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ULTRAFILTRATION AS PRETREATMENT OF REVERSE OSMOSIS: LOW FOULING ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE PREPARED FROM POLYETHERSULFONE–AMPHIPHILIC BLOCK COPOLYMER BLEND Susanto, Heru; Buchori, Luqman; Sumardiono, Siswo; Fajar, Berkah; Istirokhatun, Titik; Widiasa, I Nyoman
REAKTOR Volume 12, Nomor 4, Desember 2009
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (336.104 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.4.203 – 210

Abstract

This paper demonstrates the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes via wet phase inversion method using either poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b- poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®, Plu) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) as hydrophilic modifier. Their effects on membrane structure as well as the resulting membrane performance and their stability in membrane polymer matrix were systematically investigated. The investigated membrane characteristics include surface hydrophilicity (by contact angle), surface chemistry (by FTIR spectroscopy) and water flux measurement. Visualization of membrane surface and cross section morphology was also done by scanning electron microscopy. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of adsorptive fouling and ultrafiltration using solution of bovine serum albumin as the model system. The stability of additive was examined by incubating the membrane in water (40oC) for up to 10 days. The results show that modification effects on membrane characteristic and low fouling behavior were clearly observed. Further, amphiphilic Pluronic generally showed better performance than PEG.   
SINTESIS MEMBRAN ULTRAFILTRASI NON FOULING UNTUK APLIKASI PEMPROSESAN BAHAN PANGAN Buchori, Luqman; Susanto, Heru; Budiyono, Budiyono
REAKTOR Volume 13, Nomor 1, Juni 2010
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (963.398 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.13.1.10-15

Abstract

Membran ultrafiltrasi (UF) telah terbukti sebagai proses yang menjanjikan untuk aplikasi di bidang pemprosesan bahan pangan. Namun, peristiwa fouling dapat menurunkan kinerja membran secara signifikan. Meskipun banyak metode pengendalian fouling telah diusulkan, dalam banyak kasus kinerja proses sangat dipengaruhi oleh membran sebagai jantung dari proses. Dalam makalah ini pengendalian fouling dilakukan dengan memodifikasi permukaan membran dengan teknik kopolimerisasi foto-grafting. Acrylic acid (AA), acrylamido methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), dan N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(3sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine sebagai senyawa zwitterion (ZI) digunakan sebagai monomer fungsional. Pengaruh waktu iradiasi terhadap efektifitas modifikasi telah diamati. Kinerja membran hasil modifikasi kemudian diuji dengan menggunakan berbagai model larutan foulant yang meliputi larutan protein, larutan polisakarida dan larutan polifenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sifat non fouling membran sangat jelas dapat ditingkatkan baik dengan PEGMA maupun dengan ZI. Secara umum, modifikasi menggunakan PEGMA menunjukkan kinerja yang lebih baik. Larutan polifenol menunjukkan karakter foulant yang paling kuat diantara model foulant.
KARAKTERISTIK INTERAKSI MEMBRAN-FOULANT DAN FOULANT-FOULANT SEBAGAI DASAR PENGENDALIAN FOULING Susanto, Heru; Susanto, Asteria Apriliani; Widiasa, I Nyoman
REAKTOR Volume 14, Nomor 1, April 2012
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.241 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.1.17-24

