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Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi TRIADIATI, TRIADIATI; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN; GUHARDJA, EDI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO; QAYIM, IBNUL; LEUSCHNER, CHRISTOPH
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 14, No 4 (2007): December 2007
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (85.519 KB)

Abstract

Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1), under planted trees (CF2), and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP). The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE) and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry systems. The N NUE at the ecosystem scale (N NUEES) for the cacao agroforestry systems were compared with the natural forest. The results showed that CP produced the highest litterfall and cacao foliar nitrogen. CP and CF1 produced litterfall and the nitrogen resorption that not were significantly different. In contrast, CF2 produced the lowest litterfall, hence required lower nitrogen supply. The nitrogen resorption of CF2 was less than that of CF1 and CP. However, N NUE in cacao plant (N NUEC) of CF2 was higher than that of the CP. The N NUEES of either CF1 or CF2 were similar to that of the natural forest, but higher than that of the CP. Using shade trees in cacao plantations increased foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen resorption, N NUEC and N NUEES; thus, might be one reason for a higher productivity of cacao in unshaded systems. Key words: cacao agroforestry system, cacao foliar nitrogen, nitrogen resorption, N NUE
Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit DORLY, DORLY; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN; POERWANTO, ROEDHY; JULIARNI, JULIARNI
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 3 (2008): September 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid. Key words: secretory ducts, yellow latex, endocarp, aril, epithelial cells
Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index RINI, SULISTIJORINI; MASUD, ZAINAL ALIM; NASRULLAH, NIZAR; BEY, AHMAD; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 3 (2008): September 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (66.094 KB)

Abstract

Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway) and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field) area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method. Key words: air pollutants, tolerance of roadside trees, relative growth rate, physiological responses, air pollution tolerance index
Kandungan, Resorpsi N dan P serta Specifi c Leaf Area Daun Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) pada Cekaman Kekeringan Prihastanti, Erma; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Sopandie, Didy; Qayim, Ibnul; Leuschner, Christoph
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.11 KB)

Abstract

Plant nutrient absorptions depend on their environment and plants’ stage of development. Beside from soil, nutrient absorption also proceed through resorption in leaves. The resorption efficiency varies based on types of habitat. Drought stress also influences the efficiency of nutrient resorption, growth rate, and plant development. The purpose of this research was to study the change of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content and leaf resorption value of N and P, and specifi  c leaf area of 6-years old cacao  grown under drought stress. Research was carried out in a cacao plantation with 7-years old Gliricidia sepium Jacq. as shading trees. The results showed that drought stress with Troughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) system did not affect the content and resorption level of N and P of cacao leaves. However, N resorption of cacao leaves tended to increase while P resorption decreased. Cacao plants experienced drought stress have the ability to resorp leaf N for 46.64-50.63%, leaf P  for 47.98-58.40%, whereas, the control plants had the leaf N resorption of 45.05-52.97%, and leaf P resorption of 36.64-44.10%. Drought stress for 13 months on 6-years old cacao did not affect  specific  c leaf area.   Keywords: drought stress, N and P resorption, specifi  c leaf area, Theobroma cacao L.
Studi Pemberian Kalsium untuk Mengatasi Getah Kuning pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Dorly, ,; Wulandari, Indah; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.11 KB)

