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Penggunaan Jenis Entris, Posisi Sambungan, dan Posisi Penyisipan Entris pada Batang Bawah terhadap Keberhasilan Penyambungan dan Pemacuan Pertumbuhan Bibit Manggis Anwarudinsyah, Jawal Muhammad; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sutrisno, Nono; Purnama, T; Fatria, D
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 20, No 4 (2010): Desember 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Bibit manggis yang dihasilkan melalui teknik sambung pucuk berbuah lebih cepat dengan habitus tanamanrendah, sehingga akan mudah dikelola. Populasi tanaman persatuan luas lebih banyak karena jarak tanam yang rapat.Namun, pertumbuhan bibit yang dihasilkan dengan teknik tersebut sangat lambat dengan arah pertumbuhan yangmenyamping, sehingga bentuk kanopinya tidak menarik. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh jenis entris, posisisambungan, dan posisi penyisipan entris pada batang bawah terhadap keberhasilan sambung pucuk dan pemacuanpertumbuhan bibit manggis. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Pembibitan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah TropikaSolok mulai bulan Juli 2003 sampai dengan Maret 2005. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak kelompokfaktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah jenis entris yang terdiri atas entris tengah dan samping. Faktorkedua ialah posisi sambungan, yaitu penyambungan pada bagian batang bawah yang masih sukulen dan pada bagianyang sudah berkayu. Faktor ketiga ialah penyisipan entris, yaitu entris disisipkan pada bagian yang lebar dan bagianyang sempit dari batang bawah. Setiap unit perlakuan terdiri atas lima tanaman. Peubah yang diamati meliputikeberhasilan penyambungan, frekuensi pecah tunas, jumlah daun, tinggi tanaman, diamater batang, jumlah cabanglateral, dan persentase bibit sambung yang tumbuh menyamping. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tunas tengahdan samping dapat digunakan sebagai entris dengan tingkat keberhasilan penyambungan dan pertumbuhan bibitsambung yang relatif sama (79-80%). Posisi penyambungan yang terbaik adalah pada ruas batang bawah yang berkayu.Penyisipan entris pada bagian yang lebar atau bagian sempit dari ruas batang bawah tidak banyak memengaruhitingkat keberhasilan penyambungan dan pertumbuhan bibit sambung manggis.ABSTRACT. Jawal, M. Anwarudin Syah, R. Poerwanto, N. Sutrisno, T. Purnama, and D. Fatria. 2010. TheEffect of Scion Type, Grafting Position, and Scion Insertion Position on the success of Rootstock Grafting andthe Growth of Grafted Mangosteen. The objective of this study was to determine the best scion type, grafting, andscion insertion position on rootstock on grafted mangosteen. This study was conducted at the Nursery of IndonesianTropical Fruit Research Institute Solok from July 2003 to March 2005 by using a factorial randomized block designwith three replications. The first factor was the scion types (autotroph and plagiotroph), the second factor was thegrafting position (in suculent and wooden tissues), and the third one was the scion insertion position on rootstock i.e.scion was inserted on the wide and narrow parts of rootstock. The observed variable were grafting successfulness,the frequency of flush, leaf number, plant height, stem diameter, and the number of lateral branch. The results of theexperiment indicated that autotroph and plagiotroph scions can be used for mangosteen grafting. Best position forgrafting was wooden part of rootstock. Inserting scion on the wide and narrow parts of rootstock did not affect thegrafting growth successfulness.
