M.H Togatorop
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Utilization off fermented copra meal with A. niger in broiler diet Haryati, T; Togatorop, M.H; Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; ., Murtiyeni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 11, No 3 (2006): SEPTEMBER 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (141.346 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i3.524

Abstract

Research of nutritional evaluation of fermented copra meal and its application in broiler has been conducted. In the first experiment the crude protein and fiber contents were determined in the fermented copra meal using A. niger BPT, NRRL 337 and ES1. Further, 384 of Indian River DOC were used for in vivo experiment. Completed Randomized Design was used with 8 treatments: Control without and with 10% addition of copra meal, 3 levels of fermented copra meal addition with Aspergillus niger BPT or A. niger NRRL 337 (10, 15, 20%). Every treatment was repeated 8 time with 6 birds each. Variables measured were body weight, consumption, feed conversion, mortalities and carcass analyses. Diets were formulated in isocalori and isoprotein. The research was conducted in 6 weeks. The results showed that fermentation process increased the copra meal protein content from 22.3 to 36.1; 35.6 and 38.6% respectively for fermentation with A. niger BPT, NRRL 337 and ES1, decreased the crude fiber from 19.5 to 13.0; 18.9 and 8.28%. Results during 3 weeks trial show that the treatment significantly affected on broiler performance (P<0.05). Fermented copra meal was better than non fermented copra meal. There was no significantly different (P>0.05) in broiler performance at 6 weeks trial evaluation. The best conversion was in diet with 10% fermented copra meal with A. niger BPT and NRRL 337. The feed conversion of diets with 10% of each fermented products were better than control or diet without copra meal. The feed conversion of 15% fermented copra meal addition was not significantly different to control. Utilization of fermented copra meal with A. niger BPT or NRRL 337 should not more than 15%. Key Words: Copra Meal, Bioprocess, Broiler
Utilization of palm oilsludge in poultry diet: 3. Inclusion of fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge in broiler’s diet Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, Tatty; Pasaribu, T; Darma, J; Bintang, I.A.K; Togatorop, M.H
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.124 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.226

Abstract

Drying proces, especially with heating often affects the nutritive values of feed ingredients. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the responses of broiler chickens when fed with ration containing fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge(FPOS). Experimental diets with different levels of fresh or dried FPOS (5, 10, and 15% equally to dried FPOS) were formulated with similar nutrient contents. A control diet with no FPOS was also included. Each diet was fed to 30 broiler chickens (5 replicates of 6 birds) for 5 weeks. Performances (body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, and mortalities) of chickens were recorded. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat content was also measured at the end of feeding trial. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design and different between means were tested by orthogonal contrast procedures. Results of the experiment showed that body weight gain (BWG) of control birds was not significantlydifferent with BWG of birds fed with FPOS. Birds fed with dried FLS gain more weight  than those fed with fresh FPOS (1048 vs 981 g/bird). Increasing of dietary FPOS levels decreased BWG, but 10% inclusion was still tolerable. Feed consumption of control diet was significantly (P<0.05) less than feed consumption of diet with FPOS. Increasing of dried FPOS to 15% did not affect feed consumption, but increasing of fresh FPOS significantly increased feed consumption. Feed conversion (FCR) of control diet was significantly better than the FPOS diet (2.07 vs 2.13). Increasing levels of dried FPOS from 5 to 10% did not affect the FCR, but further increasing to 15% significantly worsen the FCR. Increasing of fresh FPOS from 5 to 10 or 15 significantly worsen the FCR. Dry matter intake, mortalities, carcass percentage, liver weight, and abdominal fat levels of broilers were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Conversion of feed dry matter to body weight gain of control diet was not significantly (P>0.05) different with those diets with FPOS. However, dry matter conversion of dried FPOS was significantly better than the fresh FPOS. Increasing levels of FLS from 5 to 15 significantly worsen the feed dry matter conversion but not with inclusion of 10% FPOS. Therefore, it is concluded that there is no superior advantage of feeding fresh FPOS as compared with dried FPOS. Inclusion of 10% dried or fresh FPOS in the diets did not affect growth performances of broiler chickens.   Key words: Palm oil sludge, dried, fermented, broilers
Performance of native chicken given free choice feed Kompiang, I.P; ., Supriyati; Togatorop, M.H; Jarmani, S.N
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.224

