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PENGARUH LENGAS TANAH TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TIGA VARIETAS LOKAL BAWANG MERAH PADA KETINGGIAN TEMPAT BERBEDA Anshar, Muhammad; Tohari, Tohari; Sunaminto, Bambang Hendro; Sulistyaningsih, Endang
AGROLAND Vol 18, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : AGROLAND

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Abstract

Pot experimental research under green house condition was carried out in Yogyakarta during March-Mei 2009. The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of soil moisture on growth and yield of local-varieties shallots (Palasa, Palu and Sumenep) at different elevations. The experiment was arranged in a Split Split Plot Design with three replications. The main plot was local varieties of shallot: (1) Palasa; (2) Palu; and (3) Sumenep. The sub-plot were soil moisture (field capacity percentage - % FC), included: (1) 50% FC; (2) 100% FC; and (3) 150% FC. Each variety has a different response to different soil moisture and altitude places.  Sumenep variety had the lowest net assimilation rate (NAR) and Palasa variety produced smallest fresh-bulb at all soil moisture and elevation. Soil moisture at 100% FC increased crop growth rate (CGR) and bulb’s fresh-weight per crop bunch of Palu variety particularly on elevation 100 m above sea level, whereas 50% FC reduced shallot growth and yield on all elevation.
Pengkayaan Besi (Fe) dan Seng (Zn) dalam Beras dan Karakter Penentu Varietas Padi Sawah Efisien pada Tanah Vertisol dan Inseptisol YUSTISIA, YUSTISIA; TOHARI, TOHARI; SHIDDIEQ, DJA’FAR; G, SUBOWO
Agrotrop: Journal on Agriculture Science Vol 2, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Udayana

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Increasing concentration of Fe and Zn micronutrients in rice grain is needed to reduce a wide gap between micronutrients concentration in rice grain and daily recommended consumption, and to antisipate of rice consumption decreased consequence. The Fe and Zn micronutrients in rice grain is influenced by genetic, soil type and management fertilizer factors. The major of rice field and intensively lowland rice production in Indonesia is conducted in Inceptisols and the others is conducted in Vertisols. This research conducted to identify rice genotypes based on their Fe and Zn concentrations in whole brown rice and to identify specific characters of efficient genotypes based on their potentially increasing concentrations of Fe and Zn in whole brown rice. The experiment was conducted in the Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Gadjah Mada University during Dry Season 2008. The experiment was arranged using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Two different soils (Vertisols and Inceptisols) as a first factor, and genotypes (Cimelati, Pandan Wangi, Ciherang, Cisokan, Widas dan IR 64) as a second factor. Fertilizer application in Inceptisols was applied at the rate of 222, 26 kg ha-1 N, 56,80 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 47,67 kg ha-1 K2O. In Vertisols, fertilizer was applied at the rate of 136,38; 52,29 and 43,88 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The result revealed that the concentrations of Fe and Zn in whole brown rice of Widas and Ciherang genotypes in Inceptisols was higher than that it is in Vertisols. The Fe and Zn concentrations in whole brown rice of Widas were 19,8 ppm and 24,43 ppm and Ciherang were 11,40 ppm and 24,55 ppm respectively. The Widas and Ciherang are the efficient genotypes and Cimelati is the inefficient genotype. The efficient genotypes had darker leaves, narrower leaves, lower yield decrease, higher grain yield efficiency index, compared to the inefficient genotypes. The maximal yield decreased for selecting efficient rice genotypes with NPK fertilizer at the 222, 26 kg ha-1 N, 56,80 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 47,67 kg ha-1 K2O compared to the without NPK fertilizer obtained of arround 41,49%.
Tanggap Fisiologi dan Hasil Bawang Merah (Allium cepa L. Kelompok Aggregatum) terhadap Lengas Tanah dan Ketinggian Tempat Berbeda Anshar, Muhammad; Tohari, Tohari; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro; Sulistyaningsih, Endang
Biota Biota Volume 18 Nomor 1 Tahun 2013
Publisher : PBI Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Percobaan di rumah kaca telah dilaksanakan di provinsi DIY pada bulan Maret-Juni 2009. Percobaan bertujuan mengkaji tanggap fisiologis dan hasil bawang merah terhadap kondisi lengas tanah berbeda pada ketinggian tempat berbeda. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan percobaan lokasi dalam Rancangan Petak Petak Terbagi (Split Split Plot Design) diulang tiga kali. Petak utama adalah lokasi dengan ketinggian tempat berbeda di atas permukaan laut (dpl.) terdiri atas: (1) 100 m dpl., (2) 400 m dpl., dan (3) 800 m dpl.; Sub-plot adalah varietas bawang merah terdiri atas: (1) ‘Palu’, (2) ‘Palasa’, dan (3) ‘Sumenep’. Sub-sub-plot adalah lengas tanah dalam persentase kapasitas lapangan (% KL) terdiri atas: (1) 50% KL, (2) 100% KL, dan (3) 150% KL (kondisi jenuh). Lokasi dengan ketinggian tempat berbeda memberikan tanggap fisiologi dan hasil bawang merah yang berbeda. Varietas Palu memiliki aktivitas fotosintesis lebih besar pada semua kondisi lingkungan berbeda dan lebih tahan terhadap cekaman kekurangan dan kelebihan lengas tanah terutama di dataran rendah. Lengas tanah 100% KL menghasilkan aktivitas fisiologi dan hasil umbi kering panen lebih tinggi, sebaliknya lengas tanah 50% KL dan 150% KL menurunkan pertumbuhan dan hasil bawang merah varietas Palasa, Palu dan Sumenep pada semua ketinggian tempat.Kata kunci: bawang merah, ketinggian tempat, lengas tanah, fisiologi
Peranan Serasah Terhadap Sumbangan N dan P pada Agroekosistem Kopi EVIZAL, RUSDI; TOHARI, TOHARI; PRIJAMBADA, IRFAN D.; WIDADA, JAKA
AGROTROP Vol. 2, No. 2 November 2012
Publisher : AGROTROP