eleksi Dini Hibrida F1 Mangga Produktif dan Berwarna Merah Berdasarkan Aktivitas Enzim Esterase dan Kandungan Antosianin Anwarudinsyah, Muhammad Jawal; Sukartini, Sukartini; Sunarwati, Diah; Rebin, Rebin; Sutrisno, Nono
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 22, No 3 (2012): September 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Arumanis 143 merupakan varietas mangga unggul nasional yang memiliki kualitas buah cukup baik dan sudah dikenal di pasar, tetapi tingkat produktivitasnya masih rendah dan kulit buah tetap berwarna hijau walaupun sudah masak. Persilangan antara mangga Arumanis dengan varietas yang lebih produktif dan berwarna merah merupakan salah satu cara untuk memperbaiki produktivitas dan mengubah warna menjadi merah. Penelitian dilakukan mulai Januari sampai dengan Desember 2006 di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok dan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian  untuk menyeleksi secara dini karakter produktif dan warna merah pada kulit buah terhadap 19 semaian hibrida F1 hasil persilangan antara induk Arumanis 143 dengan mangga-mangga Cukurgondang melalui analisis aktivitas enzim esterase dan kandungan antosianin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 19 semaian hibrida F1 ada empat semaian yang produktivitasnya lebih rendah dan 15 semaian yang produktivitasnya lebih tinggi dari tetua induk Arumanis 143. Dari 15 semaian ada lima semaian yang sangat produktif karena aktivitas enzim esterasenya lebih tinggi daripada standar (tetua paling produktif yaitu Keith), sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai kandidat varietas mangga Arumanis yang produktif. Kelima semaian tersebut  berasal dari persilangan  nomor 25, 33, 35, 47, dan 50. Hasil analisis kandungan antosianin menunjukkan bahwa hampir seluruh semaian hibrida F1 memiliki kandungan antosianin lebih tinggi dari induk Arumanis 143, tetapi yang memiliki kandungan antosianin lebih tinggi dari standar (Apel dan Khirsapati Maldah) ada empat semaian, yaitu hibrida dari persilangan nomor 20, 25, 44, dan 48. Keempat  semaian tersebut selanjutnya dikategorikan sebagai kandidat varietas mangga Arumanis yang kulit buahnya berpotensi berwarna merah. Khusus semaian hibrida F1 dari persilangan no 25 selain lebih produktif juga kulit buahnya berpotensi berwarna merah.ABSTRACT. Jawal, M Anwarudin Syah, Sukartini, Sunarwati, D, Rebin, and Sutrisno, N 2012. The Early Selection of Mango Hybrids which Productive and  Red Skin Fruit by Activity of Esterase Enzymes and Anthocyanin Content. The Arumanis 143 is a national superior mango cultivar which have a good quality and marketable, but the low productivity and green of skin fruit. The hybridization of Arumanis 143 cultivar with the productive cultivars and red skin mango is a method to improved the productivity and change the skin color to red on Arumanis cultivar. Early selection on productivity character and red skin color of mango based on esterase enzyme activity and anthocyanin content on hybrid F1 seedling by crossing Arumanis 143 with the productive cultivars and red skin mango. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute Solok and Postharvest Research and Development Institute Bogor from January to December 2006. The objective of the research was to early selection of productivity character and red skin color of mango on 19 hybrids F1 by activities of esterase enzyme and anthocyanin content. The results analysis of  esterase enzyme activity showed that there were five seedlings hybrids F1 which activity of esterase enzyme higher than standard (Keith) i.e. hybrid number 25, 33, 35, 47, and 50. Those five seedlings hybrid can be determined as productive candidate of Arumanis mango cultivars. The results analysis of anthocyanin content showed that there were four seedlings hybrids F1 which anthocyanin content higher than standard (Apel and Khirsapati Maldah) i.e. hybrid number 20, 25, 44, and 48. The four seedlings hybrid can be determined as red skin of mango candidate of Arumanis cultivars. The seedlings number 25 have high of esterase enzyme activity and anthocyanin content, thus could be determined as Arumanis cultivars which productive and red skin mango.
TEKNOLOGI KONSERVASI TANAH DAN AIR UNTUK MENCEGAH DEGRADASI LAHAN PERTANIAN BERLERENG Sutrisno, Nono; Heryani, Nani
Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol 32, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Pusat Perpustakaan dan Penyebaran Teknologi Pertanian

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Degradasi atau penurunan kualitas lahan merupakan isu globalutama pada abad ke-20 dan masih menjadi isu penting dalam agendainternasional pada abad ke-21. Erosi tanah, kelangkaan air, energi,dan keanekaragaman hayati menjadi permasalahan lingkunganglobal sejalan dengan meningkatnya jumlah penduduk. Erosi tanahmenyebabkan degradasi lahan karena dapat menurunkan kualitastanah serta produktivitas alami lahan pertanian dan ekosistemhutan. Di Indonesia, laju erosi tanah pada lahan pertanian denganlereng 330% tergolong tinggi, berkisar antara 60625 t/ha/tahun,padahal banyak lahan pertanian yang berlereng lebih dari 15%,bahkan lebih dari 100% sehingga erosi tanah tergolong sangat tinggi.Konservasi tanah dan air mengarah kepada terciptanya sistempertanian berkelanjutan yang didukung oleh teknologi dan kelembagaanserta mampu meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat danmelestarikan sumber daya lahan serta lingkungan. Upaya untukmengurangi degradasi lahan dapat dilakukan melalui: 1) penerapanpola usaha tani konservasi seperti agroforestri, tumpang sari, danpertanian terpadu, 2) penerapan pola pertanian organik ramahlingkungan, dan 3) peningkatan peran serta kelembagaan petani.