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of free choice feeding on the performance of native chicken and to determine its protein and energy requirements for growth. Eight hundreds and seventy 2-weeks old native chicken were used, and divided into three treatment groups, with 5 replicates: (I) Complete feed (II) Choice feed A (two levels of protein, similar in energy content) and (III) Choice feed B (energy and protein sources). Feed and water were given ad libitum during the 10 weeks trial. Feed intake (protein and energy) and body weight were recorded biweekly. Body weight gain (BWG) of treatment I was 852 + 33 grams/head, similar to treatment II, 858 + 28 grams/head, and both significantly (P<0.05) better than treatment III (800 + 42 grams/head). Energy consumption and its energy efficiency ratio (EER) value were similar for all treatments, 9226 + 149; 9203 + 739, and 8706 + 383 kcal/head and 10.84 + 0.34, 10.75 + 1.03, and 10.89 + 0.27 kcal/gram for treatment I, II and III, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between treatment on protein intake, 556 + 8, 506 + 15, and 454 + 25 grams/head for treatment I, II, and III, respectively. Protein energy ratio (PER) value of treatment III (0.57 ± 0.02) was similar to treatment II (0.57 ± 0.02) and both were significantly better (P<0.05) than treatment I (0.65 ± 0.02). It was concluded that the native chicken, given a correct choice of feed, has an ability to determine its energy and protein requirements. During the growth periods, 2-12 weeks old, the bird require feed with 16% protein and 2900 kcal metabolized energy/kg.   Key word: Native chicken, feeding system, free choice
Utilization of palm oilsludge in poultry diet: 3. Inclusion of fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge in broiler’s diet Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, Tatty; Pasaribu, T; Darma, J; Bintang, I.A.K; Togatorop, M.H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.226

Abstract

Drying proces, especially with heating often affects the nutritive values of feed ingredients. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the responses of broiler chickens when fed with ration containing fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge(FPOS). Experimental diets with different levels of fresh or dried FPOS (5, 10, and 15% equally to dried FPOS) were formulated with similar nutrient contents. A control diet with no FPOS was also included. Each diet was fed to 30 broiler chickens (5 replicates of 6 birds) for 5 weeks. Performances (body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, and mortalities) of chickens were recorded. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat content was also measured at the end of feeding trial. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design and different between means were tested by orthogonal contrast procedures. Results of the experiment showed that body weight gain (BWG) of control birds was not significantlydifferent with BWG of birds fed with FPOS. Birds fed with dried FLS gain more weight  than those fed with fresh FPOS (1048 vs 981 g/bird). Increasing of dietary FPOS levels decreased BWG, but 10% inclusion was still tolerable. Feed consumption of control diet was significantly (P<0.05) less than feed consumption of diet with FPOS. Increasing of dried FPOS to 15% did not affect feed consumption, but increasing of fresh FPOS significantly increased feed consumption. Feed conversion (FCR) of control diet was significantly better than the FPOS diet (2.07 vs 2.13). Increasing levels of dried FPOS from 5 to 10% did not affect the FCR, but further increasing to 15% significantly worsen the FCR. Increasing of fresh FPOS from 5 to 10 or 15 significantly worsen the FCR. Dry matter intake, mortalities, carcass percentage, liver weight, and abdominal fat levels of broilers were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Conversion of feed dry matter to body weight gain of control diet was not significantly (P>0.05) different with those diets with FPOS. However, dry matter conversion of dried FPOS was significantly better than the fresh FPOS. Increasing levels of FLS from 5 to 15 significantly worsen the feed dry matter conversion but not with inclusion of 10% FPOS. Therefore, it is concluded that there is no superior advantage of feeding fresh FPOS as compared with dried FPOS. Inclusion of 10% dried or fresh FPOS in the diets did not affect growth performances of broiler chickens.   Key words: Palm oil sludge, dried, fermented, broilers
Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet. 4. Inclusion of fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge in native chickens diet Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Pasaribu, T; Darma, J; Bintang, I.A.K; Togatorop, M.H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.242