Abstract

Gamboge is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness because it is one of the major factors lowering fruit quality. Calcium is one of the important elements that strengthening cell wall; it is which was binding with the pectin as a middle lamella component. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of calcium application on the presence of gamboge spots, physical, and chemical properties of mangosteen fruit. Trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two consecutive years.  The calcium source was dolomite, applied in four different dosages, i.e. 0, 18, 24, and 34 ton ha-1 for the fi  rst year and 0, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 ton ha-1 for the second year. The results showed that calcium application raised soil pH and calcium content of the soil, exocarp and mangosteen leaves. Dolomite applications using 18 and 24 ton ha-1 in the first year and 17.5 ton ha-1 in the second year were effective to reduce gamboge spots on the outer part of fruit, however they were not effective to reduce gamboge in aril. Dolomite applications did not increase transversal diameter, fruit weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acids, and ratio of total soluble solids with total titratable acids of the fruits.   Keywords: aril, cell wall, dolomite, exocarp
Kompetisi antara Ekotipe Echinochloa crus-galli pada Beberapa Tingkat Populasi dengan Padi Sawah (Competition of Echinochloa crus-galli Ecotypes at Several Populations Against Lowland Rice) Guntoro, Dwi; Chozin, Muhamad Achmad; Santosa, Edi; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Burhan, Abdul Harris
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 37, No 3 (2009): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Echinochloa crus-galli is a major weed in paddy field that reduces rice yield.  The objective of the research was to study the effect of E. crus-galli ecotypes and populations on rice growth and production.  The research was conducted in a green house using split plot design with three replications.  The main plot consisted of three E. crus-galli ecotypes i.e ecotype from Karawang, Cikampek, and Sukabumi. E. crus-galli population as sub plot consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 E. crus-galli per pot.  The results showed that ecotype of E. crus-galli affected plant height, number of tiller, and panicle density. The competitivenes against rice of E. crus-galli ecotype Cikampek was higher than that of ecotype Sukabumi and Karawang. Population E. crus-galli affected rice growth and production.  Population of E. crus-galli 4/pot decreased spikelets weight about 48.0% and filled spikelets weight about 46.2%.  Interaction of ecotype and population of E. crus-galli did not affect rice growth and production.   Key words:  competition, ecotype, E. crus-galli, population, weed.
Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi TRIADIATI, TRIADIATI; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN; GUHARDJA, EDI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO; QAYIM, IBNUL; LEUSCHNER, CHRISTOPH
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 14, No 4 (2007): December 2007
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1), under planted trees (CF2), and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP). The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE) and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry systems. The N NUE at the ecosystem scale (N NUEES) for the cacao agroforestry systems were compared with the natural forest. The results showed that CP produced the highest litterfall and cacao foliar nitrogen. CP and CF1 produced litterfall and the nitrogen resorption that not were significantly different. In contrast, CF2 produced the lowest litterfall, hence required lower nitrogen supply. The nitrogen resorption of CF2 was less than that of CF1 and CP. However, N NUE in cacao plant (N NUEC) of CF2 was higher than that of the CP. The N NUEES of either CF1 or CF2 were similar to that of the natural forest, but higher than that of the CP. Using shade trees in cacao plantations increased foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen resorption, N NUEC and N NUEES; thus, might be one reason for a higher productivity of cacao in unshaded systems. Key words: cacao agroforestry system, cacao foliar nitrogen, nitrogen resorption, N NUE
Studi Pemberian Kalsium untuk Mengatasi Getah Kuning pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Dorly, ,; Wulandari, Indah; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (193.751 KB)

Abstract

Gamboge is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness because it is one of the major factors lowering fruit quality. Calcium is one of the important elements that strengthening cell wall; it is which was binding with the pectin as a middle lamella component. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of calcium application on the presence of gamboge spots, physical, and chemical properties of mangosteen fruit. Trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two consecutive years. The calcium source was dolomite, applied in four different dosages, i.e. 0, 18, 24, and 34 ton ha-1 for the fi rst year and 0, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 ton ha-1 for the second year. The results showed that calcium application raised soil pH and calcium content of the soil, exocarp and mangosteen leaves. Dolomite applications using 18 and 24 ton ha-1 in the fi rst year and 17.5 ton ha-1 in the second year were effective to reduce gamboge spots on the outer part of fruit, however they were not effective to reduce gamboge in aril. Dolomite applications did not increase transversal diameter, fruit weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acids, and ratio of total soluble solids with total titratable acids of the fruits.
Kandungan, Resorpsi N dan P serta Specifi c Leaf Area Daun Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) pada Cekaman Kekeringan Prihastanti, Erma; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Sopandie, Didy; Qayim, Ibnul; Leuschner, Christoph
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.411 KB)

Abstract

Plant nutrient absorptions depend on their environment and plants? stage of development. Beside from soil, nutrient absorption also proceed through resorption in leaves. The resorption efficiency varies based on types of habitat. Drought stress also influences the efficiency of nutrient resorption, growth rate, and plant development. The purpose of this research was to study the change of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content and leaf resorption value of N and P, and specific leaf area of 6-years old cacao grown under drought stress. Research was carried out in a cacao plantation with 7-years old Gliricidia sepium Jacq. as shading trees. The results showed that drought stress with Troughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) system did not affect the content and resorption level of N and P of cacao leaves. However, N resorption of cacao leaves tended to increase while P resorption decreased. Cacao plants experienced drought stress have the ability to resorp leaf N for 46.64-50.63%, leaf P for 47.98-58.40%, whereas, the control plants had the leaf N resorption of 45.05-52.97%, and leaf P resorption of 36.64-44.10%. Drought stress for 13 months on 6-years old cacao did not affect specifi c leaf area.
Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index RINI, SULISTIJORINI; MASUD, ZAINAL ALIM; NASRULLAH, NIZAR; BEY, AHMAD; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 3 (2008): September 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR) and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI). Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway) and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field) area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method. Key words: air pollutants, tolerance of roadside trees, relative growth rate, physiological responses, air pollution tolerance index