Articles

Sifat Anti Cendawan Trichophyton mentagrophytes dan Candida albicans dari Zat Ekstraktif Kayu Pelanjau (Pentaspadon motleyi)

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 4, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

Pelanjau wood (P. motleyi) extractives traditionally used as medicine for skin infection such as scabies (tinea) and rash caused by fungal T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. The aim of this research was to identify the effectiveness of pelanjau wood extractives on growth inhibitory of fungal T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans, isolate and identify extract compounds which have antifungal properties. Extraction and fractionation process yielded 7,04% of ethanol extract consisting of 0,28%, 1,28%, 1,19% and 4,29% of n-hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and residue fractions, respectively. Antifungal activity of pelanjau wood extract more effective on C. albicans growth inhibition than T. mentagrophytes fraction ethyl acetate at (0,03 and 0,06 mg/ml of MIC and MFC, respectively). Isolation of ethyl acetate fraction was resulted dominant compound EA6a and EA6c. NMR and GC MS analysis of compound EA6a indicate 2-Hidroxy octadecanoid acid, Hexadecanoic acid, Ethyl oleate, Octadecanoic acid, Vanilin and phenol,2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) as the possibly main component belonged to fatty acid and phenol group. Compound EA6c indicate Phenol, 4-(1,1 dimetylpropyl), Nonylphenol isomer, Phenol,4-(1,1,2,2-tetrametylbutyl), Nonyl-phenol mix isomer dan 4-Nonylphenol as the possibly main component in belong to phenol group. Key words: Extractives, Pentaspadon motleyi Hook.f, antifungal, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans

Pemanfaatan Serbuk Kayu untuk Produksi Etanol dengan Perlakuan Pendahuluan Delignifikasi Menggunakan Jamur Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 3, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

Currently, Indonesia is in the middle ofpetroleum crisis. One ofthe alternative fuels which can be used as a petroleum substitute is ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from timber waste (sawdust). Indonesia in 2003 had timber waste potency of about 3-4 millions m3. However, ethanol production from sawdust has problems due to its lignin content. Therefore, research on bio-delignification treatment of sawdust prior to ethanol making process is required. In the present study ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using crude cellulose from Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The raw materials for ethanol production are sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen syn.), meranti (Shorea sp.) and teak (Tectona grandis LIIVN.f.) sawdust after pretreatment with white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium for 10, 20 and 30 days incubation time. The yield of ethanol was between 1.65-44.83 g/1. The best combination treatment is sengon sawdust with 30 day incubation time.Keywords : sawdust, white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, ethanol.

Nisbah stereoisomer erythro dan threo struktur β -o-4 serta hubungannya dengan jenis cincin aromatik penyusun makromolekul lig

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Reaction woods were obtained from leaning wood stems of several wood species and the relationships between the type of reaction wood and lignin characteristics was observed. As lignin characteristics, stereo structure of IJ-0-4 linkage (erythro/threo ratio), aromatic ring type (syringyl/guaiacyl ratio), klason lignin yield and acid soluble lignin content were determined. The relationships could be classified as a typical gymnosperms and angiosperms. Gymnosperms species formed compression wood having high lignin content as well as erythro/threo ratio. However, angiosperms species produced tension wood which tend to have lower lignin content but higher erythro/threo and syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. In all types of reaction wood, erythro/threo ratio changed with clear tendency from the opposite wood part to reaction wood part, but the direction of the change was dependent on its type. In Guaiacyi-Syringyl lignin, erythro/threo ratio was highly correlated with syringyl ratio, and in Guaiacyl-lignin, it was correlated with p-hydroxyphenyl content although the range of variation was very small. In addition, syringyl/guaiacyl rasio was also correlated with acid-soluble lignin formation.