Abstract

Fermentation processes increase the protein of palm oil sludge and produce some useful enzymes. However, drying process, especially with heating often affects the nutritive values of feed ingredients and the enzymes activity. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the responses of native chickens when fed ration containing fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge(FPOS). Experimental diets with different levels of fresh or dried FPOS (5, 10 and 15% equal to dried FPOS) were  formulatedwith similar nutrient contents. A control diet with no FPOS was also included. Each treatment was replicated 5  times for 12weeks. Performances (body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion and mortality) of chickens were  recorded. Carcass yield,abdominal fat content, weight of liver and gizzard were measured at the end of feeding trial. Data  were subjected to analysis ofvariance and different between means were tested by orthogonal procedures. Results during the  starting period showed that,chickens fed FPOS diet gain more weight significantly than the control birds (298.1 vs. 264.7).  The dry matter intake of the dryFPOS diet was significantly better than the fresh FPOS diet (2.88 vs. 3.32). The FPOS  dietary levels did not affect body weightgain and dry matter intake of native chickens, significantly. However, increasing the  FPOS levels worsen the dry matterconversion (DCR) significantly. Data during 12 weeks trial showed mat the body weight  gain was not significantly affected bytreatments. The dry matter intake of the FPOS diets were significantly higher than the  control diet (3469 vs. 3065 g/bird), hencethe DCR of the control diet was significantly better than the FPOS diets (3.28 vs.  3.62). Feeding dry FPOS resulted in a betterDCR as compared to fresh FPOS (3.48 vs. 3.76), but not affected the dry matter  intake. The FPOS dietary levels did not affectbody weight gain and dry matter intake of native chickens, significantly.  However, inclusion of 5% FPOS in me diet gave betterDCR significantly, as compared with 15% FPOS (3.51 vs. 3.83).  Feeding dry or fresh FPOS (5 - 15%) did not significantlyaffect the mortality, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels, weight of  liver and weight of gizzard of native chickens. It is concludedthat dry FPOS was better than the fresh FPOS and could be  included in me native chickens diet up to 10%.   Key words: Palm oil sludge, fermentation, native chickens
Utilization of palm oil sludge in poultry diet. 4. Inclusion of fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge in native chickens diet Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Pasaribu, T; Darma, J; Bintang, I.A.K; Togatorop, M.H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 4 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i4.243