Abstract

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBRANE-FOULANT AND FOULANT-FOULANT INTERACTIONS AS THE BASIS FOR CONTROL OF FOULING. Industrial membrane applications for solid liquid and liquid-liquid filtration are limited by fouling and concentration polarization. Because fouling significantly reduces the membrane performance and often changes the membrane selectivity, efforts to overcome the fouling problem are very important from practical applications point of view. This paper presents the basic knowledge required to control fouling and recent development in fouling control including the method developed by the author. Control of fouling can be done by (i) commercial membrane modification (post modification) by photo-graft polymerization, (ii) modification by polymer blending during membrane manufacturing and (iii) integration of a pretreatment into membrane processes. The results showed that all the developed methods can significantly reduce the resulting fouling; however, none of the method could totally remove the occurring fouling. The understanding of the membrane-foulant and foulant-foulant interactions is the key to success in control of fouling.Aplikasi teknologi membran untuk pemisahan padat cair di  berbagai industri dibatasi oleh peristiwa fouling yang menyebabkan penurunan laju produk dan perubahan selektifitas membran. Oleh karena itu, pengendalian fouling merupakan upaya yang mutlak harus dilakukan. Makalah ini mempresentasikan pengetahuan dasar yang diperlukan untuk pengendalian fouling dan perkembangan terkini dalam pengendalian fouling termasuk hasil-hasil yang telah dikembangkan oleh penulis. Pengendalian fouling dilakukan dengan (i) modifikasi membran komersial (post modification) menggunakan metode photo-grafting, (ii) modifikasi dengan pencampuran polimer selama proses pembuatan (polymer blend) dan (iii) integrasi unit perlakuan awal (pre-treatment) dengan proses membran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesemua metode yang dikembangkan dapat mengurangi terjadinya fouling secara signifikan. Namun, tidak ada satu pun metode yang dapat mengurangi fouling dengan sempurna. Pemahaman terhadap interaksi membran-foulant dan foulant-foulant merupakan kunci sukses dalam pengendalian fouling.
PENGGUNAAN MEMBRAN ULTRAFILTRASI DALAM PEMBUATAN SARI BUAH RAMBUTAN JOS, BAKTI; Susanto, Heru; Kuntolaksono, Satrio; Ariyanto, Yanuar
METANA Volume 06, Nomor 2, Tahun 2010
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Abstract   Hairy fruit (Nephelium sp) is fruit of horticultural belong in family Sapindacaeae. Membrane is a thin layer separates two phases which allow the displacement of specific components and hold other components that do not being needed. Ultrafiltration is a filtration process using membranes that filter out particles with a size of 20 to 1000 Angstrom. Results of ultrafiltration has high purity (0.4 to 0.6 NTU turbidity) than results from conventional manner (1.5-3 NTU turbidity). Yield gained was 5-8% higher than that gained from conventional. Dependent variable used is kind of hairy fruits (crops and cans). The independent variable is the pressure 2 kg/cm2, 3 kg/cm2, 0.4 kg/cm2, 0.5 kg/cm2, 0.6 kg/cm2 and the type of membrane (PES and hydrosart). The result of the study showed that greater operation pressure resulted in greater turbidity, and greater flux. The greater flux resulted smaller selectivity and pass the requirement of Environmental Protection Agency, USA.   Key word : Hairy fruits, juice, membrane, ultrafiltration
FRESH WATER PRODUCTION IN COASTAL AND REMOTE AREAS BY SOLAR POWERED LIQUID-LIQUID MEMBRANE CONTACTOR Susanto, Heru; Wenten, I G.
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 6, No 3 (2003): Volume 6, Number 3, Year 2003
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

Liquid-liquid membrane contactor (LLMC) is a new desalination process using microporous hydrophobic membrane. The temperature difference at two solution-membrane interfaces gives rise to a trans membrane vapor pressure difference that drives the flux. In this work, the effect of process parameters on LLMC performance has been done. The process parameters consist of feed and permeate temperatures, cross flow velocity, feed concentration and mode of operation. In addition, this paper focuses on the development of LLMC by using solar and wind as energy sources. In this experiments micro porous hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene membrane with 0,2 mm was used as a contacting device. The experiment were conducted at temperature of 25-80oC, cross flow velocity of 0.02-0.2 m/s and solute concentration of 0-110.000 mg/L.  Results show that the flux was influenced by the feed and permeate temperatures, the cross flow velocity and the concentration of solute. The increase of feed temperature increases the flux exponentially, whereas the flux seems to increase linearly with the increase of cross flow velocity. On the other hand, the flux was not significantly affected by the solute concentration. Furthermore, the flux in the counter current mode was lower than in the co-current mode. The average pure water fluxes obtained were in the range of 2-3 l/(m2h), whereas the products concentrations were in the range of 2-5.3 mg/L depending on the feed concentration. The operation of solar powered LLMC up to 10 days shows a very stable performance.
PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI SUPPORT LAYER UNTUK MEMBRAN PERVAPORASI Devi, Ariestya Meta; Mahsunnah, Lulluil; Susanto, Heru
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