Agricultural Environmental Management Strategy KURNIA, UNDANG; SUTRISNO, NONO
Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 2, No 01 (2008): Juli 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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Developments in Indonesia has raised several positif impact for most people due to gaining the new opportunity jobs. However, these positive opportunity often raised negative impact, especially on land resources and the environment, and people surrounding. Development industries on productive agriculture land have decreased agricultural areas, pollution of soil, water bodies/rivers, and cheerfulness and health of people and other humanlife. Mine activities also caused negative impact such asdegradation of land resources and environment, and pollution due to the application of chemical matterial on sevaration of mine products. Land clearing for infrastructures construction (roads, buildings, bridges), and agricultural practices had caused land degradation and the environment, and pollution as well. The disturbance of natural resources and environmental imbalance caused the deterioration of soil productivity, and the quality of agricultural yield due to chemical contamination on soil, rivers/water bodies, and crops. These condition has to consider necessary effort on the agricultural and environmental management more precised,directed, and accurated. Therefore, identification and characterization of sources of degradation and pollution, and analyses on issues raised in the field to form strategic effort on agricultural environmental management. The deterioration of soil productivity could be managed by applying soil conservation and land rehabilitation techniques through integrated management of related governments, institutions, and farmers/people. The pollution on soil and plant need quality standard criterium for heavy metals, and the values could be determined and difined for Indonesia condition. Critical levels of heavy metals in the soil could be used as a guide for implementation of law imporcement. Industrial waste which is polluted rivers and water bodies could be easly predicted, due tospesific industry resulted chemical contents of liquid waste similar with content of raw materials. Inappropiate land management could accelerate increasing green house gases in the atmosphere, and would be caused global warming as well. Excessive carbondioxide emission could be controlled by sequistrated CO2 through revegetation and rehabilitation of degraded land. Methane (CH4) and nitrousoxide (N2O) emission from lowland rice could be controlled by reduction its planting areas and substitute by non rice commodites, appropiate and better water management, and slow release nitrogen fertilizer application.
Land Resource Potential for Agricultural Commodity Development in West Kalimantan Province HIKMATULLAH, .; SUTRISNO, NONO; HIDAYAT, ACHMAD
Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 2, No 01 (2008): Juli 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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West Kalimantan province with total areas of 14.64 million ha has already had spatial database of land resources at scale of 1:250,000 resulted from reconnaissance soil mapping (2004-2007). This database can be used for composing agricultural planing at province level. The area is composed of wetland ecosystem which covers 3,659,736 ha (24.99%), drylands with <15% slopes covers 4,356,790 (29.74%) and >15% slopes covers 6,441,956 ha (44.0%). The coverage of existing landuse for agriculture is only about 13.85% of the total area. In general, the area belongs to wet climate with average annual rainfall varies from 2,663 to 4,191 mm, and belongs to A, B1, and C agroclimatic zones. The area has various kinds of parent materials consisting of alluvium, organic matter deposit, old volcanic rocks, intrusive rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks that formed soil orders of Histosols, Entisols, Inceptisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and Oxisols, which give variation in their properties. The result of the land resource potential analysis for agricultural commodity development is directed to: (a) land intensification for rice fields covers about 221,381ha, upland food crops (maize, upland rice, legumes, tuber crops) covers 173,581 ha, annual or estate crops (rubber, oil palms, coconut, pepper, and coffea) including fruit crops covers 570,266 ha, and for brackish fishpond covers 7,394 ha, and (b) land extensification for rice fields covers 869,133 ha, upland food crops 1,316,058 ha, estate crops (oil palm, rubber, coconut, pepper, coffea) covers 3,098,269 ha (as first priority at 15-25% slopes) and 1,300,374 ha (as second priority at 25-40% slopes), and for brackish fishponds covers 25,437 ha. The availability of spatial land resource information to develop high economic value of agricultural commodities, especially estate crops, would support establishing growth centre of agribusiness and agroindustry in the area.
PENGARUH CENDAWAN Trichoderma sp. TERHADAP TANAMAN TOMAT PADA TANAH ANDISOL [Effect of Fungus Trichoderma sp. on Tomato in Andisol Soil] Subhan, Subhan; Sutrisno, Nono; Sutarya, Rahmat
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 11, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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An experiment to determine the effect of Trichoderma fungus application in tomato grown in andisol soil, was conducted at IVEGRI’s (Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute) Experimental Garden in Lembang, Bandung, West Java (1250 m asl) from April 2011 until July 10 2011. Two treatments factos i.e. factor (1) Trichoderma application (without and using Trichoderma 10 fungi per plot and factor (2) NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer rate (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kg NPK (15-15-15)/ha) were arranged in randomized block design with 4 replications. The results showed that although P uptake in tomato increased with Trichoderma sp. application, in general Trichoderma sp. application did not significantly affected several growth parameters and yield component of tomato. Significant effect of Trichoderma sp. application was only increased in total plant dry weight at 63 days after planting. The use of NPK (15-15-15) fertilizer 250 kg NPK/ha increased significantly on total plant dry weight and yield component such as total fruit weight per plot and fruit number per plot (15 m ).