Abstract

Fermentation processes increase the protein of palm oil sludge and produce some useful enzymes. However, drying process, especially with heating often affects the nutritive values of feed ingredients and the enzymes activity. Therefore, this experiment was designed to study the responses of native chickens when fed ration containing fresh or dried fermented palm oil sludge (FPOS). Experimental diets with different levels of fresh or dried FPOS (5, 10 and 15% equal to dried FPOS) were formulated with similar nutrient contents. A control diet with no FPOS was also included. Each treatment was replicated 5 times for 12 weeks. Performances (body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion and mortality) of chickens were recorded. Carcass yield, abdominal fat content, weight of liver and gizzard were measured at the end of feeding trial. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and different between means were tested by orthogonal procedures. Results during the starting period showed that, chickens fed FPOS diet gain more weight significantly than the control birds (298.1 vs. 264.7). The dry matter intake of the dry FPOS diet was significantly better than the fresh FPOS diet (2.88 vs. 3.32). The FPOS dietary levels did not affect body weight gain and dry matter intake of native chickens, significantly. However, increasing the FPOS levels worsen the dry matter conversion (DCR) significantly. Data during 12 weeks trial showed mat the body weight gain was not significantly affected by treatments. The dry matter intake of the FPOS diets were significantly higher than the control diet (3469 vs. 3065 g/bird), hence the DCR of the control diet was significantly better than the FPOS diets (3.28 vs. 3.62). Feeding dry FPOS resulted in a better DCR as compared to fresh FPOS (3.48 vs. 3.76), but not affected the dry matter intake. The FPOS dietary levels did not affect body weight gain and dry matter intake of native chickens, significantly. However, inclusion of 5% FPOS in me diet gave better DCR significantly, as compared with 15% FPOS (3.51 vs. 3.83). Feeding dry or fresh FPOS (5 - 15%) did not significantly affect the mortality, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels, weight of liver and weight of gizzard of native chickens. It is concluded that dry FPOS was better than the fresh FPOS and could be included in me native chickens diet up to 10%.   Key words: Palm oil sludge, fermentation, native chickens
Responses of broilers to Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive: The effect of different forms and levels of bioactives on performances of broilers Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Togatorop, M.H; Pasaribu, T; Bintang, I.A.K; Sitompul, S; Rosida, J
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.277

Abstract

Feed additives are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promotors or to improve feed efficiency. Previous results showed that Aloe vera bioactives could improve feed efficiency in broilers. Therefore, a further study was designed in order to obtain optimum doses and application methods of bioactives for broiler chickens. Aloe vera was prepared in different forms (fresh gel, dry gel, fresh whole leaf or dry whole leaf). The aloe was supplemented into the feed with concentrations of 0.25; 0.5 and 1 g/kg (equal to dry gel). Standard diets with or without antibiotics were also included as control. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks and the performances were observed. Results showed that the aloe-bioactives did not significantly (P>0.05) affect final body weight of broilers as compared with the control. Supplementation of 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel significantly improved feed convertion by 4.7; 4.8 and 8.2%, respectively as compared with the control. This improvement was a result of reduction in feed intake or dry matter intake without reducing the weight gain. However, supplementation of whole aloe leafs could not improve feed convertion in boilers. It is concluded that the bioactives of Aloe vera could be used as feed supplement to improve feed efficiency in broilers with no deleterious effect on weight gain, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels and internal organs. The effective concentrations of aloe gell as a feed supplement based on dry matter convertion were from 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel.   Key words: Broilers, feed efficiency, feed additives, Aloe vera
Utilization of plant bioactives as feed additives for poultry: The effect of Aloe vera gel and its extract on performance of broilers Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Togatorop, M.H; Pasaribu, T
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 8, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v8i3.384

Abstract

Feed additives are commonly added in poultry feed as a growth promotant or to improve feed efficiency. The most common feed additive used is antibiotic at sub-therapheutic doses, although there is a controversy on its impact on human health. Previous results showed that Aloe vera gel could improve feed efficiency in broilers and an in vitro study showed that the extract have an antibacterial effect. Therefore, a further experiment was designed to study the response of broilers to Aloe vera gel or its extract as feed additives. Aloe vera was prepared in dry gel or chloroform-extract and included in the diet at levels of 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 g/kg (equal to dry gel). Standard diets with or without antibiotic were also formulated as control and a commercial diet was included for comparison. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks. Each treatment has 9 replicates and 6chicks/replicate. Parameters observed were: feed consumption, weight gain and feed convertion ratios. Carcass yield, abdominal fat levels, relative weight of liver, gizzard, tractus digestivus and length of tractus digestivus were also measured at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that Aloe gel and its extract did not influence body weight gain and feed consumption of broilers significantly (P>0.05), but improved feed convertion slightly (3.50%). The response in this trial was similar as thosecommercial diet and diet added with antibiotic. There was no significant (P>0.05) effect of Aloe vera bioactives on carcass yield, abdominal fat level and relative weight of liver. However, Aloe vera gel and its extract tend to increase gizzard weight, gastro intestinal weight and length. The Aloe vera gel and its extract also reduced the total count of aerobic bacteria in the digesta of tractus digestivus. It is concluded that the Aloe vera gel improve feed efficiency in broilers by increasing the size of tractus digestivus and reducing the total count of aerobic bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract.   Key words: Aloe vera, feed additives, broilers, anti-bacteria
Utilization off fermented copra meal with A. niger in broiler diet Haryati, T; Togatorop, M.H; Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; ., Murtiyeni
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i3.524

