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PENGARUH MODEL ALIRAN TERHADAP RECOVERY CO2 PADA ABSORPSI GAS CO2 OLEH LARUTAN K2CO3 DIDALAM PACKED COLUMN DENGAN KONDISI NON-ISOTHERMAL Kusnarjo, Kusnarjo; Kuswandi, Kuswandi; Susianto, Susianto; Altway, Ali
REAKTOR Volume 12, Nomor 3, Juni 2009
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (317.996 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.3.154 – 160

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh model aliran terhadap recovery gas pada absorpsi gas CO2 menggunakan larutan K2CO3 yang di kontakkan secara berlawanan arah (counter current) didalam packed column menggunakan packing jenis raschig ring. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan kolom kaca berdiameter 10 cm dan tinggi 150 cm. Packing dibuat dari logam aluminium berdiameter 1,0 cm dan tinggi 2,0 cm yang mengisi bagian kolom setinggi 100 cm. Variabel penelitian ini adalah konsentrasi CO2  20% volume, dengan laju alir 10  sampai 35 l/menit dan konsentrasi  K2CO3,1M  dan 1,5M dengan laju alir 3 sampai 7,5 l/menit. Dari hasil penelitian absorpsi gas CO2 20% volume menggunakan larutan Benfield dengan model aliran non-ideal besar % recovery gas CO2 dengan larutan K2CO3 1,5M, jumlahnya lebih besar dibandingkan dengan larutan K2CO3 1M, sedangkan absorpsi CO2 dengan campuran udara 80% volume dengan model aliran non-ideal (D/uL=0,1), jumlah % recovery gas CO2 lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan aliran ideal (D/uL=0,2). Validasi antara simulasi dengan eksperimen dengan cara membandingkan kesalahan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa besar % recovery CO2 secara ekperimen lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan cara simulasi. Hasil perhitungan % recovery gas CO2 menggunakan jenis aliran tidak ideal mendekati data eksperimen dengan error 6,52%.
MODEL KINETIKA REAKSI PEMBENTUKAN POLYOL BERBASIS MINYAK SAWIT Ifa, La; Sumarno, Sumarno; Susianto, Susianto; Mahfud, Mahfud
REAKTOR Volume 14, Nomor 1, April 2012
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (115.839 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.1.1-8

Abstract

REACTION KINETIC MODEL OF RBD PALM OIL BASED-POLYOL PRODUCTION. Polyol, a raw material of polyurethane, has successfully been produced from a renewable resource namely RBD palm oil. This polyol was made by firstly adding a peroxyacetic acid formed in situ from H2O2 and CH3COOH with H2SO4 as cataliyst into RBD palm oil to form epoxidized RBD palm oil. The epoxidized palm oil then was added to a mixture of methanol (MeOH), isopropanol (IPA), and H2SO4 for 2 hours at 60oC so that palm oil-based polyol was formed. The main equipment used in this research was a 500 mL three necked flask, equipped with a reflux condeser, thermometer, water bath and magnetic stirrer. The product was analysed using a titration method and Infra Red (IR) Spectroscopy. It was obtained that the produced palm oil-based polyol has a value of hydroxyl number of 150-209 mg KOH/g sample and a viscosity of 740.777 cP. These results are in accordance with other polyol products from other sources. The kinetic of palm oil-based kinetic was studied and the best model of the reaction rate equation was where k’ = 3.399 e-2391.,6/RT.  The unit of  k is L2 mol-2 menit-1 . The average error of the equation is 4,549%.  Polyol, bahan baku polyuretan, telah berhasil dibuat dari bahan baku terbarukan yakni polyol berbasis RBD palm olein. Polyol ini mula-mula dibuat dengan menambahkan asam peroksi asetat yang dibentuk secara in situ dari H2O2 dan CH3COOH dengan katalis H2SO4 kedalam RBD palm olein untuk membentuk RBD palm olein terepoksidasi. RBD palm oil terepoksidasi ditambahkan kedalam campuran metanol (MeOH), isopropanol (IPA) dan sejumlah katalis H2SO4 selama 2 jam pada suhu 60 oC sehingga terbentuk polyol berbasis RBD palm oil. Peralatan utama yang digunakan dalam percobaan pembuatan polyol adalah labu leher tiga 500 mL dilengakapi dengan kondesor reflux, termometer, water bath dan magnetic stirrer. Polyol produk dianalisa bilangan hidroksil dengan cara titrasi dan dianalisis dengan Infra Red (IR) Spectroscopy. Polyol berbasis RBD palm oil yang dihasilkan memiliki bilangan hidroksil 150-209 mg KOH/g sampel dan viskositas 740,777 cP. hasil ini sebanding dengan polyol yang dihasilkan dari sumber minyak yang lain. Kinetika reaksi polyol berbasis RBD palm oil telah dipelajari dan hasil terbaik didekati dengan persamaan laju reaksi yang diperoleh pada penelitian adalah dimana k’ = 3,399 e-23913,6/RT dalam satuan L2 mol-2 menit-1. Kesalahan estimasi rata-rata adalah 4,549%. Kata kunci: model kinetika; RBD palm oil; polyol
Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Ammonium Sulphate Dried in a Rotary Dryer Susianto, Susianto; Altway, Ali; Kuswandi, Kuswandi; Margono, Margono
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science Vol 21, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (424.704 KB) | DOI: 10.12962/j20882033.v21i3.37

