Morbidity and mortality of malaria in Indonesia are still high due to anti-malaria drug resistance and free radicals. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a play important role in the pathogenesis of malaria while ICAM-1 plays a key role in cerebral malaria, one of malaria’s complications. Various studies have been done to search alternative treatments for the disease. One of them is red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) which contains high level of antioxidants. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of buah merah as antioxidant by decreasing the degree of parasitemia, TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice. This was an experimental study, with complete randomized design. Thirty male Balb/C mice were divided into six groups: negative control group, red fruit control group, Plasmodium control group, buah merah 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL and 0.4 mL group. TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels were measured using ELISA method and all data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tukey-HSD. The result showed, the degree of parasitemia reduced significantly in buah merah treated mice (0.2 mL) compared to Plasmodium control (p=0.000) whereas TNF-a and ICAM-1level were significantly different between red fruit 0.2 ml and Plasmodium control group (p=0.02 and 0.001 respectively). As a conclusion, buah merah could decrease the level of parasitemia, as well as TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice.Keywords: red fruit, Pandanus conoideus Lam., TNF-a, Parasitemia, ICAM-1, Plasmodium berghei
Introduction: Artemisinin in artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) was used to overcome the resistance caused by free radical overproduction. Xanthone as antioxidant can also inhibit in vitro heme polymerization, therefore it is predicted has anti-malaria activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potency of alpha mangostin, gamma mangostin, garcinone C, and garcinone D as antioxidant by determination of DPPH scavenging activity, falciparum antimalarial, and their synergism with artemisinin as antimalarial falciparum in vitro.Method: Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity was examined according to Unlu,et al.âs technique and the IC50 was determined by correlation regression analysis. Antimalarialactivity of each xanthone and its combination with artemisinin was evaluated in P. falciparumstrain 3D7 culture according to Budimulja, et al. Their IC50 was calculated by probit analysis and FIC50 was counted according to the formula.Results: All of these xanthones had IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity <200 Î¼M. Alpha mangostin, gamma mangostin, and garcinone C had anti-malaria activity with IC50<1 Î¼g/ml, but garcinone D had IC50 1-10 Î¼g/ml. FIC50 of all xanthone and artemisinin combinations were <1.Conclusions: All of xanthones have antioxidant potency by determination of DPPH scavengingactivity, antimalarial potency and work synergisticaly with artemisinin as falciparum antimalarialin vitro. J Indon Med Assoc. 2013;63:95-9.Keywords: xanthone, DPPH, falciparum antimalarial, artemisinin, synergism
Insidence of filariasis in Indonesia is still increasing and this disease may cause many disabilities. In order to decrease the incidence rate, we can interfere with the life cycle of Culex, the filariasis vector, by using larvicides. Most larvicides sold in the market contain chemical substances, such as temephos. Therefore, it is necessary to find out more friendly natural larvicides, which are effective but safe; one of them is Papaya Leaves Infusion (PLI). The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of PLI as a larvicide of Culex sp. and compare it with temephos powder. This research is a real comparative experimental laboratory study using complete randomized design. 720 Culex’ larvae were divided into 6 treatment groups, each group was given Papaya’s Leaves Infusion 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, aquadest (negative control), and temephos 1% (positive control). The observed data were the numbers of killed larvae within 24 hours. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA which was continued by Tukey HSD ( = 0,05). The result showed that PLI 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% had very significantly different effects compared to the negative control (p=0.000), but there was no significantly different effect between PLI 2 % and temephos 1%. It is concluded that PLI 2% has a larvicide effect as strong as temephos does. Keywords : Culex sp larvae, papaya’s leaves infusion, temephos
Especially in tropical area, there is high falciparum malaria morbidity and mortality which is caused by oxidative stress such as cerebral malaria. One of the causes of the oxidative stress is the process happening in the parasitized erythrocytes. Therefore, it is important to study the process that causes the oxidative stress in parasitized erythrocytes. The oxidative stress in non parasitized erythrocytes is caused by hemoglobin auto-oxidation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the parasite food vacuoles happens because of a producing ROS reaction cascade and the hemoglobin digestion that produces toxic heme which should be biomineralized. Part of this heme escapes from the biomineralization and moves from the parasite food vacuoles into the parasite cytosol which also needs to be detoxified and sequestrated by using GSH. Parasite mitochondrial activity produces superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which is then changed to be water and oxygen by thioredoxin consuming enzyme. However, there is no thioredoxin reductase to reduce thioredoxin. Lipoic acid protein ligase (LplA) metabolites ligates lipoic acid to E2-subunit of KADH (mitochondrial α keto acid dehydrogenase), which then reduces thioredoxin by using NADH. Part of this H2O2 also escapes from the detoxification and is exported to the parasite cytosol. The antioxidant system in the parasite cytosol includes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin reductase. The detoxification of H2O2 is carried out by using GST (glutathione S transferase) and 1 cys peroxyredoxin with GSH as cofactor, and by 2 cys peroxyredoxin with thioredoxin as cofactor. Plasmodium has neither glutathione peroxydase nor catalase. Part of GSSG as redox product in Plasmodium is exported to the erythrocyte cytosol and it causes oxidative stress in this cell. Hence, antioxidant supplementation must be considered in treating malaria especially in serious cases.