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Litter is the main source of organic matter and nutrient entrance in shade grown coffee agroecosystems.Shade trees provide ecological and economic benefits in coffee agro-ecosystems thatindicate the key factor for sustainable coffee production. This study examined the role of litter onnutrient (N and P) returning in coffee agro-ecosystems. The experimental plots of Coffea canephorawere constucted at benchmark site of Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-GroundBiodiversity (CSM-BGBD), in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, Indonesia, during 2007-2010.Types of shade trees to be examined were legume shade trees of Gliricidae sepium and Erythrinasububrams, non-legume tree of Michelia champaca, and no shade tree. The results showed that: (1)kind of shading determined litter productivity of coffee agro-ecosystems. Litter productivity of coffeeagro-ecosystems with shade trees increased coffee bean yield, (2) litter was an important source of Nand P that returned into the soil. Amount of nitrogen from litter biomass has linier effect on coffee beanyield.
Pengaruh Intensitas Naungan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tiga Kultivar Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) di Lahan Pasir Pantai Bugel, Kulon Progo Handriawan, Adwitya; Respatie, Dyah Weny; Tohari, Tohari
Vegetalika Vol 5, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Vegetalika

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Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh naungan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tiga kultivar kedelai, menentukan kultivar kedelai paling toleran terhadap naungan diantara tiga kultivar yang diuji, dan menentukan waktu naungan kritis terbaik dalam pemilihan kultivar kedelai toleran naungan. Penelitian lapangan dilaksanakan pada 12 Juli – 9 Oktober 2015 di lahan pasir pantai, Desa Bugel, Kecamatan Panjatan, Kabupaten Kulon Progo, Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Penelitian terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu naungan dan kultivar dengan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi (RPT) dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor utama sebagai petak utama adalah naungan yang terdiri dari tiga taraf, yaitu 0%, 25%, dan 50% sedangkan anak petak adalah kultivar kedelai Dena 1, Anjasmoro, dan Grobogan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis varian (ANOVA) pada taraf signifikansi (α) 5% dan dilanjutkan dengan Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan apabila terdapat beda nyata antar perlakuan. Naungan kritis ditentukan menggunakan persamaan regresi antara intensitas naungan dengan berat kering biologis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan tanaman tiga kultivar kedelai tidak berbeda secara signifikan. Naungan 25% (53.700 lux) tidak menurunkan pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai namun naungan 50% (26.663 lux) menurunkan pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai secara signifikan. Naungan 25% dan 50% mengakibatkan penurunan hasil biji taksiran kedelai Dena 1 sebesar 17,41% dan 34,38%, Anjasmoro 22,87% dan 45,74%, serta Grobogan 12,33% dan 23,79%. Berdasarkan tingkat naungan kritisnya maka kultivar Grobogan merupakan kultivar paling toleran terhadap naungan daripada kultivar Dena 1 dan Anjasmoro serta berat kering biologis pada umur 4 mst dapat digunakan untuk menentukan kultivar kedelai toleran naungan.
PENGARUH CEKAMAN KURANG AIR TERHADAP BEBERAPA KARAKTER FISIOLOGIS TANAMAN NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth) SETIAWAN, SETIAWAN; TOHARI, TOHARI; SHIDDIEQ, DJA’FAR
853-8212
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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ABSTRAKNilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) merupakan salah satu tanamanpenghasil minyak atsiri yang dikenal dengan minyak nilam (patchouli oil).Salah satu kendala dalam pengembangan tanaman nilam adalah pekaterhadap kekurangan air. Perubahan iklim cenderung menyebabkan lebihsering terjadi kekeringan di sejumlah wilayah termasuk Indonesia sehinggadalam pengembangan tanaman nilam diperlukan varietas toleran terhadapcekaman kurang air. Terdapat tiga varietas unggul nilam (Tapaktuan,Sidikalang, dan Lhokseumawe) dengan produksi minyak (290-375 kg/ha)dengan kadar patchouli alkohol 32–33%. Penelitian