Articles

Amino Acid Sequence Differences of Cytotoxic T-Cell and Helper T-Cell Epitope of Wild-Type Measles Virus and Vaccine Virus in Indonesia Setiawan, Made; Sjahrurachman, Agus; Ibrahim, Fera; Suwandono, Agus
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 59 No. 1 January 2009
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Measles virus is a negative single-strand RNA virus, a member of genus Morbillivirus which belongs to Paramyxoviridae family. RNA is packed by nucleokapsid (N) protein. Nucleoprotein is very important for RNA replication and translation. Moreover, nucleoprotein is involved in inducing the protective antibody in the hosts. When the differences amino acid of cytotoxic T-Cell and helper T-Cell occurs in nucleoprotein, leadding to the differences of antibody specificity to those epitope. The purpose of this research is to know the amino acid sequence differences of cytotoxic T-cell and Helper T-Cell epitope of nucleoprotein between the wild-type measles virus and the measles vaccine virus. This research is a laboratory-based research using biomoleculer and bioinformatic technology to analyse the virus gene. We found the amino acid sequence differences of cytotoxic T-cell epitope of N protein (52-59) between the wild-type measles virus and the CAM-70 vaccine virus. However, we did not find the differences between the wildtype measles virus with Schwarz vaccine and Edmonston-wt. On the other hand, we found the differences of Helper T-Cell epitope of N protein between the wild-type measles virus and CAM-70 vaccine virus, and between Schwarz vaccine virus and Edmonston-wt. The study concluded that there are amino acid sequence differences of B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope of N protein between the wild-type measles virus and the vaccine virus.Keywords: Measles virus, B-cell epitope of N protein, T-cell epitope of N protein.
The Differences of Fusion (F) Gene Nucleotide Sequence and F-Protein Amino Acid Sequence of Wild Measles Virus and Vaccine Virus in Indonesia Setiawan, Made; Sjahrurachman, Agus; Ibrahim, Fera; Suwandono, Agus
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 58 No. 11 November 2008
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Measles virus is one of the cause of disease in babies and children. There are 2 glycoproteins in the virus envelope, hemaglutinin protein and fusion protein. The F protein of measles virus is essential for the virus to infect cells. This research was aimed to know the amino acid sequence differences of nucleotide and amino acid sequence of F protein between the wild-type measles (G2, G3, and D9), the CAM 70 vaccine, the Schwarz, and the Edmonston-wt viruses. The extraction and amplification of the gene were conducted in the laboratory using biomoleculer technology. The gene analysis was conducted using bioinformatic technology. We found that the biggest diffferences of nucleotide sequence between the wild-type measles and the CAM-70 vaccine virus was 83-90 nucleotides; the Schwarz virus was 16-23 nucleotides, and the Edmonston-wt was 18-23 nucleotides. The biggest amino acid sequence difference (29-31 residus) was found between the wild measles and CAM-70 vaccine virus, and the Schwarz virus (4-5 residus) and the Edmonston-wt virus (1-3 residus). It was concluded that there were differences of nucleotide sequence and F protein amnio acid between the wild measles virus and the vaccine virus in Indonesia. The wild type measles virus had a closer genetic relation to the Schwarz vaccine virus compared to the CAM-70 vaccine virus.Keywords: Measles virus, fusion gene, measles vaccine, Schwarz vaccine, Edmonston-wt
Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Platelet, Leucocyte, NS1 Antigen, and Antidengue IgM Antibody Suwandono, Agus; Nurhayati, Nurhayati; Parwati, Ida; Rudiman, Panji Irani Fianza; Wisaksana, Rudi; Kosasih, Herman; Alisjahbana, Bachti
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 61 No. 8 August 2011
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Abstract

There are various laboratory tests used to diagnose dengue viral infections. However, not all diagnostic laboratories have those capabilities. Routine hematology tests such as platelet and leukocyte counts are still used by clinicians as supportive tests to diagnose dengue infections because they are available in most primary health centers or small laboratories. This study evaluated the diagnostic use of platelet and leukocyte counts, which are easier and cheaper than dengue NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies, and the appropriate laboratory tests in regard to day(s) of fever. This study used acute specimens from all dengue and non-dengue cases that had been confirmed by a series of dengue diagnostic tests. All the specimens were collected from several studies conducted by US-NAMRU-2, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital/Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran University, and National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) from 2000 to 2009. This study revealed either thrombocytopenia or leucopenia is an accurate parameter to determine dengue infections starting from day 4 of illness. NS1 test was helpful for diagnosis especially in first and second day of fever whereas IgM antibody is recommended to be used starting from day 5 of fever. J Indon Med Assoc. 2011;61:326-32.Keywords: dengue, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, NS1 antigen, dengue IgM antibody
The Differences of Amino Acid Sequence in Hemaglutinin Protein Between The Wild-Type Measles Virus and The Vaccine Virus in Indonesia Setiawan, Made; Sjahrurachman, Agus; Ibrahim, Fera; Suwandono, Agus
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 59 No. 2 February 2009
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Abstract