Culex is known as the vector transmitter of filariasis and encephalitis, and to control its spread, repellent is commonly used. DEET has been widely used and proven as an effective repellent; however, it also has many side effects that may be harmful to the human health. Accordingly, people tend to prefer using repellents made of natural herbs, such as lemon grass or citronella oil, which have been proven effective. This research was aimed to compare the effectiveness of lemon grass stem extract, at various concentrations, against citronella oil. This was a real comparative, prospective experimental study using complete randomized design. Seven hundred and fifty Culex sp. mosquitoes were divided into 5 treatment groups; 3 groups were treated with lemon grass stem extract at 50% (EBS50), 75% (EBS75), and 100% (EBS100) concentration; the negative control group was treated with aquadest and the positive control group was treated with citronella oil. An observation was conducted to find out the number of mosquitoes that moved to the opposite side of the glass box. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey HSD test with α = 0.01. The result showed that citronella oil had the highest effectivity, followed by EBS100, EBS75 and EBS50 (p = 0.000-0.005). The conclusion is that lemon grass stem extract is a Culex mosquito repellent which is less effective than citronella oil.
Diseases transmitted by Culex can be prevented by using repellent. DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), is an effective repellent, but may cause several toxic effects for certain users. Therefore DEET substitute must be searched such as essential oils, for example eucalyptus, clove, and citronella oils, which are safer. The aim of this study is to compare which oil from these ones is the most effective, to know whether these oils can be listed in standard repellent against Culex as a DEET substitute, and also to know the time interval of application needed. The laboratory study was carried out based on method described by Fradin and Day’s method. Repeated tests were conducted simultaneously in five cages using repellent treated forearms of volunteers. The time needed in minutes since repellent application until first mosquito bite was recorded. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and continued with Duncan analysis using α= 0.01. Highly significant statistical analysis proved that against Culex, duration of repellent effect of eucalyptus oil was shorter than clove oil/ citronella oil, and duration of repellent effect of clove oil/ citronella oil was shorter than DEET. From this study it is concluded that repellent effect of clove oil/ citronella oil was more effective than eucalyptus oil and these essential oils can be placed on standard repellent list. Eucalyptus oil application must be repeated every 123 minutes while clove oil and citronella oil must be repeated every 287 minutes.
Untuk penanggulangan infeksi cacing-cacing yang ditularkan melalui tanah pada anak-anak Sekolah Dasar dilakukan program penyuluhan kesehatan dan pengobatan masal. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 501 anak-anak di Sekolah Dasar Cigadung dan Cicadas, Bandung Timur. Anak-Anak yang positif trikuriasis diberi mebendazol dengan dua cara, kelompok I diberi mebendazol500 mg dosis tunggal, sedangkan kelompok II diberi mebendazol500 mg dosis tumggal dan diulangi setelah satu minggu. Prevalensi infeksi cadng di Sekolah Dasar Cigadung dan Cicadas (sebelum pengobatan) adalah askariasis 5,99 %, trikuriasis 14,57 %, berbeda dengan pola prevalensi tahun 1991 dimana askariasis 83,33 % dan trikuriasis 57,97% .Hal ini mungkin disebabkan perbedaan obat cacing yang digunakan, dimana umumnya efektif terhadap askariasis, tetapi kurang efektif terhadap trikuriasis. Dua minggu setelah pengobatan angka penyembuhan trikuriasis adalah 89,47 % untuk kelompok I dan 91,43 % untuk kelompok II. Angka penurunan jumlah telur 93,53 % untuk kelompok I dan 97,59 % untuk kelompok II.
High blood cholesterol level is one of the coronary heart disease risk factor causing high mortality in developed country. Bay leaf containing flavonoids can inhibit HM-CoA reductase enzyme.Objective: The aim of this study is to explore bay leaf infusion effect and optimal dose in reducing blood cholesterol level in dyslipidemic rat model. Method: Experimental complete randomized design was done using 25 male Wistar rats weighing 200-300 gram at Pharmacology Laboratory Maranatha Christian University in January-October 2011. After dyslipidemic condition was induced with high fat diet and PTU (propil thiouracil) 0,01 % for 2 weeks, simvastatin, 2 mL bay leafe infusion was given to each of them in 5, 10, and 20 % concentration orally for 2 weeks. Blood total cholesterol level was measured after high fat diet and PTU and after bay leaf infusion/ simvastatin treatment. Data was analyzed with ANOVA, continued with LSD with α= 0,05. Result: Bay leaf infusion in 5, 10, 20% lowered the blood total cholesterol level (p< 0,05). There was no difference between these bay leaf infusion concentrations and simvastatin each other in lowering the level (p > 0,05). Conclusion: It was concluded that bay leaf infusion in 5, 10, 20 % concentration had the same effect in lowering blood total cholesterol level in dyslipidemic rats and the potency was same as simvastatin.