bertujuan untukmengevaluasi respon fisiologis 4 varietas/aksesi tanaman nilam terhadapcekaman kurang air. Penelitian dilaksanakan di rumah kaca di Bogor padatahun 2012. Penelitian menggunakan RAK faktorial dengan tiga ulangan.Faktor  pertama  4  varietas/aksesi  nilam  (V)  yaitu  Sidikalang,Lhokseumawe, Tapaktuan, dan Bio-4. Faktor kedua empat intervalpenyiraman (W) yaitu 1, 3, 6, dan 9 hari sekali. Evaluasi pengaruhcekaman kurang air dilakukan terhadap beberapa karakter fisiologitanaman nilam. Pengamatan dilakukan antara lain terhadap peubah kadarlengas tanah, konduktivitas stomata (Gs), laju transpirasi (Tr), kandunganair nisbi (KAN), potensial air daun (PAD) dan kandungan prolin daun.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi penurunan kadar lengas tanah,konduktivitas stomata, laju transpirasi, dan KAN pada semua varietas,sedangkan PAD dan kadar prolin meningkat seiring dengan semakinlamanya interval penyiraman. Kadar prolin tertinggi pada interval 9 harisekali pada varietas Sidikalang. Tidak terdapat perbedaan responvarietas/aksesi nilam yang diuji.Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin Benth, cekaman kurang air, karakterfisiologis.ABSTRACTPatchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of plant that producespatchouli oil call patchouli oil. However, patchouli is susceptible todrought. The effect of global warming which changes rainfall patterncaused droughts in several regions including Indonesia. Therefore, it isimportant to find patchouli variety which is relatively tolerant to drought.Tapaktuan, Sidikalang, dan Lhokseumawe are three varieties of patchouliwhich produce high essential oil (290-375 kg/ha) with high patchoulialcohol content (32–33%). The objective of this research was to evaluatethe physiological responses of four varieties/clone of patchouli to drought.The experiment was conducted at greenhouse at Cimanggu, Bogor fromFebruary to July 2012. The research was designed in randomized factorialblock design (RBD) with three replications. The first factor was fourvarieties/clone of patchouli (V) Sidikalang, Lhokseumawe, Tapaktuan, andBio-4. The second factor was four watering intervals (W) every 1, 3, 6and 9 days of watering. Parameters evaluated were physiologicalcharacteristics, soil moisture content, stomatal conductance, transpirationrate (Tr), leaf water potential, relative water content, and proline content ofleaf. The results showed that soil moisture content, stomatal conductivity,transpiration rate and relative water content decreased, while leaf waterpotential and proline levels increased along with the increase of wateringintervals. The highest proline level was at interval of nine days wateringtreatment on Sidikalang varieties. However, all varieties/clone have notdifferent responses to water deficit.Key words: Pogostemon  cablin  Benth,water  deficit,  physiologicalcharacteristics
Root Morphologycal Responses of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Hybrids to Copper Toxicity Febriani, Dwi Nur Shinta; Putra, Eka Tarwaca Susila; Tohari, Tohari
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2017): August
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada jointly with PISPI

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Abstract

The experiment aimed to identify the root response of eight  oil palm hybrids to copper toxicity. The factorial treatments were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three blocks as replication. The first factor was the copper toxicity, while eight oil palm hybrids (DxP) consisted of Yangabi (P1), Avros (P2), Langkat (P3), PPKS 239 (P4), Simalungun (P5), PPKS 718 (P6), PPKS 540 (P7), and Dumpy (P8) as second factor. Root growth variables were observed, including total root length, total root area, root volume and diameter, copper content on root, fractal dimension, relative root water content, fresh root weight, and root dry weight. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan?s Multiple Range Test at ?=5%. There was a declinning in total root length, volume and diameter, fresh and dry weight as the copper content rose on the root tissue, but no significant different was found in total root area.
NISBAH HARA MIKRO TERHADAP KALIUM DAUN BEBERAPA VARIETAS PADI (Oryza sativa L.) PADA DUA JENIS TANAH Yustisia, Yustisia; Tohari, Tohari; Shiddieq, Dja’far; G., Subowo
Widyariset Vol 17, No 2 (2014): Widyariset
Publisher : LIPI-Press

