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ADVERSE HEALTH IMPACTS OF PESTICIDE USE ON INDONESIAN RICE PRODUCTION: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 6, No. 2 Juli 2006
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

Pestisida bak pisau bermata dua. Di satu sisi, pestisida memberikan manfaat bagi pengguna,dan di sisi lain pada waktu yang bersamaan pestisida mempunyai efek yang merusak. Olehkarena itu pelarangan penggunaan secara total tidak efisien, dan menentukan penggunaanpestisida yang optimal sangatlah diperlukan, dengan cara mempertimbangkan dampakkesehatan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah menentukan penggunaan pestisida yang optimal denganmempertimbangkan dampak kesehatan, dan mengestimasi nilai moneter kehilanganproduktivitas petani. Manfaat penggunaan pestisida dicari dengan fungsi produksi, sedangkandampak kesehatan dicari dengan fungsi biaya kesehatan. Data produksi padi selama kurunwaktu 1974-2000 digunakan untuk mencari fungsi produksi. Fungsi biaya kesehatan diperolehdari kajian sebelumnya yang telah dilakukan oleh peneliti pendahulu. Hasil kajian inimenunjukkan bahwa penggunaan pestisida yang optimal sangat rendah dan nilai ekonomikehilangan produktivitas sangat tinggi. Hal ini karena adanya perbedaan yang besar antarapenggunaan pestisida yang optimal dengan penggunaan pestisida yang aktual selama kurunwaktu tersebut. Faktor penting yang menyebabkan besarnya perbedaan tersebut adalahelastisitas produksi dari pestisida sangat rendah. Saran yang dapat disampaikan adalah petanimenggunakan pestisida secara efisient, yaitu mendekati tingkat penggunaan yang optimal.

KETIMPANGAN JENDER DALAM AKSES PELAYANAN KESEHATAN RUMAH TANGGA PETANI PEDESAAN: KASUS DUA DESA DI KABUPATEN TEGAL, JAWA TENGAH

SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 8, No. 2 Juli 2008
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

The role of woman in rural and agricultural development is very important because more thana half of work in agriculture and rural areas is carried out by woman labors. Consequently, thewomen ought to have equity in right with men to get health services. But, there is a stronghypothesis that women have less access to health services than men because of social andcultural factors in rural areas. This study aims to examine the gender disparity anddiscrimination of health. The disparity is measured using concentration curve andconcentration index, whereas the discrimination is approached using microeconomic theory ofconsumption. The results of indicate that there is a small difference in health disparitybetween women and men; even women get more portion than men. This is because womenhave specific characteristics in terms of health problem, in which men do not have.

Protein Haemaglutinin Outer Membran Protein (OMP) 35 kDa sebagai Protein Adhesin Proteus mirabilis pada Vesika Urinaria Kelinci

Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 12, No 02 (2010)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

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Abstract

Proteus mirabilis is opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen that usually found in clinical specimen from patientswith catheter. The pathogenic mechanism of the bacteria are not fully elucidated especially its potential activity ofthe protein as hemaglutinin and adhesion molecule. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of 35 kDa outermembrane protein from P. mirabilis. After identification, bacterial isolate of OMP fraction 12,5% SDS-PAGE wereused to isolate OMP followed by hemaglutinin test and invitro adhesion test. The study showed that the 35 kDa OMPof P. mirabilis was a hemaglutinin protein that could agglutinate mice erythrocytes, rabbit erythrocytes, and humangroup O erythrocytes. Hemaglutination test were negative on erythrocytes human blood group A,B, and AB. The 35kDa OMP was also adhesion protein showed by its activity to adhere to the rabbit vesica urinaria epithel receptor.The increase dose of 35 kDa OMP will decrease the amount of P. mirabilis bacteria to adhere to rabbit vesicaurinaria epithel (p< 0,05 ).

Antibacterial Effect of Ethanol Extract Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) on Growth in Vitro by Shigella dysentriae

Jurnal Medika Planta Vol 1, No 5 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Medika Planta