Artemisinin, antimalaria yang sangat ampuh terhadap parasit multiresisten, bekerja melalui produksi radikalÂ bebas. Oleh karena terjadinya alur permeasi baru pada membran eritrosit yang terparasitisasi, asam L askorbat,Â suatu antioksidan hidrofilik, diharapkan tidak menembus membran tersebut sehingga tidak mempengaruhi dayaÂ antimalaria artemisinin melainkan hanya mempengaruhi sel inang di luar eritrosit yang terparasitisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh asam L askorbat pada viabilitas human umbilical vein endothelial cellÂ (HUVEC) sebagai sel inang, kadar glutation sulfil hidril (GSH), dan kadar malondialdehyde (MDA) dalam kulturÂ Plasmodium falciparum yang diinkubasi dengan artemisinin IC50 dan asam L askorbat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Eijkman Insitute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta dari Januari 2007 sampai Januari 2008. Kultur PlasmodiumÂ falciparum strain 3D7 diinkubasi dengan artemisinin IC50 dan berbagai konsentrasi asam L askorbat selama 24Â jam dalam candle jar dan inkubator 37oC. Kadar GSH dan MDA pada supernatan diukur dengan spektrofotometri. Viabilitas HUVEC diukur dalam kokultur HUVEC- P. faciparum yang diinkubasi dengan artemisinin IC50 danÂ berbagai konsentrasi asam L askorbat. Data dianalisis dengan analysis of variance (ANOVA) dan Tukey honestlyÂ significant difference (HSD)/Scheffe. Eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi asam L askorbat 20 Î¼M danÂ 100 Î¼M dapat meningkatkan viabilitas HUVEC. Disimpulkan bahwa asam L askorbat meningkatkan viabilitasÂ HUVEC dalam kultur P. falciparum yang diikubasi dengan artemisinin bergantung konsentrasi. [MKB. 2011;43(2):66â71].Kata kunci: Artemisinin, asam L askorbat, P. falciparum, viabilitas human umbilical vein endothelial cellL Ascorbic Acid Concentration Dependently Increases HUVEC Viability inP. falciparum Culture Incubated with ArtemisininArtemisinin via overproduction of free radical acts as a potent drug against multi-drug resistant Plasmodium.Â because of new permeation pathway evidence at parasitized red blood cell membrane, L ascorbic acid as hydrophilicÂ antioxidant hopefully canât penetrate the membrane so that it wonât interfere the artemisinin antimalarial effectÂ rather it protects the host cell out of parasitized erythrocytes. The aim of this study was to determine its effect againstÂ human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability, glutathione sulfa-hydryl (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in Plasmodium falciparum culture treated with artemisinin. This experiment was conductedÂ at Eijkman Insitute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta from January 2007 to January 2008. Plasmodium falciparumÂ 3D7 strain culture was incubated with IC50 of artemisinin and a wide concentration range of L ascorbic acid for 24 hours in a candle jar at 37oC incubator. GSH and MDA concentration were measured from the supernatantÂ using spectrophotometer. HUVEC viability was measured in P. falciparum-HUVEC co-cultivation incubated withÂ artemisinin IC50 and L ascorbic acid. The result was examined and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA)Â and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD)/Scheffe. It showed that 20 Î¼M and 100 Î¼M L ascorbic acid raisedÂ the HUVEC viability. It was concluded that L ascorbic acid concentration dependently increases HUVEC viabilityÂ in P. falciparum culture incubated with artemisinin. [MKB.2011;43(2):66â71].Key words: Artemisinin, human umbilical vein endothelial cell viability, L ascorbic acid, P. falciparum
Mangosteen pericarps contains fenolic antioxidant, such as xanthone that acts as free radical scavenging substances and preventing heme polymerization. In this research we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarps on the parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice and compared its antimalarial activity with artemisinin monotherapy in reducing the parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice. Deutschland Denken Yoken (DDY) Â mice were randomly divided into 5 groups and inoculated by Plasmodium berghei and given 0.1 mL aquadest (KN), 0.1 mg of artemisinin (KP), 2.5 mg (E1), 0.5 mg (E2) and 0,1 mg (E3) of ethanolic extract from mangosteen pericarps in 0.1 mL aquadest in 3 days. The parasitemia was observed on one day before the treatment, namely on the first day and on the day after the last treatment. We found a highly significant decrease highly significant decrease of the parasitemia in each treatment group compared to the Negative Control group (p < 0.01), and the decrease of parasitemia level in E1 group is similar to the artemisinin monotherapy group (p < 0.05).Â Â Keywords: ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarps, artemisinin, Plasmodium berghei, malaria