The H-protein of the measles virus is an important part of the virus to infect the host. The glycosilation and receptor sites of H-protein are considered to be essential in the process of infecting the cells and immune receptor. If there is a defect in important-site amino acid of the Hprotein, the infection process in the host cells and the immune respons will be disturbed. The aimed of this research is to know the differences of important-site amino acid sequence of H-protein between the wild-type measles virus (G2, G3, and D9), the CAM-70 vaccine virus, the Schwarz vaccine virus, and the Edmonston-wt virus. The extraction and amplification of the gene were conducted in the laboratory using biomolecular technology. The gene and protein analysis were conducted using the bioinformatic technology. We found glycosilation site differences between the H-protein of the G3 genotype wild measles virus with other wild measles virus and the vaccine virus. The biggest CD46-contact site differences are found between the wild measles virus (G2, G3, and D9) and CAM-70, compared to Schwarz and Edmonston-wt. We do not find the amino acid sequence differences in the CD 150 contact site. We conclude that the Indonesian wild measles virus has an amino acid sequence difference at the glycosilation and CD 46 contact site, between the wild measles virus and the CAM-70.Keywords: Measles virus, hemaglutinin protein, glycosilation site, receptor site
Dominant factors associated with biosafety facility and equipment in laboratories: an Indonesian 2011 study Farradika, Yoli; Lisdawati, Vivi; Roehaeni, Rini; Suwandono, Agus
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 Jun (2013)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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Abstract

AbstrakLatar belakang: Ketersediaan fasilitas dan kelengkapan peralatan keamanan hayati di laboratorium adalah esensial dalam menciptakan lingkungan kerja yang aman bagi personel laboratorium. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor dominan berhubungan dengan kelengkapan alat pelindung diri (APD), ketersediaan biosafety cabinet, dan ketersediaan ruang sterilisasi di laboratorium.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data laboratorium klinik Rifaskes 2011. Cox regresi dipakai untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor dominan yang terkait dengan kelengkapan alat pelindung diri (APD), ketersediaan biosafety cabinet, dan ketersediaan ruang sterilisasi.Hasil: Dari 782 laboratorium, terdapat 769 laboratorium dengan data yang lengkap dan dapat dianalisis. Sangat sedikit (15%) laboratorium kelas utama dan laboratorium terakreditasi hanya 9,9%. Laboratorium kelas satu dibandingkan dengan laboratorium kelas madya dan pratama memiliki kesempatan yang lebih tinggi adanya alat pelindung diri (APD) lengkap, ketersediaan biosafety cabinet, dan ketersediaan ruang sterilisasi. Selain itu, laboratorium terakreditasi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak terakreditasi hampir 3 kali lipat mempunyai ketersediaan APD lengkap (RRa = 2,94; P = 0,000), hampir 4 kali memiliki biosafety cabinet (RRa = 3,94; P = 0,000), dan memiliki 37% kesempatan memiliki ruang sterilisasi (RRa = 1,37; P = 0,008). Kesimpulan: Klasifikasi dan akreditasi laboratorium merupakan faktor dominan berhubungan dengan ketersediaan fasilitas dan kelengkapan peralatan biosafety di laboratorium. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:1-6)Kata kunci: akreditasi, biosafety, klasifikasi, laboratorium AbstractBackground: The availability of facility and completeness of equipments of biosafety in laboratories is esensial in creating safe working environment for laboratories personnel. The aim of this study was to identify the dominant factors related to completeness of personal protective equipment (PPE), availability of biosafety cabinet, and availability of sterilization room in laboratories. Methods: Data analysis using a part of data of Rifaskes 2011 on clinical laboratories. Cox regression was conducted to identify the dominant factors related to completeness of personal protective equipment (PPE), availability of biosafety cabinet, and availability of sterilization room. Results: From 782 laboratories, there were 769 laboratories with complete data and may be analyzed. We note that very few (15%) first class laboratories and accredited laboratories was 9.9% only. In term of laboratory classification, the first class compared with second and third class laboratories had higher chance having complete PPE, biosafety cabinet, and availability of sterilization room. In addition, the accredited laboratory compared with not accredited laboratory had almost 3 times having complete PPE (RRa = 2.94; P = 0.000), and had almost 4 times having biosafety cabinet (RRa = 3.94; P = 0.000), and had 37% more chance having sterilization room (RRa = 1.37; P = 0.008). Conclusion: Laboratory classification and accreditation were dominant factors related to availability of facility and completeness of equipments of biosafety in laboratories. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:1-6) Keywords: accreditation, biosafety, classification, laboratories
Regional disparity of drug availability for Basic Emergency Obstetrict and Neonatal Care (BEONC): an Indonesian national study in 2011 Suwandono, Agus; Sasanti, Rini; Trihono, Trihono
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 Des (2012)
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Abstract