Abstract

The aim of this work is to study theoretically, by mathematical model development, the effect of particle size distribution on the performance of rotary dryer to dry ammonium sulphate fertilizer assuming plug flow with axial dispersion pattern (PFDA model) for solid particle flow. The mathematical model development was carried out by combining the drying processes model with particle size distribution model. Particle size distribution models used are Rosin-Rommler model and Gamma distribution model. For simplicity, the model of drying processes of solid particles in the rotary dryer was developed by assuming of uniform air conditions (temperature and humidity) along the rotary dryer as in the entry conditions. The resulting differential equations were solved analytically under Matlab 6.1 facility.Since this model, solid hold up, and axial dispersion number were obtained from empirical correlations in the literatures. The drying rate of ammonium sulphate fertilizer in rotary dryer was estimated using isothermal diffusion model with effective diffusivity of moisture in the particle obtained from previous study [2]. Using Gamma function distribution, this research showed that for the value of the coefficient of variance (CV) less than 0.5, particle size distribution does not have significant effect on dryer performance. For the value of CV greater than 0.5, the dryer performance increase (or outlet solid moisture content decrease) with increasing the value of CV. The application of Rosin-Rammler model gives lower prediction of outlet solid moisture content compared to the application of Gamma function model.
Pengembangan Model Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Dengan Kombinasi Metode Fuzzy Tahani Dan Topsis Dalam Penilaian Kinerja Instruktur Safrizal, Safrizal; Susianto, Susianto
J-SAKTI (Jurnal Sains Komputer dan Informatika) Vol 3, No 2 (2019): EDISI SEPTEMBER
Publisher : STIKOM Tunas Bangsa Pematangsiantar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30645/j-sakti.v3i2.143

Abstract

The instructor is the main academic implementer in the Institute for Aviation Education and Training (LPP). One of the factors that influence the success of LPP Aviation in improving student quality is the commitment and performance of instructors. One method used is to conduct an instructor performance appraisal process. The large number of Instructors in LPP Aviation is a separate issue in the assessment process, considering the process is based on subjectivity and has a great chance of making mistakes in the decision making, namely the selection of instructors who do not meet the desired standards and are not in accordance with the determination of instructor performance evaluation priorities. For this reason, a decision support system is needed in conducting the instructor's performance appraisal process. The Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) model has been widely used by decision makers to solve decision making problems with a variety of methods that can be used to find the best solution, but from these methods can still be developed with the aim of providing maximum decision results. In this research a decision support system model will be built with a combination of two methods, namely the Fuzzy Resistant method and TOPSIS which aims to manipulate the success data of instructors who are ambiguous by conducting a search for appropriate and accurate data for the criteria used in the assessment process LPP Aviation instructor performance by using Fuzzy-Resistant to get priority criteria in the form of rules, then ranking will be done by using TOPSIS in getting the quality of teaching conducted by LPP Aviation Instructors as the best instructor selection. The results of the flight instructor's performance evaluation with a combination of the Fuzzy Resistant method and TOPSIS, are based on 250 data tested samples, therefore, the accuracy value is 93%.
Tin Extraction from Slags Used Hydrochloric Acid Soewarno, Nonot; Altway, Ali; Susianto, Susianto; Taufany, Fadlilatul; Nurkamidah, Siti
IPTEK Journal of Engineering Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (194.87 KB) | DOI: 10.12962/joe.v1i1.438