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Abstract

Introduction:Shigella dysentriae is one of the causes of gastrointestinal infections. S. dysentriae is increasingly resistant to some antibiotics. One alternative to overcome this problem is the utilization of medicinal plants, one of which is chocolate (Theobroma cacao). Chemical content of the brown leaves are potent antibacterial catechins, tannins, and flavonoids. Objective:The aim of this research is to determine antibacterial effect and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethanol extract of cacao seeds on the growth of S. Dysentriae. Method: This type of research was quasi-experimental, posttest only control group design. Antibacterial activity of this research used diffusion well method. Samples used was colony of bacteria S. dysentriae. Concentration of test solution used was 7.8: 15.6: 31.2: 62.5: 125: 250: 500; and 1000 mg / ml. Positive control used ciprofloxacin suspension and negative control used sterile distilled water. Data were then analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, followed by Linear Regression test. To determine significant differences among different concentrations, data were analyzed with Post Hoc test of multiple comparisons with Mann-Whitney method. By direct measurement, MIC was obtained with the dose of 15.6 mg / ml while statistical analysis yielded an MIC value of more than 9.01 mg / ml. Concentration of 1000 mg / ml and 500 mg / ml has equivalent capacity to positive control (ciprofloxacin suspension). Conclusion: Ethanol extract of cacao seeds had antibacterial effect on growth of bacteria S. Dysentriae (sig = 0.000).

The 35,2 kda Hemaglutinin Protein of Pili’s Proteus mirabilis P355 as Adhesin on Rabbit’s Blader Epitelial

Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 8, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA Universitas Jember

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Abstract

Urinary tract infection represent one of nosocomial infection in hospital. One of agent nosocomial urinary tract infection is Proteus mirabilis bacteria and common occur on patient with urinary catheter. Urinary tract infection with caused by P. mirabilis was persistent, very difficult to eradicated. Further more is caused some complication such as cystitis, acut and cronic pyelonephritis, kidney bladder stone, bacterimiae and sepsis. This bacteriae has same virulence factors. Fimbriae is one of it. In the adhesion test utilization of protein hemaglutinin pili 35.2 kDa resulted in the electroelusion which salluted in vesica urinaria epitelial by dose 400μl , 200μl, 100μl, 50μl, 25μl, 12,5μl and 0μl as control. Form adhesion test on vesica urinary epitelial that salluted with 35.2kDa protein pili we faund that the higher dose of protein can decrease bacteriae consentration at vesica urinary epitelial. This result was significant with r= 0.93 and p value = 0.005. This conclusion of this study is 35.2 kDa molecular weight protein pili of P. mirabilis P355 were adhesion protein.Keywords : hemaglutinin, pili, Proteus mirabilis, adhesin

Hubungan perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat dengan kejadian infestasi Soil–transmitted Helminths pada pekerja perkebunan kopi Sumber Wadung Kabupaten Jember

Jurnal Kedokteran Kesehatan : Publikasi Ilmiah Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya Vol 6, No 1 (2019): Januari 2019
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Infestasi Soil - Transmitted Helminths (STH) merupakan masalah kesehatan yang masih sering ditemukan di negara beriklim tropis, salah satunya di Indonesia. Hal ini dikarenakan perkembangan STH membutuhkan kondisi lingkungan yang hangat dan lembab, serta  memerlukan media tanah untuk menjadi fase infektif yang disebut soil - transmitted helminth.Kondisi ini dapat ditemukan di lingkungan perkebunan yang sangat menguntungkan bagi perkembangan STH. Hal ini menyebabkan para pekerja perkebunan sangat beresiko terinfestasi oleh STH. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui adanya hubungan perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat (PHBS) dengan kejadian infestasi STH pada pekerja perkebunan kopi. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analisis deskriptif dengan desain cross-sectional yang dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2018 hingga Januari 2019. Perkebunan yang dipilih adalah Perkebunan Kopi Sumber Wadung di Kabupaten Jember dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 100 orang responden dan diberikan kuisioer PHBS. Pemeriksaan infestasi STH dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu flotasi dan sedimentasi. Dari 100 responden, 28 pekerja (28%) terinfestasi oleh STH. Kemudian dilakukan uji analisis chi-square antara PHBS dengan kejadian infestasi STH dan didapatkan adanya hubungan antara PHBS dengan kejadian infestasi STH pada pekerja (<0,05).

Respon Imunogenitas Antibodi Poliklonal IgY terhadap Protein Adhesi Pili 95 kDa Shigella dysenteriae

Pustaka Kesehatan Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Pustaka Kesehatan

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Abstract

Shigella dysenteriae is the most frequently cause of deaths of dysentery cases in infants and toddlers. Shigella dysenteriae has a pili that act as an adhesin molecule and will detect in human body as antigens which is involved in producing antibodies. This study was conducted to prove that Shigella dysenteriae pili adhesion protein 95 kDa is immunogenic. This was an experimental laboratory study with quasy experimental design in vitro. The study began with mice erythrocyte cell isolation, IgY polyclonal antibodies isolation, mice intestinal enterocytes cell isolation, hemagglutination inhibition test, and adhesion inhibition test. The haemagglutination inhibition test showed that the pili adhesion protein 95 kDa of S. dysenteriae able to inhibit the haemagglutination of erythrocytes mice Balb/C up to ½ dilution. While, the adhesion inhibition test revealed that the fewer of antibody concentration on enterocytes, the greater bacteria attached. According to the linear regression test results, the index adhesion value increased along with the decreased of antibody concentration. In conclusion, pili adhesion protein 95 kDa from S. dysenteriae was immunogenic and could inhibit the hemagglutination and adhesion between S. dysenteriae and mice enterocytes cells.   Keywords: immunogenicity, IgY polyclonal antibody, Shigella dysenteriae, pili adhesion protein.