AbstrakLatar belakang:Sebagai komponen penting untuk mendukung pelaksanaan program KIA, obat untuk program pelayanan obstreti, neonatal emergensi dasar (PONED) harus tersedia di instalasi farmasi kabupaten/kota (IFK) di seluruh regional di Indonesia. Namum kadang-kadang terjadi disparitas ketersediaannya. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi disparitas Ketersediaan tersebut.Metode:Penelitian potong lintang yang merupakan bagian dari Rifaskes 2011 pada bulan Agustus-Oktober 2011 yang mencakup seluruh 497 IFK kabupaten/kota di 33 provinsi Indonesia. Regional terdiri dari Sumatera, Jawa-Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, dan Papua. Obat esensial PONED dibagi menjadi dua klasifikasi: (1) sangat penting, dan (2) penting.Hasil: Pada Januari 2012, dari 497 kabupaten/kota tersedia 316 (64%) untuk analisis ini. Terdapat disparitas obat untuk PONED baik yang tergolong sangat penting maupun yang penting. Di antara obat PONED esensial yang sangat penting, Dextrose infus dan Ergomterin/methiler-gometrin injeksi maleat, dan Oxytosin injeksi tersedia di semua wilayah kecuali di Maluku. Anti tetanus serum (ATS), Furosemid injeksi, Furosemid injeksi, Magnesium sulfat, dan Penicilin prokain tersedia di semua regional. Obat PONED esensial yang penting, kecuali obat Bicarbonas di Papua, semua obat esensial PONED kurang tersedia di semua regional. Yang paling tidak tersedia adalah infus A2, injeksi Cedilanide, Natrium bikarbonat injeksi, dan petidin injeksi. Secara keseluruhan di Nusa Tenggara mempunyai persediaan obat PONED yang relatif lebih baik dibandingkan region lainnya.Kesimpulan: Terdapat kesenjangan ketersediaan obat esensial PONED yang sangat penting maupun yang penting di seluruh di Indonesia. Maka kesenjangan obat-obat PONED ini harus diatasi. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Kata kunci:ketersediaan obat PONED, disparitas, instalasi farmasi, IndonesiaAbstractBackground:As an important component to support the implementation of the Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEONC)the drugs should be available in the district/city pharmacy (IFK) in entire region in Indonesia. However, availability disparity occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the disparity on the availability drugs in Indonesia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-October 2011, which covered all IFK districts / municipalities in 33 provinces of Indonesia. The location comprised regional: Sumatra, Java and Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua. BEONC essential medicines were divided into two classifications: (1) very very important, and (2) very important.Results: In January 2012, out of 497 districts / cities 316 (64%) were available for this analysis. There were disparities on availability BEONC classified as very very important as well as very important drugs. Among the very important BEONC essential drugs, Dextrose infusion and Ergomterin / methiler-gometrin maleate injection, and injection Oxytosin available in all regions except in the Maluku. Anti-tetanus serum (ATS), furosemide injection, furosemide injection, Magnesium sulfate, and Procaine Penicillin were available in all regions. The important BEONC essential drugs, except Bicarbonas in Papua, all essential drugs BEONC less available in all regions. The most available was A2 infusion fluid, Cedilanide injection, sodium bicarbonate injection, and pethidine injection. It seemed that Nusa Tenggara region had relatively better BEONC drug stock as compared to other regions.Conclusion:There was significantly disparity on availability of very important essential BEONC drugs in all regions in Indonesia. Therefore it is necessary to solve the disparity problems of BEONC drugs. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Key words:BEONC drug, availability, disparity, pharmaceutical installation, Indonesia
SURVEI KESEHATAN PROPINSI MALUKU 1991: Hasil Kajian Deskriptif Suwandono, Agus
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 22, No 2 Jun (1994)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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Abstract

