Peran PEG 400 dalam pembuatan lembaran bioplastik polohidroksialkanoat yang dihasilkan oleh Ralstonia eutropha dari Substrat Hidrolisat Pati Sagu

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3;  melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings. Keywords: Bioplastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Ralstonia eutropha, hidrolysed sago starch, PEG 400

Penggandaan Skala Produksi Bioinsektisida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis untuk Membasmi Jentik Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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The objective of this research is to study the scaling up of bionsecticide production from Bacillus thuringiensisvar. israelensisusing onggok (a cassava by-product) as a carbon source. The insecticide produced was used to eradicate Aedes aegypti larvae. The product was a crystal protein produced during bacterial sporulation. Scaling up from laboratory to pilot plant scale was done using two methods, i.e. constant agitation power per unit volume (Pg/V) and constant oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa). The results showed that yield of product per substrate (Yp/s) of Pg/V based product with the value of 3.52 ± 0.02 spora per gram substrates was higher than Yp/s of  kLa based product with the value of 2.96 spora per gram substrate.  Logarithmic value of viable spore count (log of VSC) was also higher, i.e. 7.23 ± 0.30 for Pg/V based product as compared to 7.17 ± 0.20 for kLa based product. Substrate efficiency was also higher in Pg/V based (92.47%) than kLa based (64.87%). LC50 of Pg/V based product was lower (0.49 μg/ml) meaning that it was more toxic than kLa based product (0.62 μg/ml). Amino acid content of Pg/V based product was also higher than kLa based product. Constant Pg/V method was suggested as a based on the scaling up of bioinsecticide production of B. thuringiensis israe/ensison industrial scale. Keywords: bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensisvar. israelensis, kLa, Pg/V, LC50, viable spore count

Kajian perbaikan mutu pada agroindustri skala mikro dan kecil gambir indonesia

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Quality is an absolute requirement used by product to compete in the global market. Therefore, as the competition is getting more tight , high-quality gambier products become an absolute demands that must be met. One of the steps that must be taken is continuous technological improvement. In this study, quality analysis of various raw gambier samples of Lima Puluh Kota regency and the Padang City in West Sumatera, and Musi Banyu Asin regency in South Sumatra was done. The results of dimensional measurement and weighing samples of Bootch Gambier, Lumpang Gambier, Wafer Block and Stick Gambier showed that the quality of raw gambier were very various. The variation occured because the drying process and storage of gambier were not good enough. The proximate analysis data showed, in terms of ash content, only two types of Gambier samples (Bootch CVR Gambier and Wafer Block CVR Gambier) that met quality requirements, whereas the Coin Gambier and Bootch CVA Gambier had a very high ash content (38.93 percent and 75.64 percent).Keyword : Gambier, quality, technology improvement, agroindustry, SME

Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice in lowering Cholesterol in vivo

International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Recently public’s attention to the importance of healthy food increases rapidly. Probiotic based food exploiting lactic acid bacteria is among the healthy food. Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolate from Morinda citrifolia fruit was assessed for its probiotic in-vivo by using Wistar  Rat. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 in lowering serum LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) of Wistar Rat. Twenty Rats were grouped into 4, each group consisted of 5 Rats. First Group was a negative control  given standard normal diet of 20 gr/day plus aquadest. Second Grup was a positive control given cholesterol normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg/kg body weight/day. Third Group was supplemented with normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU) 60 mg  kg body weight /day and  1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum JR64. Fourth Group was the same as third Group unless the probiotic using commercial probiotic Lactobacillus bulgariccus at 1012 CFU. Blood samples were withdrawn for measurement of total cholesterol, triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol every week and measured by using spectrophotometer with 546 nanometers wavelength. The results show that probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice significantly (p < 0,01) reduce Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride in vivo  and tend to reduce High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol.

Isolation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 as an Omega 6 Probiotic Producer

International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Application of lactic acid probiotic bacteria in health food diversification currently is progressing rapidly.  It is encouraged the study of searching the potential strains from local resources (Ponorogo Residence) namely noni fruits (badeg pace) and noni wine.  Aims of this study were to perform the isolation, identification, and production of  probiotic Lactobacillus sp. JR64 fermentation process as a producer of Omega-6 (ω-6) lowering cholesterol and design of probiotic creamy product.   Beginning stages of research was strains isolating and in-vitro testing, the best result were used in  molecular  identification technology development for the production of metabolites through the manipulation of environmental variation  of glucose 20 g / l, 30 g / l and 40 g / l that influenced the substrate concentration of linoleic acid productivity. The result of new isolates isolation showed that isolates that obtained from noni wine, Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, was potential as probiotic condidate.   The effieciency of fermentation  substrates using  Yx/s and Yp /s  in the exponential phase was the highest value for the fermentation of 24 hours of  Yx/ s; 17.03% and Y p/s; 74.72%, while the results of design and the best formulation for viability cells of lactobacillus  plantarum probiotics JR64 was composed of 15 g and 50g butter 15 g icing sugar as well as during storage of the refrigerant temperature was 8.92 x 108 CFU / ml.  [Key Words : Omega-6,  Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, fermentation]