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Abstract

Pot experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Agriculture Faculty, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta and aimed to investigate the effect of soil types, varieties and  and their interaction on Fe/K, Mn/K, Cu/K and Zn/K leaf, growth, leaf protein and grain yield of rice. The experiment was set up in a 2 x 6 factorial pat- tern randomized completely block design with three replications. First factor was two soil types viz. Vertisols and Inceptisols, second factor was rice varieties viz. Cimelati, Pandan Wangi, Ciherang, Cisokan, Widas and IR 64. The result revealed that the Fe/K, Cu/K and Zn/K ratios in rice leaf was significantly affected by soil types and rice varieties. The interaction of soil and rice varieties significantly affected the leaf ratios of Fe/K, Cu/K and Zn/K, crop growth rate (CGR) and grain yield, but it was not significantly affect the Mn/K ratio and leaf protein. The leaf ratios of Fe/K, Cu/K and Zn/K, CGR and grain yield in Vertisols were significantly higher than those in Inceptisols, while Mn/K ratio and leaf protein was significantly higher in Inceptisols. The highest of grain yield was achieved by Pandan Wangi whereas the lowest of grain yield was achieved by IR 64. The lowest of grain yield was achieved by IR 64 in Inceptisols. It was affected by an imbalance of Mn/K ratio and highest of leaf protein. It could be due to the effect of Inceptisols native soil properties (lower pH, higher Mn and K) and specific characteristics of IR 64 (more responsive to low pH, higher NH +  uptake). It was also may be caused by indirect effect of urea excess and KCl fertilizers on reducing of rhizosphere pH. The Mn/K ratio was important nutrient imbalance in Inceptisols soil and rice plant. The finding of this study suggests that the research in depth which is focused on Mn/K ratio balance in Inceptisols is needed, i.e using urea and KCl application in proper rate, using another source of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, and using specific of varieties (less responsive to NH + and more responsive to NO -).
Root Morphologycal Responses of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Hybrids to Copper Toxicity Febriani, Dwi Nur Shinta; Putra, Eka Tarwaca Susila; Tohari, Tohari
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2017): August
Publisher : Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada jointly with PISPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1192.993 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ipas.25903

Abstract

The experiment aimed to identify the root response of eight  oil palm hybrids to copper toxicity. The factorial treatments were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three blocks as replication. The first factor was the copper toxicity, while eight oil palm hybrids (DxP) consisted of Yangabi (P1), Avros (P2), Langkat (P3), PPKS 239 (P4), Simalungun (P5), PPKS 718 (P6), PPKS 540 (P7), and Dumpy (P8) as second factor. Root growth variables were observed, including total root length, total root area, root volume and diameter, copper content on root, fractal dimension, relative root water content, fresh root weight, and root dry weight. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at α=5%. There was a declinning in total root length, volume and diameter, fresh and dry weight as the copper content rose on the root tissue, but no significant different was found in total root area.
SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL FROM KAPUK SEED OIL (Ceiba Pentandra L) AT VARIATION STIRRING DURATION IN TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS Siswani, Endang Dwi; Kristianingrum, Susila; Tohari, Tohari
Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 4, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Sains Dasar
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Abstract

The synthesis of biodiesel targeted as SNI 04-7182-2006 standard has been done from kapuk randu seed, following two steps i.e. sokhlet extraction process of kapuk seed oil from kapuk seed using n-heksane as a solvent, and the production of biodiesel from kapuk seed oil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH as catalyst. Transesterificatin process was performed at temperature 50 oC with the variation of stirring duration as followed  50, 75, 100 and 125 minutes. The kapuk randu extraction resulted  % kapuk randu seed oil, while the transestherification process resulted around 55 - 65%. The biodiesel product characteristics provided the density value of all biodiesel at stirring durations variation are suitable with SNI standard (850 – 890 kg/m3), the viscosity value of all biodiesel are  higher than the range SNI value (2,3 – 6,0 cSt). While the flash point values are lesser than SNI standard (10160 - 11000 cal/g). Keywords: kapuk randu seed, transestherification, biodiesel