An integrated household health survey has been conducted in Maluku Province in 1991 by the Research Center for Humatities and Social Science University of Indonesia, National Institute of Health Research and Development MOH, University of Pattimura and University of Sam Ratulangi. The objective of this survey is to obtain a general picture of health conditions of Maluku province and to compare with the results of the National Health Household Survey 1986 (NHHS 86). Methodologies, location of samples and questionaires used are the same as the NHHS 86 with a small modification. The number of samples is lower than the NHHS 86. Some limitations of the survey are also recognized. The results show some changes of demographic, health, and socio-economic conditions. The sample with age group below 10 years was 29.4% in 1986 and 24.7% in 1991, over 55 years was 7.7% in 1986 and is 8.9% in 1991 while illiteracy was 13% in 1986 and 3.5% in 1991. There is an improvement of some the health status indicators and health services coverage. Crude Death Rate in 1986 was 7.2%, while in 1991 5.3%. Infant Mortality Rate in 1986 was 66.1% in 1991 dropped to 63.2% while the Child Mortality Rate under 4 years was 11.4% in 1986 and 10.2% in 1991. However, the results also indicate some persistent conditions of community health behaviours. Health is found as a complex problem which is influenced by many factors. Health management service improvement, appropriate health manpower planning, improvement of health manpower quality, improvement of "PKMD" understanding and application, intensification of community participation, better intersectoral coordination, development and implementation of the concept of the center of group of islands for health services are recomended as a result of this discriptive analysis.
STUDI EVALUASI TUGAS DAN FUNGSI KANDEPKES KABUPATEN/KOTA MADYA DALAM PENGELOLAAN PROGRAM KESEHATAN DI DAERAH TINGKAT II Suwandono, Agus; Gotama, Ida Bagus Indra; Anorital, Anorital; Trihandoyo, Bagus; Soemodinoto, Soekanto
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 23, No 1 Mar (1995)
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Abstract

A study to evaluate the performance of the District Office of Ministry of Health (DO-MOH) was carried out during the fiscal year of 1991/1992. Specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the organization of the DO-MOH as stated in the policy of MOH and to look at the implementation of coordination, integration and synchronization of the DO-MOH with the local related health agencies and local administrator. "Mail survey" in 301 DO-MOH throughout Indonesia, modified focus group discussion (MFGD) and indepth interview in 9 DO-MOH samples in South Kalimantan, Yogyakarta and South Sulawesi Provinces were carried out to achieve the objectives of this evaluative study. Descriptive and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. It was found that facilities, manpower, budget, management including coordination, integration and synchronization as well as other performances of most of the DO-MOH were still far beyond expected e.g 60.9% of DO-MOH were still using other building to carry out the daily routine jobs, 96,4% did not have stencil machines, 50,4% did not have calculators, 81.5% DO-MOH had 1-5 personnels who were still partimers, 51% did not carry out the managerial functions of DO-MOH. In the context of solving the problems faced by the DO-MOH there have been 5 proposed alternatives for structural and functional communications with the health units at provincial, regency, and district levels. There may be beneficial as well as unbeneficial aspects of these 5 alternatives, depending on the present existing conditions and the future expected health trends.
KECENDERUNGAN TRANSISI DEMOGRAFI DAN EPIDEMIOLOGI SUATU FENOMENA PENTING TERHADAP MASALAH GIZI DAN KESEHATAN PADA PRA-LANSIA DAN LANSIA Soemodinoto, Sukanto; Suwandono, Agus
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan Vol 1, No 1 Mar (1997)
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The positive impacts of the First Long Term Development 1968-1993) have resulted improvement of health status, socio economic condition and demographic changes. Although infections diseases are still prevalent, epidemiologic transition is occuring as shown by the increase of death caused by cardiovascular diseases, cancer, degenerative and other chronic diseases. The projection of population composition has shown that by the year of 2020, the population pyramide of Indonesia will be as the pattern of developed countnes. Apart from the increase numbers of senior citizen, health problems in this population group will occur due to socio-economic and environmental changes. Considermg such condition, in the attempts to have better health status among meelderly and elderly groups, a nutrition policy should be made as an integral part of health development programs. The policy should be formulated as integral programs of human resources development. The emphasis must be concentrated on the balanceor healthy diet and  the variation of food stuffs. In addition, the approach toward positif and proactive health development should be actively promoted.   Key Word : epidemiologic transition, demographic transition, socio-economic changes, nutrition policy.
FINANCING MODEL (SISTEM REWARD) SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN PEMANFAATAN TENAGA BIDAN DALAM PEMERIKSAAN KEHAMILAN DAN PERTOLONGAN PERSALINAN (TAHAP I : PENYUSUNAN MODEL) Sarwanto, Sarwanto; Bachroen, Cholis; Soemartono, Soemartono; Budiarto, Wasis; Suwandono, Agus
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan Vol 2, No 2 Des (1998)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan

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Abstract

Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in ASEAN is still taking place the highest order, that is 384 per 100.000 live birth (SKRT 1995) and until now the decreasing effort is not yet succeed as like as expected. The one strategy to overcome this problem is developing fmancing model for midwifes antenatal and prenatal care by solidarity principal among the community members as like as health fund. The objective of the study was to improve midwifes role utiliza­ tion on antenatal and prenatal care by developing financing model, especially to: 1. Develop the financing model for antenatal and prenatal care by utilizing Rural Midwives (Bidan di Desa), 2. Formulate mana­ gement procedure of financing model including its distribution,  3. In­ ventory the stimulus and obstacle factors influencing on formulation and management of model . The method of this study on developing the model was conducted by: a. Collecting information on the on going health fund in East Java, Central Java, and South Sulawesi Provinces, b. Focus group discussion with the district program managers and related sectors (Local Government, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Health District, Hospital, Indonesian Midwife Union), literature study, consultation, and inventory of secondary data, c. Discussion on the beginning step of the model and socialization to community intervention area (Lumajang and Situbondo), and d. Discussion on the last step of the model related to the model implemented in the intervention area.
Co-Authors *, Nurhayati Agus Sjahrurachman Agus Suprapto Andryansyah Arifin Anggit Vikasari, Anggit Anita, Theresia Anorital Anorital Ari Suwondo Ari Udiyono Bachti Alisjahbana Bagus Trihandoyo Cahya Rosyida, Desta Ayu Chasanah, Mazroatul Choirul Anwar Cholis Bachroen Cika Nirbaya Br Lubis, Cika Nirbaya D, Djanurdi Deny Novani, Deny Desiani, Amila Deviana Yuanitasari, Deviana Dewi Nur Aisyah Diyah Fatmasari Djoko Trihadi, Djoko Erent Ersantika Sari, Erent Ersantika FERA IBRAHIM Fera lbrahim Hari Basuki Henry Setyawan Susanto, Henry Setyawan Herman Kosasih Ida Ariyanti, Ida Ida Bagus Indra Gotama Ida Parwati Imam Djamaluddin Mashoedi Khomsah, Yuli Sya’baniah Kristina Maharani, Kristina Kuswaningrum, Okta Lintang Dian Saraswati M. Sakundarno Adi Made Setiawan Martini Martini Mateus Sakundarno, Mateus Mazroatul Khasanah, Mazroatul Muhamad Amirulloh, Muhamad Noor Pramono Nurhayati Nurhayati Panji Irani Fianza Rudiman Pujiastuti, Sri Endang Putra, Suharto Taat Rachmayani, Dewi Riadini, Agi Yulia Rifki Muslim Rini Roehaeni Rini Sasanti Rita Kartika Sari Rozzaq Alhanif Islamudin, Rozzaq Alhanif Rudi Wisaksana Runjati Runjati, Runjati Sarwanto Sarwanto Setia Pranata Soeharyo Hadisaputro Soekanto Soemodinoto Soemartono Soemartono Sudiro Sudiro Suhartono Suhartono Sukanto Soemodinoto Suparto, Susilowati Suryati Kumorowulan Susilowati Suparto Dajaan, Susilowati Suparto Syukur, Amin Trihono Trihono Ulya, Fitria Hikmatul Vivi Lisdawati Wasis Budiarto Wijaya, Liauw Regina Mulia Wiku Adisasmito Yoli Farradika