The Influence Of Reactant Ratio (Eupcalyptus Lignin – Sodium Bisulfite) And Initial Ph Towards Characteristcs Of Sodium Lignosulfonate

Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian Vol 19, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

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Abstract

Eucalyptus lignin was isolated from kraft black liquor through by acidification using H2SO4. Sulfonation of eucalyptus lignin produced sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) which can be used as dispersants, and emulsifier. In this research, sulfonation was carried out towards lignin with mass ratio of eucalyptus lignin-NaHSO3 (b/b) of 1:0.4, 1:0.5, and 1:0.6, and initial pH of 5, 6, 7, 8. Studies on the effect of various ratio of eucalyptus lignin versus NaHSO3 (1 based on w/w) and initial pH of 5,6,and 7 for the sulfonation reaction showed an  increasing yield and improved purity of SLS obtained.  However, no significant result was observed on the application of initial pH  7 and 8 toward increasing of SLS yield and purity.  The highest SLS  yield of 83.8% with  purity of 82.9% was obtained under condition of initial pH at 7 and the mass ratio of eupcayptus lignin over NaHSO3 was 1:0.5.  The resulted SLS was light brown, water soluble, with  pH level between 6.3 and 7.24, and released sulfur-like odor.Key words: lignin, kraft black liquor,  sodium lignosulfonate.

BIOAKTIVITAS ZAT EKSTRAKTIF KULIT Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. TERHADAP RAYAP TANAH (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren)

Jurnal TENGKAWANG Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Tengkawang
Publisher : Universitas Tanjungpura

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Abstract

This research was undertaken mainly to isolate and identify antitermitic substances that may be prospective as wood natural preservative from the bark of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. The woodmeal of the samples were extracted with acetone.  The acetone extract was then fractionated into n-hexane soluble fraction, ethyl ether soluble fraction, ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and insoluble fraction.  The antifeedant bioassay test was carried out by treating paper discs with extracts at six level of concentration i.e. 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w).  The bioassay test revealed that ethyl ether soluble fraction exhibited high toxicity to subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (concentration of 4% has been indicated very strong activity). Keywords:       Bioactivity, extractives, Acacia auriculiformis, termites, Coptotermes curvignathus

The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated by fungal pretreatment

International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin) was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan) after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AFFORDED BY THE EXTRACT FROM RARU BARK TO INHIBIT ACTION OF ALPHA- GLUCOSIDASE ENZYMES

Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 8, No 1 (2011): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Raru (Shoreabalanocarpoides Sym) signifies one of the tree species that grows widespread in Sumatra Island.  Its bark portion is commonly used by local villagers as additional ingredient mixed to nira (sugar palm juice).  This addition is intended to make the juice more durable and also to enrich its taste after the juice is previously fermented to become traditional toddy beverage or the so-call “tuak”.  Local villagers believe that raru bark can reduce the level of blood sugar. As the relevance, the research was conducted to confirm that the extract from raru bark could afford its biological activities to inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzyme through its characterization, quantification, and isolation of its boactive compound. The extraction was performed using two methods (i.e.reflux and maceration techniques). Result revealed that the bark extract obtained from both techniques contained polyphenol compounds: flavonoid, saponin and tannin. Further, raru-bark extract from the reflux and maceration techniques could inhibit the action of alpha glucosidase enzymes on carbohydrate substrate ( i.e. p -nitrophenil-α-D-glucopyranose), at respectively 90.67% and 97.33%. Meanwhile, the inhibition activities afforded by the patented drug as a control (i.e. glucobay) equaled to 97.05%.  Assesment using UV-VIS spectroscopy, showed that the maximum spectrum of bioactive compound in the extract was at the wave length of 288.6 nm. Scrutiny using FTIR spectroscopy could identif y the presence of aromatic groups in the compound, containing -OH, C-H, C=C, C-O and C-H bond types. Analysis using GC-MS exhibited that the compound had molecular weight of 390 with molecular structure as C20H22O8. Ultimately, data analysis scrutiny with the aid of NMR judged the most plausible compound as bioactive was 4-Glucosyl-3, 4’, 5-trihydroxystilbene.