Abstract

Slag is a mixture of mineral in tin sand or by product in the smelting process. By using separation process, tin can be separated from other minerals in slag. Extraction process with a solvent is usually used to separate tin from other minerals. Furthermore, solution that still contains many dissolved compounds is adsorbed by activated carbon and desorption back with NaOH solution. This study only focuses on the extraction process to obtain a stannate chloride solution with extraction temperature, solvent concentration, extraction time, and liquid/solid ratio as variables. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used as solvent in this study. The concentration of tin in the extracts of each variable was analyzed to determine the percentage of recovery of tin and the optimum operating conditions in the recovery process of tin from waste slag. Experiment results show that the percentage of recovery increases with the increasing of extraction temperature and solvent concentration The highest recovery is 61.5% which is obtained when the extraction temperature is 80 ºC, concentration of HCl is 10 wt%, with a HCl solution and slag ratio is 7: 1 and extraction time is about 30 minutes.
Modeling and Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Promoted Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Solution in Industrial Scale Packed Column Altway, Ali; Susianto, Susianto; Suprapto, Suprapto; Nurkhamidah, Siti; Nisa, Nur Ihda Farihatin; Hardiyanto, Firsta; Mulya, Hendi Riesta; Altway, Saidah
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2015: BCREC Volume 10 Issue 2 Year 2015 (SCOPUS Indexed, August 2015)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7063.111-124

Abstract

Carbon dioxide gas is a harmful impurity which is corrosive and it can damage the utilities and the piping system in industries. Chemical absorption is the most economical separation method which is widely applied in chemical industries for CO2 removal process. Hot potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is the most effective solvent that has been used extensively, especially for the CO2 separation process from gas synthesis and natural gas. This paper aims to develop mathematical model for investigating the CO2 absorption into promoted hot K2CO3 solution in industrial scale packed column in an ammonia plant. The CO2 was removed from the gas stream by counter-current absorption in two stages column. To represent the gas-liquid system, a rigorous mathematical model based on the two-film theory was considered. The model consists of differential mass and heat balance and considers the interactions between mass-transfer and chemical kinetics using enhancement factor concept. Gas solubility, mass and heat transfer coefficients, reaction kinetics and equilibrium were estimated using correlations from literatures. The model was validated using plant data and was used to compute temperature and concentration profiles in the absorber. The variation of CO2 recovery with respect to changes in some operating variables was evaluated. The effect of various kinds of promoters added into K2CO3 solution on the CO2 recovery was also investigated. The simulation results agree well with the plant data. The results of the simulation prediction, for the absorber pressure of 33 atm with a lean flow rate of 32,0867 kg/h, temperature of 343 K, and semi lean flow rate of 2,514,122 kg/h, temperature of 385 K, showed %CO2 removal of 95.55%, while that of plant data is 96.8%. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd July 2014; Revised: 5th January 2015; Accepted: 19th Januari 2015How to Cite: Altway, A., Susianto, S., Suprapto, S., Nurkhamidah, S., Nisa, N.I.F., Hardiyanto, F., Mulya, H.R., Altway, S. (2015). Modeling and Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Promoted Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Solution in Industrial Scale Packed Column. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2): 111-124. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7063.111-124) Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7063.111-124 
Desain Pabrik Synthetic Gas (Syngas) dari Gasifikasi Batu Bara Kualitas Rendah sebagai Pasokan Gas PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja Iswanto, Toto; Rahmawati, Yeni; Susianto, Susianto
Jurnal Teknik ITS Vol 4, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (LPPM), ITS