Efek Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao) sebagai Antibakteri terhadap Pseudomonas aeruginosa secara In Vitro (The Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) as an Antibacterial against Pseudomonas

Pustaka Kesehatan Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Pustaka Kesehatan

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Abstract

Nosocomial infection is one of the most serious healthy problem in the world. It causes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has a high resistance to antibiotic. One alternative to overcome this problem is the utilization of chocolate (Theobroma cacao) because it contains polifenol that can be used as an antibacterial agent. The aim of this research was to determine antibacterial effect and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethanolic extract of cocoa beans to P. aeruginosa by in vitro method. Antibacterial activity test used disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method. This type of research was a quasi-experimental with posttest only control group design. Samples used was colony of P. aeruginosa. Concentrations of test solution used were 7,81; 15,62; 31,25; 62,50; 125; 250; 500; and 1000 mg / ml. Positive control used cefepime suspension and negative control used sterile distilled water. The result showed that inhibition zones formed at a concentration of 7,81 mg/ml to 1000 mg/ml. The higher the concentration of the cocoa beans extract, the wider the inhibition zones formed. By direct measurement, MIC was obtained at the dose of 7.81 mg / ml while statistical analysis yielded an MIC value of more than 6.95 mg / ml. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of cocoa beans had antibacterial effect on P. aeruginosa in vitro.   Keywords: antibacterial effect, cocoa beans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Uji In Vitro Efek Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao) sebagai Antibakteri terhadap Propionibacterium acnes (In Vitro Test of the Effect of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) Ethanolic Extract as an Antibacterial against Propionibacterium acnes)

Pustaka Kesehatan Vol 4, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Pustaka Kesehatan

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Abstract

Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicle, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, cysts and nodules in certain sites of predilection, such as face, neck and back. Propionibacterium acnes are the most recognized bacteria as a key factor for the development of acne. The purpose of this research was to identify the antibacterial effect and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethanolic extract of Cocoa beans (T. cacao) against the growth of P. acnes by in vitro method. Antibacterial activity was measured by disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method. This was a quasi-experimental with posttest only control group design. Samples used was colony of P. acnes. Concentration of test solution used was 7.81; 15.62; 31.25; 62.50; 125; 250; 500; and 1000 mg/ml. Positive control used clindamycin suspension and negative control used sterile distilled water. By direct measurement, MIC was obtained at the dose of 31.25 mg/ml, by using linier regretion statistical analysis, the quantitatif MIC showed at the dose of 16.93 mg/ml. Analysis using ANOVA showed significance value p=0.000 (p<0.05). In conclusion, ethanolic extract of Cocoa beans had an antibacterial effect on P. acnes by in vitro method.   Keywords: antibacterial effect, cocoa beans, Propionibacterium acnes

Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Semangka terhadap Kelelahan Otot dan Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness setelah Latihan Beban (The effect of Watermelon Juice on Muscle Fatigue and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Weight Training)

Pustaka Kesehatan Vol 4, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Pustaka Kesehatan

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Abstract

The main problem that is often faced by athlete is fatigue. It can decrease maximum muscle strength. To overcome this problem, many athletes use ergogenic aids such as watermelon. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of watermelon juice on reduction of muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after weight training. Muscle fatigue was measured by maximum repetition done by the subjects in the last set and DOMS was measured by post-training muscle soreness intensity. By using a randomized crossover design, 20 subjects were recruited then divided into 2 groups, a treatment group and a control group. The subjects were asked to do a training protocol to induce muscle fatigue and DOMS. As much as 500 ml watermelon juice was consumed in 1 of 2 training sessions and a placebo was consumed in the other. The number of repetitions showed a significant increase on treatment group than control group (p<0,05). Passive muscle soreness intensity and active muscle soreness intensity showed a significant decrease on 24 hours and 48 hours post-training after administration of watermelon juice (p=0,000). We conclude that there was an effect of watermelon juice on muscle fatigue and DOMS after weight training.   Keywords: weight training, muscle fatigue, DOMS, watermelon, citrulline