eleksi Dini Hibrida F1 Mangga Produktif dan Berwarna Merah Berdasarkan Aktivitas Enzim Esterase dan Kandungan Antosianin Anwarudinsyah, Muhammad Jawal; Sukartini, Sukartini; Sunarwati, Diah; Rebin, Rebin; Sutrisno, Nono
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 22, No 3 (2012): September 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Arumanis 143 merupakan varietas mangga unggul nasional yang memiliki kualitas buah cukup baik dan sudah dikenal di pasar, tetapi tingkat produktivitasnya masih rendah dan kulit buah tetap berwarna hijau walaupun sudah masak. Persilangan antara mangga Arumanis dengan varietas yang lebih produktif dan berwarna merah merupakan salah satu cara untuk memperbaiki produktivitas dan mengubah warna menjadi merah. Penelitian dilakukan mulai Januari sampai dengan Desember 2006 di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok dan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian  untuk menyeleksi secara dini karakter produktif dan warna merah pada kulit buah terhadap 19 semaian hibrida F1 hasil persilangan antara induk Arumanis 143 dengan mangga-mangga Cukurgondang melalui analisis aktivitas enzim esterase dan kandungan antosianin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 19 semaian hibrida F1 ada empat semaian yang produktivitasnya lebih rendah dan 15 semaian yang produktivitasnya lebih tinggi dari tetua induk Arumanis 143. Dari 15 semaian ada lima semaian yang sangat produktif karena aktivitas enzim esterasenya lebih tinggi daripada standar (tetua paling produktif yaitu Keith), sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai kandidat varietas mangga Arumanis yang produktif. Kelima semaian tersebut  berasal dari persilangan  nomor 25, 33, 35, 47, dan 50. Hasil analisis kandungan antosianin menunjukkan bahwa hampir seluruh semaian hibrida F1 memiliki kandungan antosianin lebih tinggi dari induk Arumanis 143, tetapi yang memiliki kandungan antosianin lebih tinggi dari standar (Apel dan Khirsapati Maldah) ada empat semaian, yaitu hibrida dari persilangan nomor 20, 25, 44, dan 48. Keempat  semaian tersebut selanjutnya dikategorikan sebagai kandidat varietas mangga Arumanis yang kulit buahnya berpotensi berwarna merah. Khusus semaian hibrida F1 dari persilangan no 25 selain lebih produktif juga kulit buahnya berpotensi berwarna merah.ABSTRACT. Jawal, M Anwarudin Syah, Sukartini, Sunarwati, D, Rebin, and Sutrisno, N 2012. The Early Selection of Mango Hybrids which Productive and  Red Skin Fruit by Activity of Esterase Enzymes and Anthocyanin Content. The Arumanis 143 is a national superior mango cultivar which have a good quality and marketable, but the low productivity and green of skin fruit. The hybridization of Arumanis 143 cultivar with the productive cultivars and red skin mango is a method to improved the productivity and change the skin color to red on Arumanis cultivar. Early selection on productivity character and red skin color of mango based on esterase enzyme activity and anthocyanin content on hybrid F1 seedling by crossing Arumanis 143 with the productive cultivars and red skin mango. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute Solok and Postharvest Research and Development Institute Bogor from January to December 2006. The objective of the research was to early selection of productivity character and red skin color of mango on 19 hybrids F1 by activities of esterase enzyme and anthocyanin content. The results analysis of  esterase enzyme activity showed that there were five seedlings hybrids F1 which activity of esterase enzyme higher than standard (Keith) i.e. hybrid number 25, 33, 35, 47, and 50. Those five seedlings hybrid can be determined as productive candidate of Arumanis mango cultivars. The results analysis of anthocyanin content showed that there were four seedlings hybrids F1 which anthocyanin content higher than standard (Apel and Khirsapati Maldah) i.e. hybrid number 20, 25, 44, and 48. The four seedlings hybrid can be determined as red skin of mango candidate of Arumanis cultivars. The seedlings number 25 have high of esterase enzyme activity and anthocyanin content, thus could be determined as Arumanis cultivars which productive and red skin mango.