Abstract

Research of nutritional evaluation of fermented copra meal and its application in broiler has been conducted. In the first experiment the crude protein and fiber contents were determined in the fermented copra meal using A. niger BPT, NRRL 337 and ES1. Further, 384 of Indian River DOC were used for in vivo experiment. Completed Randomized Design was used with 8 treatments: Control without and with 10% addition of copra meal, 3 levels of fermented copra meal addition with Aspergillus niger BPT or A. niger NRRL 337 (10, 15, 20%). Every treatment was repeated 8 time with 6 birds each. Variables measured were body weight, consumption, feed conversion, mortalities and carcass analyses. Diets were formulated in isocalori and isoprotein. The research was conducted in 6 weeks. The results showed that fermentation process increased the copra meal protein content from 22.3 to 36.1; 35.6 and 38.6% respectively for fermentation with A. niger BPT, NRRL 337 and ES1, decreased the crude fiber from 19.5 to 13.0; 18.9 and 8.28%. Results during 3 weeks trial show that the treatment significantly affected on broiler performance (P<0.05). Fermented copra meal was better than non fermented copra meal. There was no significantly different (P>0.05) in broiler performance at 6 weeks trial evaluation. The best conversion was in diet with 10% fermented copra meal with A. niger BPT and NRRL 337. The feed conversion of diets with 10% of each fermented products were better than control or diet without copra meal. The feed conversion of 15% fermented copra meal addition was not significantly different to control. Utilization of fermented copra meal with A. niger BPT or NRRL 337 should not more than 15%. Key Words: Copra Meal, Bioprocess, Broiler
Responses of broilers to Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive: The effect of different forms and levels of bioactives on performances of broilers Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Togatorop, M.H; Pasaribu, T; Bintang, I.A.K; Sitompul, S; Rosida, J
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.277

Abstract

Feed additives are commonly used in poultry feed as growth promotors or to improve feed efficiency. Previous results showed that Aloe vera bioactives could improve feed efficiency in broilers. Therefore, a further study was designed in order to obtain optimum doses and application methods of bioactives for broiler chickens. Aloe vera was prepared in different forms (fresh gel, dry gel, fresh whole leaf or dry whole leaf). The aloe was supplemented into the feed with concentrations of 0.25; 0.5 and 1 g/kg (equal to dry gel). Standard diets with or without antibiotics were also included as control. The diets were fed to broilers from day old to 5 weeks and the performances were observed. Results showed that the aloe-bioactives did not significantly (P>0.05) affect final body weight of broilers as compared with the control. Supplementation of 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel significantly improved feed convertion by 4.7; 4.8 and 8.2%, respectively as compared with the control. This improvement was a result of reduction in feed intake or dry matter intake without reducing the weight gain. However, supplementation of whole aloe leafs could not improve feed convertion in boilers. It is concluded that the bioactives of Aloe vera could be used as feed supplement to improve feed efficiency in broilers with no deleterious effect on weight gain, carcass yield, abdominal fat levels and internal organs. The effective concentrations of aloe gell as a feed supplement based on dry matter convertion were from 0.25 g/kg fresh gel, 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg dry gel.   Key words: Broilers, feed efficiency, feed additives, Aloe vera