yang bersifat dorman dalam tanaman inang, yang dapat berubah menjadi patogen yang aktif. Patogen infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor berpotensi tinggi sebagai sumber inokulum yang dapat menyebabkan epidemik penyakit tumbuhan di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menetapkan metode yang akurat, cepat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk impor. Penelitian dilaksanakan berdasarkan studi kasus buah jeruk impor asal Argentina melalui pintu pemasukan Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak, Surabaya. Perlakuan deteksi cendawan telah dilakukan pada bagian kalik, kulit, biji, dan karpel dari buah jeruk menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Deteksi secara konvensional terdiri atas direct agar plating technique (DAPT), kombinasi senescence stimulating technique (SST) dan DAPT, serta overnight freezing incubation technique (ONFIT). Deteksi secara molekuler menggunakan pasangan primer universal ITS1F dan ITS4. Tiap perlakuan menggunakan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk berhasil  dideteksi menggunakan metode konvensional dan molekuler. Metode DAPT berhasil mendeteksi Alternaria citri, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, dan Fusarium incarnatum pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Cendawan yang sama juga ditemukan melalui metode kombinasi SST dan DAPT pada hari kedua setelah inkubasi. Menggunakan metode ONFIT berhasil menemukan A. citri, C. gloeosporioides, F. incarnatum, C. boninense, dan Guignardia mangiferae pada hari ketiga setelah inkubasi. Temuan kelima spesies cendawan tersebut adalah hasil identifikasi secara konvensional melalui karakter morfologi yang diperkuat oleh teknik identifikasi secara molekuler. Keberadaan DNA cendawan penyebab infeksi laten pada buah jeruk juga berhasil dideteksi secara langsung melalui metode molekuler. Hasil sikuen mengidentifikasi cendawan tersebut adalah Alternaria sp. dan Fusarium sp. ONFIT adalah metode yang relatif cepat, akurat, dan dapat diaplikasikan untuk mendeteksi organisme pengganggu tumbuhankarantina (OPTK) pada buah jeruk impor sehingga direkomendasikan sebagai metode alternatif dalam tindakan pemeriksaan karantina pada buah jeruk di tiap-tiap pintu pemasukan.
Potensi Cendawan Endofit sebagai Pengendali Hayati Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang (Phytophthora capsici) pada Bibit Cabai Ramdan, Evan Purnama; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti; Widodo, Widodo
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 13, No 5 (2017)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

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Abstract

Stem rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici is an important disease on chilli. Eight endophytic fungi that had been isolated and screened based on pathogenecity test were further tested for their potential as the biological control agent of the stem rot disease of chilli. The endophytic fungi suspension was applied twice during the trial. The first application was on 100 seed lot, by soaking them in 100 mL of suspension. The second application was on the 3 weeks-old chili seedlings by drenching them with 10 mL suspension per plant. The concentration of endophytic fungi? in the suspension was 2.8 ? 106 cfu mL-1. The disease intensity and AUDPC value were measured for 4 weeks after the pathogen inoculation. The growth inhibition test of P. capsici? was performed in vitro and the colonization abilities of endophytic fungi were observed at 4 weeks-old chilli seedlings. Eight endophytic fungi? inhibited the growth of the P. capsici, and two of those isolates namely Penicillium strain MAG1 and Penicillium strain PAB2 showed antibiosis mechanism. Endophytic fungi has the ability more to colonize at the root (26?60%) than in the stem (20?40%). Fusarium strain MAGR1 has the highest level of endophytic colonization i.e. 60% compared to others.? Based on in vivo assay, six endophytic fungi isolates, i.e. Fusarium strain MAGR1, Penicillium strain MAG1, Penicillium strain PAB2, sterile hyphae HAJ1, sterile hyphae HAJ2, and? sterile hyphae PBG7, showed the potency to control stem rot disease with inhibition level of 25.5?35.5%
Cendawan Endofit Nonpatogen Asal Tanaman Cabai dan Potensinya sebagai Agens Pemacu Pertumbuhan Ramdan, Evan P.; Widodo, Widodo; Tondok, Efi Toding; Wiyono, Suryo; Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9, No 5 (2013)
Publisher : The Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (339.983 KB)

Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been reported to have mutual symbiosis with their host. This research aimed to obtain nonpathogenic isolates of endophytic fungi from roots, stems, and branches of chili pepper. Endophytic fungi were isolated on 10% malt extract agar (MEA) after serial surface sterilization of plant parts. The effect of endophytic fungi on the development of chili pepper seeds were tested by growing seeds on media containing endophytic fungi isolate. As many as 138 isolates of endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from chili pepper plants from Garut and Bogor. Based on colony morphology the isolates can be differentiated into 9 morphotypes. Among the total isolates, 13.04% are nonpathogenic. Some of them (7,25%) do not effect seedling significantly compared to control and some isolates (5.79%) caused better seedling growth than control. Endophytic fungi having the potential to promote plant growth was identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., sterile hyphae 1, 2, and 3.