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (839.461 KB)

Abstract

Menurut data dari Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) tahun 2013, cadangan gas bumi Indonesia saat ini sebesar 170 TSCF dan akan habis dalam kurun waktu 59 tahun, dengan estimasi tidak ada peningkatan atau penurunan produksi. Di lain pihak, industri-industri kimia di Indonesia, semisal industri pupuk, sangat mengandalkan pasokan gas alam sebagai bahan baku pupuk maupun sumber energi. Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi industri pupuk dewasa ini adalah kurangnya pasokan gas alam untuk proses produksi. Di PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja misalnya, kebutuhan gas alam rata-rata untuk proses produksi amonia dan urea mencapai 225 MMSCFD. Namun, pasokan gas dari Pertamina selalu kurang dari jumlah tersebut. Karena selalu berulang, maka hal ini akan mengganggu kinerja PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja sebagai garda terdepan pertahanan pangan nasional bersama petani. Salah satu jenis sumber daya alam yang potensial mengganti dan atau mensubtitusi pemakaian gas alam adalah Synthetic Gas (Syngas). Syngas merupakan gas campuran yang komponen utamanya adalah gas karbon monoksida (CO) dan hidrogen (H2) yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan juga dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam proses pembuatan zat kimia baru seperti metana, amonia, dan urea. Syngas dapat diperoleh dari proses gasifikasi batu bara dimana batu bara diubah dari bentuk padat menjadi gas. Batu bara yang merupakan bahan baku pembuatan syngas jumlahnya sangat melimpah di Indonesia. Menurut data dari Kementrian ESDM tahun 2011, total sumber daya batu bara di Indonesia diperkirakan 119,4 miliar ton, dimana 48%-nya terletak di Sumatera Selatan dan 70% deposit batu bara di Sumatera Selatan tersebut adalah batu bara muda berkualitas rendah. Deposit batu bara terbesar di Sumatera Selatan terletak di Kab. Muara Enim yang letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dengan PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja. Ditambah lagi dengan adanya PT Bukit Asam sebagai produsen terbesar batu bara di Kab. Muara Enim tentu akan mempermudah pasokan batu bara sebagai bahan baku pabrik. Oleh karena itu, pabrik akan didirikan di Tanjung Enim, Kab. Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan. Pabrik akan didirikan tahun 2017 dan siap beroperasi tahun 2019. Pabrik yang didirikan diharapkan mampu mensubstitusi 40% kebutuhan gas alam PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja sebesar 88 MMSCFD atau sekitar 29.000 MMSCF per tahun. Proses pembuatan syngas dari batu bara kualitas rendah terdiri dari tiga proses utama, yaitu persiapan batu bara, gasifikasi batu bara, dan pemurnian gas hasil gasifikasi. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi diperoleh Total Cost Investment (TCI) sebesar 121.170.377,3USD, Internal Rate of Return (IRR) sebesar 27,48%, Pay Out Time (POT) selama 3,47 tahun, dan Break Event Point (BEP) sebesar 45,05%. Kata Kunci — batu bara, gasifikasi, gas alam, synthetic gas
PEMODELAN DAN SIMULASI DISTILASI BATCH BROTH FERMENTASI PADA TRAY COLUMN DENGAN SERABUT WOOL Permatasari, Ratih; Atlway, Ali; Susianto, Susianto
Teknik Kimia Vol 9, No 2 (2015): JURNAL TEKNIK KIMIA
Publisher : jurusan teknik kimia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Ketersediaan energi sangat penting peranannya bagi kelanjutan kehidupan suatu negara. Pemanfatan energi terbarukan masih relatif kecil. Beberapa hal yang menghambat pengembangan energi terbarukan. Dan salah satu energi terbarukan adalah bahan bakar nabati. Bahan bakar nabati seperti bioetanol merupakan hasil fermentasi. Untuk memperoleh bioetanol dari fermentasi biasanya menggunakan distilasi batch multikomponen. Distilasi batch multikomponen adalah proses pemisahan zat tertentu berdasarkan titik didihnya. Untuk menunjang hal tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian permodelan distilasi batch multikomponen ethanol dari broth fermentasi. Kemudian validasi dari model matematika yang dibuat dengan hasil penelitian distilasi yang telah dilakukan. Penyelesaian numerik digunakan adalah ODE 45 pada MATLAB yang menggunakan metode Runge-Kutta.Dengan variasi penggunaan reflux ratio, dapat mempengaruhi konsentrasi pada distillat setiap waktu. Sehingga, dapat diketahui waktu yang optimal untuk memperoleh etanol dengan kadar yang diinginkan dalam distilasi batch multikomponen. Hasil sementara antara simulasi dan eksperiment mempunyai kesalahan sebesar 10%. Dari hasil distilat etanol,amly alkohol dan aseton dengan waktu 10,20,30,40,50 dan 60 menit sebesar (90%,89%,88%,86%,84% dan 80% untuk hasil distilat etanol), (0,001, 0,0012, 0,0014, 0,0015, 0,0010 dan 0,0005 untuk hasil amly alkohol) dan (0,001, 0,0007, 0,0005, 0,00051, 0,00051 dan 0,00051 untuk hasil aseton).
TINJAUAN YURIDIS PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN NEGARA TERHADAP PENCEMARAN POLUSI UDARA TRANSNASIONAL PASCA PERATIFIKASIAN AATHP (ASEAN Agreement Transboundary Haze Polution) Pratama, Riski Indra Bayu; Susianto, Susianto; Miladiyanto, Sulthon
Jurnal Panorama Hukum Vol 1 No 1 (2016): Juni
Publisher : Fakultas Hukum Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21067/jph.v1i1.1164