The selection of the membrane has an important role in the process of pervaporation membranes based on the advantages and disadvantages for use in the separation process.. In the separation process of water with low concentration and need a specific condition, anorganic membrane is suitable. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal composition of support for the preparation of zeolite membranes.The result of the research shown the support membrane with composition alumina : kaolin 56%wt : 34%wt has a highest strength 46,65 N/mm2 and 30,24 N/mm2 if it compare with composition of alumina : kaolin 45%wt : 45%wt and 34%wt : 56%wt. And then the support layer is depositioned by zeolite. As an identification result from XRD, it shown mullite as dominant phase that formed with crystal size range 3,16 – 7,25 nm. Based on the analysis results obtained using the SEM support surface which has been deposited into closer, but the zeolite crystals have not formed a bond that forms between each zeolite.
MODIFIKASI KARBON AKTIF SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK PEMURNIAN BIOGAS Susanto, Heru; Wijaya, Wishnu; Widiasa, I Nyoman
TEKNIK Volume 34, Nomor 1, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The use of biogas as an environmentally friendly fuel is limited by the presence of CO2 and water vapor asimpurities. Therefore, biogas purification for CO2 and water vapor removal is very important step during biogasapplication. This paper presents a process for biogas purification by means of adsorption using either modifiedor unmodified activated carbon as an adsorbent. The modification was performed by passing a pure ammoniagas into activated carbon in a quartz reactor. The results showed that the adsorption process using modifiedactivated carbon decreases CO2 content in biogas up to 67.5% whereas for unmodified activated carbon was of43%. Further, the modification increased CO2 adsorption capacity from ~28 to ~38 mg CO2/g adsorbent. Theincrease in feed temperature decreases CO2 adsorption capacity.
INTEGRASI PENYINARAN DENGAN SINAR UV PADA PROSES INVERSI FASE UNTUK PEMBUATAN MEMBRAN NON-FOULING Nur, Addina; Sari, Dini Karunia; Susanto, Heru
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 4, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Fouling is a serious problem that can reduce the performance of the membrane. Therefore the provision of a membrane with low fouling (non-fouling) is an important thing to do. Non-fouling membrane preparation can be done in two ways, namely modification of the membrane surface after it is created (post-modification) and with mixing (blending) during the manufacturing process. However, the surface modification requires an additional step, while the blending method, produced modification is less stable because there is only mixed without a chemical bond. This paper presents the process  of Ultrafiltration membrane (UF) of polyether sulfone (PES) by mixing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an additive and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) that will form a non-fouling membranes are stable. In general, the experiment was conducted on the preparation of the solution casting, followed by irradiation with UV light before it immersed in water for one day and dried. The research was carried out by varying the concentration of PEG, photo-initiator benzophenon, type of UV rays, and long irradiation. Characterization of membrane permeability measurements made with pure water, the appearance of the membrane surface with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and determine the functional groups on the membrane by FTIR. The results showed that irradiation with UV light and the PEG has a significant influence on the characteristics and performance of the membrane.
PENYEDIAAN ENERGI LISTRIK BERBASIS PERBEDAAN SALINITAS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS Prasetya, Yoga; Risqiputra, Meindy Catur; Susanto, Heru
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 4, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Since the formation of the Kyotos Protocol and is based on reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) about the capture and storage of carbon dioxide gas in order to reduce the rate of climate change, there is a continual effort that oriented to the handling of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, Although Indonesia has never been obligated to reduce its emissions, but this policy will have a big impact on Indonesia, especially in the energy sector. Until now, oil is still the main source of energy in fulfilling energy needs within the country. The role of a very large petroleum will continue, while the dwindling petroleum reserves.Recognizing the dependence on fossil fuels, there should be an effort to press the growth of the use of fuel oil . Nowadays, it has developed an alternative energy known as the Salinity Gradient Energy (SGE). Sanility Gradient Energy has great potential for use as an alternative energy especially in Indonesia, which is the state waters. This research is aimed for study the effect of the concentration of concentrated NaCl solution, dilute NaCl solution flow rate, feed of seawater synthesis and real sea water in generated of power density. This research started inmaking a concentrated NaCl solution with various concentrations of as much as 2 l and a dilute NaCl solution with a concentration of 1 g/l as much as 2 l. Continued with the second turning on the pump diaphragm for both types of feed solution flow into the channels contained in a series of tools. After a few moments appliance operates, the change of output voltage (V) and electric current (A) can be measured using a multitester, this measurement conducted every 20 seconds interval. and then repeat the same steps for each of the variables that have been defined.From this research was found that increase in feed flow rate, then the resulting power density is greater, because of the increased flow rate causes the rate of movement of ions to the electrode increases. on increasing of the concentrated NaCl solution, the resulting power density is greater, because of the increased concentration difference causes an increase in the chemical potential. And for sample nearly the same concentration (30 g/l), the resulting power density of sea water is greater than the synthesis of real sea water, because the value of electrolytes activation synthesis of sea water is greater than the real sea water. It can be concluded that the increase in flow rate and concentration, can increase the generated of power density.
KARAKTERISASI FILM KOMPOSIT ALGINAT DAN KITOSAN Rokhati, Nur; Pramudono, Bambang; Widiasa, Nyoman; Susanto, Heru
REAKTOR Volume 14, Nomor 2, Oktober 2012
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (517.1 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.2.158-164