Model Design for Scoring Board of State-Owned Oil Palm Agroindustry

Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 34, No 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Financial and non-financial factors are important indicators to evaluate performance of corporation.  The main objective of this study is to build a model for improving performance of estate and plant by using balance scorecard.  The study uses balance scorecard, and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to model the criteria of performance measurement for both estate and plant.  Results generated from the model of estate performance criteria measurements are seed, fertilizing, cost management, harvest, plant maintenance, production, and employee development.  Results generated from the model of plant performance criteria measurements are production rate, cost management, losses, plant utilization, CPO quality, employee development, and environmental friendly production process.  Estate and plant scoring board model are used to measure the performance of estate and plant based on set targets.  Results generated from estate scoring board model are low performance in cost management, production, and employed development.  Results generated from plant scoring board model are low performance in cost management, losses, and environmental friendly production process.  Performance improvement model for estate and plant are conducted by using expert management.  The result generated from this study is a software of decision support system by using expert management, and it is called In-KK v1.00.   Keywords: oil palm agroindustry, key performance indicator, scoring board

Analysis of Reducing Sugars on Hydrolysis of Cassava Starch by a Thermostable a-Amylasefrom Bacillus stearothemophilus TII 12

Jurnal Mikrobiologi Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2001): JURNAL MIKROBIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Jurnal Mikrobiologi Indonesia

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The product of a-amylase hydrolysis was evaluated for their application In sugar syrup Industry. The objectives ofthis experiment were to determine the enzyme production of Bacillus stearothermophilus TH,2 in a five liter bioreactorand to analyze its hydrolysis product on cassava starch using thin layer chromatography and high performance liquidchromatography. The bacterium was cultured in the bloreactor for 48 hours, and then the biomass, enzyme activity,protein and reducing sugar contents in the filtrate were evaluated In the course of cultivation. The strain secreted anextraceiiuiar a-amylase in the optimal condition at pH 6.5, 5O´C, agitation of 300 rpm and aeration of 1.5 vvm for 24hours. The highest activity of a.amylase and reducing sugar content of 1 068.87 U/mI and 4.48 g/l respectively wereobtained after 24 hours incubation. Hydrolysis products by the crude enzyme on cassava starch were evaluated atdifferent Incubation time. In the course of incubation the content of glucose, dextrin, maltose and oligosaccharideswere increasing. After 24 hours the concentration of glucose and maltose reached 51 970 and 10 090 ppm respectively.Based on the enzymatic products, we concluded that thermostabie a.amylsse produced by B. slearothermophilus was aaendo-a-amylase.

The Process of Xylanase Production from Bacillus pumilus RXAIII-5

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2007): August 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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The optimum conditions for the growth of Bacillus pumilus RXAIII-5 (a potential xylanase producer) were sought, these included temperature, pH, aeration, and agitation of the culture batch. Afterwards a mathematical model based on the parameter of cultivation kinetics was formulated. At the same time, the rheology of the fluid used for bacterial cultivation in a bioreactor was studied. The data obtained was used for estimating the ‘scaling up’ of enzyme production. The results of the study indicate that the optimum condition for processing in 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask are used temperature of 35 oC (308oK), pH 7, and an agitation rate of 140 rpm. The highest xylanase activity and its specific activity are 297.132 and 655.32 U.g-1protein, respectively. Subsequent experiments in a bioreactor using all of the experiment parameters mentioned above, except for the agitation rate, shows that the results are as follows. The highest specific growth was at 0.082 hour-1 at an aeration and agitation rate of 0.5 vvm and 150 rpm, respectively. Based on the data of the cultivation kinetics, the optimum conditions for the fermentation in Biostat 2L-bioreactor is 1 vvm and 200 rpm of aeration and agitation, respectively . The efficiency of substrate (Yp/s) and of cell biomass (Yp/x) to produce xylanase is 50.744 U.g-1 and 43.906 U.g-1, respectively. The efficiency of substrate to cell production (Yx/s) is 1.178g.g-1. The liquid cultivation-medium has non-Newtonian properties. Based on a mathematical model it is found that the consistency index (k constant) and index of liquid behavior (n value) are 0.179 and 0.3212, respectively. Becouse the value of 0

The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated by fungal pretreatment

International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

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The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin) was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan) after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

Campuran Pulp Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit dan Selulosa Mikrobial Nata de Cassava dalam Pembuatan Kertas

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 19, No 1 (2014): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Nowadays, forest-extracted wood cellulose still predominantly serves as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture in Indonesia. Consequently, the deforestation rate has alarmingly increased. The purpose of this research is to study the use of mixed microbial cellulose pulp from nata de cassava and pulp from empty oil palm fruit bunch (EOPFB) for paper manufacture. In this research, pulp of nata de cassava’s microbial cellulose was mixed with EOPFB pulp at various proportions. Additives (i.e. 2% alum, 2.5% tapioca starch, and 5% kaolin) were added to such mixture. Sheet forming without additives was made as a control. Addition of microbial cellulose tends to increase the physical and strength properties of paper and decrease the capability to absorb water significantly. The mixture of pulp of empty oil palm fruit bunch and microbial cellulose from nata de cassava has a potency to substitute wood pulp for paper manufacture. Keywords: empty oil-palm fruit bunch, microbial cellulose (nata de cassava), pulp/paper