Abstract

Three recent decades, the problem of haze from forest fires and peatland in Indonesia become an international problem because it causes pollution in the neighboring country (transboundary pollution), so that Malaysia and Singapore protested against Indonesia on the occurrence of this problem. ASEAN as a regional organization level ASIA formulate handling pattern smoke haze pollution in Southeast Asia in an ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution was signed by 10 participating countries of ASEAN, Indonesia's ratification of this agreement began in 2014 through Law No. 26 of 2014 on Ratification AATHP, because it has not been established Government Regulations Implementing Regulations treaty AATHP Indonesia to fill the legal vacuum, based pacta sun servanda and asaz jurisdictions, Indonesia in the implementation of the ratification of this treaty can use legislation related to existing, including: Act No. 32 In 2009, Law No. 24 In 2007, Law No. 41, 1999, PP 4, 2001.
STUDI EKSPERIMENTAL FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR PADA EVAPORASI NIRA KENTAL Fitri, Medya Ayunda; Suhadi, Suhadi; Altway, Ali; Susianto, Susianto
Journal of Research and Technology Vol 2, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (375.175 KB) | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2582030

Abstract

Falling film evaporator is a constructed equipment for concentrating dilute solution that are sensitive to heat flowing form a thin film. This research aims to study the evaporation of cane juice concentrated with air flow on falling film evaporator and knowing evaporation rate occured in falling film evaporator used. In the process, cane juice from plant pumped to the falling film evaporator that used in this experiment. This research used concentrated cane juice and air flow rate for variables of this experiment. Cane juice flow from top of evaporator through distributor to form thin film and air flow from the bottom of evaporator. After that, temperatur of pipe wall, inlet and outlet temperature of cane juice and air were measured. This experiment concluded that the highest concentration of outlet solution is 59 brix for liquid flow rate 154 l/h and air flow rate 10 m3/h, and the other hand inlet solution concentration 51 brix. Optimum evaporation rate is 35 kg/m2.h for 51 brix and air flow rate 10 m3/h.