MODEL PRODUKSI DAUN PADA HUTAN TANAMAN KAYU PUTIH ( Melaleuca cajuputi Subsp cajupti. POWELL) SISTEM PEMANENAN PANGKAS TUNAS

Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman Vol 9, No 4 (2012): JURNAL PENELITIAN HUTAN TANAMAN
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peningkatan Produktivitas Hutan

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Abstract

ABSTRACTCajuput oil is one of important non-timber forest product in Indonesia, which is resulted from processing of kayuputih ( Melaleuca cajuputi Subsp. cajuputi Powell) leaves. Perum Perhutani is now managing about 24,000 hectarsof kayu putih plantation in Java and 10 units of leaves processing mills with installed capacity of 53,760 tonnes peryear. However, these mill were not optimally operation due to low leaves kayu putih production. The objective of thisstudy were: (1) to develop kayu putih leaves production model, for one leaves harvesting rotation, and (2) to developkayu putih leaves production model for one biological rotation, to determine a silviculture rotation age of kayu putihstand. Subject to field condition, number of tree, stand density, and biomass by part of tree from36 temporary sampleplot (TSP) of Age Class II at BKPH Sukun were then measured to develop kayu putih leaves production model andfrom 24 TSP of all Age Class (Age Class I - VIII) at BKPH Sukun were measured to determine a biological rotationage. The result show that Morgan-Mercer-Flodin (MMF) equation was the best model representing kayu putih leavesproduction model, with option sprout age of 7 months. Polynomial equation was a model inrepresenting kayu putihleaves production model. Abiological rotation age was estimated around 25 years (with Age Class V).ABSTRAKKayu putih merupakan salah satu hasil hutan non kayu yang penting di Indonesia. Hutan tanaman kayu putih di Jawacukup besar, diperkirakan Perum Perhutani mengelola sekitar 24.000 ha areal produktif jenis ini dan memiliki 10Pabrik Pengolahan Minyak Kayu Putih (PMKP). Namun Pengelolaannya belum optimal karena sampai saat iniproduksi daun kayu putih masih jauh dari kapasitas terpasang pabrik, yaitu sebesar 53.760 ton daun kayu putih pertahun. Tujuan penelitian adalah: (1) mengetahui model produksi daun tanaman kayu putih dalam satu periodepemangkasan dan (2) mengetahui model produktivitas daun tanaman kayu putih dalam satu daur biologis. Hasilmodel yang diperoleh digunakan untuk menentukan saat daun dipanen dan saat tanaman kayu putih diganti dengantanaman baru. Metode pengambilan data dilakukan dengan survey, pengamatan langsung di lapangan denganpengukuran plot-plot ukur sementara (PUS). Plot ukur untuk pembuatan model dalam satu daur panen dibuatsebanyak 36 PUS dan 24 PUS untuk pembuatan model dalam satu daur biologis. Model produksi daun kayu putihterbaik dalam satu daur panen adalah Morgan-Mercer-Flodin model (MMF) dan pemangkasan optimum adalah padaumur tunas 7 bulan, dimana kurva laju pertumbuhan rata-rata bulanan maksimum berpotongan dengan kurvapertumbuhan bulan berjalan. Model produktivitas dalam satu daur silvikulktuyr adalah model polinomial. Daurbiologis atau saat tanaman diganti dengan tanaman baru diperkirakan pada umur 25 tahun (kelas umur V), dimanaproduk-tivitas setelah umur ini menurun.

ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF WOOD EXTRACT OF Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte AGAINST AGARWOOD-INDUCING FUNGI, Fusarium solani

Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

This paper provided information regarding artificial agar wood production. Fungi are considered as biological agent for agarwood formation and agarwood is assumed as tree defense mechanism product. This research was aimed at investigating the anti fungal activity (AFA) of Aquilaria crassna, one of the agar wood-producing trees, against Fusarium solani in vitro. Aquilaria crassna wood mill was extracted by 70% ethanol to investigate the anti fungal activity. The result are Aquilariacrassnaexhibited low extractives content, which was only 2.0% (w/w) and a low anti fungal activity in vitro, especially for ethanol extract. However, further fractionation and bioassay showed that the most active component was likely in the ethyl-acetate soluble fraction that exhibited strong anti fungal activity (52.5%) at 4.0% of concentration.

Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment

Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.