Abstract

CHARACTERIZATION OF ALGINATE AND CHITOSAN COMPOSITE FILM. Due to the specific characteristics of (thin) films, the use of polymer films in various aplications has singnificantly increased. Alginate and chitosan are natural polymers, which have potential as a raw material for the manufacture of composite films. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of alginate, chitosan and chitosan-alginate composite films. The film characterization included permeability test, degree of swelling, mechanical property, morphology (by SEM), and surface chemistry (by FTIR). The results showed that alginate films have a higher permeability ​​and degree of swelling (DS) than chitosan films. Both permeability and DS decreased with increasing concentration for both alginate and chitosan films. DS experiments showed that the films have the highest DS in water followed by ethanol 95% and ethanol >99.9%, respectively. The mechanical strength of chitosan films was larger than alginate films. Alginate-chitosan composite films prepared by layer by layer method showed better characteristics than the composite films prepared by blending of alginate and chitosan solutions. Meningkatnya aplikasi film polimer di berbagai industri tidak terlepas dari keunggulan yang dimiliki. Alginat dan kitosan merupakan polimer alam yang mempunyai potensi sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan film komposit. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pembuatan dan karakterisasi film komposit berbasis alginat dan kitosan. Karakterisasi film yang dilakukan meliputi uji: permeabilitas, derajat swelling, mekanik, morfologi (dengan SEM), dan struktur kimia permukaan (dengan FTIR). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa film alginat mempunyai nilai permeabilitas maupun derajat swelling yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan film kitosan. Baik pada kitosan maupun alginat memberikan fenomena bahwa semakin besar konsentrasi larutan maka semakin kecil nilai permeabilitas maupun derajat swelling, dengan derajat swelling terhadap air adalah yang  paling besar kemudian diikuti oleh ethanol teknis (± 95%) dan yang terkecil adalah ethanol PA (> 99,9%). Kekuatan mekanik film kitosan lebih besar dibanding dengan film alginat. Film komposit alginat-kitosan yang dibuat dengan metode layer by layer memberikan karakteristik yang lebih baik dibanding dengan film komposit yang dibuat dengan pencampuran larutan alginat dan larutan kitosan.