Use of AGNPS Model to Estimate Watershed Scaled Erosion SUTRISNO, NONO; ARSYAD, S.; PAWITAN, HIDAYAT; MURTILAKSONO, K.
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 20 (2002): Desember 2002
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

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Method of watershed scaled erosion prediction is different from plot scale erosion prediction. The objective of this study was to predict watershed scaled erosion by measuring sediment yield and using Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AGNPS) model. The plot scale experiment was set in randomized block design with 7 treatments i.e combination of ridges and raised beds. In the experiment, surface erosion was measured with soil pan method, watershed scale erosion (sediment yield) by sampling at the outlet. The method of watershed scale prediction were using AGNPS model. The result shows that AGNPS model was applicable to predict Tugu Utara sub watershed erosion (sediment yield) and simulate its land use management. The simulation of AGNPS model, with crop factor of 0.18 and slope length 5 m significantly reduced watershed erosion. This implies that AGNPS model is reliable to predict Tugu Utara sub watershed erosion and the model proves that watershed erosion is different from plot scale erosion.
FOSFAT ALAM SEBAGAI SUMBER PUPUK FOSFAT TANAMAN CABAI MERAH PADA JENIS TANAH PODSOLIK JASINGA Subhan, Subhan; Sutrisno, Nono
Agrin : Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Vol 16, No 2 (2012): Agrin
Publisher : Jenderal Soedirman University

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Percobaan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk fosfat alam Ciamis dan pupuk fosfat alam Sukabumisebagai sumber pupuk fosfat pada tanaman cabai merah, telah dilaksanakan di lahan petani di desa Bagoang,Kecamatan Jasinga (200. m dpl), Kabupaten Bogor, dari bulan April sampai dengan Nopember 2010. Rancanganpercobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok dan setiap perlakuan diulang 3 (tiga) kali.Perlakuan terdiri dari : (1) 0 kg P2O5 /ha (Kontrol), (2) 50 kg P2O5 pupuk alam Ciamis (FAC)/ha, (3) 100 kg P2O5FAC/ha, (4) 150 kg P2O5 FAC/ha (5) 200 kg P2O5 FAC/ha, (6) 250 kg P2O5 FAC/ha, (7) 50 kg P2O5, pupukfosfat alam Sukabumi (FAS)/ha, (8) 100 kg P2O5 FAS/ha, (9) 150 kg P2O5 FAS/ha, (10) 200 kg P2O5 FAS/ha,dan (11) 250 kg P2O5 FAS/ha. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pupuk FAC dengan dosis 250 kg P2O5FAC/ha, dapat meningkatkan beberapa peubah pertumbuhan tanaman dan komponen hasil tanaman cabai merah,tapi penggunaan pupuk FAC pada percobaan ini belum dapat menandingi pupuk FAC yang biasa digunakan olehpetani. Penggunaan pupuk FAC pada penelitian ini hanya berpengaruh positif pada jumlah bunga tetapi tidakterhadap persentase buah baik. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk pemilihan sumberpupuk fosfat alam dalam penanaman cabai merah.Kata Kunci : Capsicum annuum. L, Pupuk Fosfat Alam; Pertumbuhan; Hasil;ABSTRACTThe experiment to determine the effect nature phosphate Ciamis and nature phosphate Sukabumi as asource phosphate fertilizer plant chili on podzolic soil Jasinga was conducted at a farmer’s field in BagoangVillage, Jasinga subdistric (200 m asl). Bogor Distrik, West Java from April to November 2010. Randomizedcompletely block design with 3 replications was used in the experiment. The treatment consisted of combinationof rate and source of nature phosphate (nature phosphate Ciamis /FAC and nature phosphate Sukabumi /FAS) ie(1) 0 kg P2O5 /ha (control) (2) 50 kg P2O5. FAC/ha, (3) 100 kg P2O5 FAC/ha, (4) 150 kg P2O5 FAC/ha (5) 200kg P2O5 FAC/ha, (6) 250 kg P2O5 FAC/ha, (7) 50 kg P2O5. FAS/ha, (8) 100 kg P2O5 FAS/ha, (9) 150 kg P2O5FAS/ha, (10) 200 kg P2O5 FAS/ha, and (11) 250 kg P2O5 FAS/ha. The results indicated that although the use ofnature phosphate Sukabumi (FAS) in chili with a rate of 250 kg P2O5 FAC/ha increase some growth parameterand yield component of chili, which is commonly used by the farmers. The use of nature phosphate Ciamis effectpositively on sum of flower, on percentage of good fruits and percentage of sum damage fruits. The result couldbe used as a recommendation to select the source of phosphate in chili production.Key word : Capsicum annuum. L; Nature fertilizer; Growth; yield;