Sudibyo Supardi
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Kajian Peraturan Perundang-Undangan Tentang Iklan Obat dan Peran Serta Masyarakat dalam Pengawasannya Supardi, Sudibyo
Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia Vol 1, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia

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Abstract

The problem of study is the drugs advertising control in print media and broadcast media have been done, but many of them deviated from the legislation. The aims of study are to describe of the legislation articles related to the drug advertising and the community participation in drug advertising control. Method of study is analysis secondary data of legislation articles related to the drug advertising and public participation. The Study based on the laws, government regulations, health ministers regulations, local regulations until a decision letters. The data analysis based on understanding article by article of legislation about the drug advertising. The results show that : 1. The drug advertising must be objective, complete and not misleading which published after approved by health ministry, 2.The drug advertising control is undertaken by The National Agency of Drug and Food Control. The cooperation with various organizations should be done to decrease deviating drug advertising from the legislation, 3. The Community participation in the drug advertising monitoring is in the complaint form to The National Agency of Drug and Food Control or the non government organizations related to drug advertising. The drug consumers if harmed by drug advertising can protest through the approach of administration punishment, the civil law, and the criminal law.   Key Words: drug, drug advertising, drug advertising control, community participation
More frequent use of herbal medicine daily in married and divorced women in Indonesia Supardi, Sudibyo
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 Apr (2011)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/HSJI/article/view/53

Abstract

Latar belakang:  Selama kurun waktu 2000-2006 penggunaan obat tradisional di Indonesia terus meningkat. Analisis data dilakukan untuk mengetahui profil penduduk Indonesia yang menggunakan jamu setiap hari dan faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengannya. Metode: Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan hasil survei Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). Data mencakup sub-sampel orang 15 tahun atau lebih (179.227 orang) di 33 propinsi di Indonesia. Kriteria inklusi terbatas sub-sampel untuk orang-orang yang menggunakan obat herbal harian (7.847 orang) dan mereka yang tidak pernah menggunakan jamu (81.415 orang). Data tingkat individu termasuk informasi tentang umur, jenis kelamin, status perkawinan, pencapaian pendidikan, pekerjaan, pengeluaran rumah tangga per bulan, tempat tinggal, dan lain-lain. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi logistik bertahap. Hasil: Penduduk Indonesia yang menggunakan jamu setiap hari sebesar 4,4% dari total penduduk,  proporsinya lebih besar yang menggunakan jamu bukan buatan sendiri, bentuk sediaan cairan, dan merasakan manfaat menggunakan jamu. Subjek yang kawin/cerai dibandingkan dengan yang belum menikah 4,4 kali lipat menggunakan jamu setiap hari [rasio odds suaian (ORa=4,42; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI)=4,09-4,77). Jika ditinjau dari daerah tempat tinggal, subjek di pedesaan dibandingkan dengan perkotaan 2.2 kali lipat menggunakan jamu setiap hari (ORa=2,18; 95% CI=2,08-2,29). Sedangkan perempuan dibandingkan lelaki 62% lebih banyak menggunakan jamu setiap hari (ORa=1,62; 9% CI=1,55-1,70). Kesimpulan: Subjek yang kawin/cerai, perempuan, atau di pedesaan lebih banyak menggunakan jamu setiap hari. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:3-8) Abstract Background: During the period of 2000-2006, the utilization of traditional medicine in Indonesia continued to increase. Data analysis was conducted to determine the profile of Indonesias population using daily herbal medicine and the related factors. Methods: Analysis was conducted using the 2010 Basic Health Research Survey (Riset Kesehatan Dasar/Riskesdas) data covering a sub sample of people 15 years and older (179,227 people) in 33 provinces of Indonesia. Inclusion criteria limited the sub-sample to those people that use herbal medicine daily (7,847 persons) and those who have never used herbal medicine (81,415 persons). Individual level data included information on age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment, household expenditure per month, residence, etc. Results: Four point four percent (4.4%) of Indonesias population uses herbal medicine daily. A larger proportion of the population buys traditional medicine products in a liquid dosage form than make herbal medicine at home, and most feel that they benefit from the use of herbal preparation. Married /divorce rather than unmarried subjects were 4.5-fold more likely to use herbal medicine daily [adjusted odds ratio (ORa)=4.42; 9% confidence interval (CI)=4.09-4.77). In term of residency, rural rather than urban residents were 2.2-fold more likely to use herbal medicine daily (ORa=2.18; CI=2.08-2.29), and female than male were 62% more likely to use herbal medicine daily (ORa=1.62; CI=1.55-1.70). Conclusion: Married or divorced, female residents were more likely to use herbal medicines daily. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:3-8)
EVALUASI PERAN APOTEKER BERDASARKAN PEDOMAN PELAYANAN KEFARMASIAN DI PUSKESMAS Supardi, Sudibyo; Raharni, Raharni; Susyanti, Andi Leny; Herman, Max J.
Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Vol 22, No 4 Des (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/MPK/article/view/2915

Abstract

Abstract The Government Regulation Number 51 on Pharmacy Practice states that dispensing prescriptions in a health facility, including the community health center, must be done by a pharmacist. In 2010 only ten percents of community health centers have a pharmacist. A cross sectional qualitative study has been done to obtain information on the role of pharmacist themselves in practicing in a community health center, and to obtain information on problem and barrier of the role of pharmacist. The study was carried out in Java, namely in cities of Tangerang, Bandung, Surabaya and Bantul District. Informants for in-depth interviews are District/City Health Office staff involved in the pharmacist assignment in a community health center and head of community health center, whereas for focus group discussion we invited pharmacists from District/City Health Office, community health center, school of pharmacy and regional pharmacists association. Descriptive data were analyzed qualitatively using triangulation method and temporary results were reviewed in a round table discussion in Jakarta with DG of Pharmaceutical Services and Medical Devices, Indonesian Pharmacist Association and Provincial Health Office of DKI Jakarta. Results of the study show that: 1. A. pharmacist is not available at all community health centers, as well as non-care community health centers, there are many prescription services performed by non-professional personnel. 2. The role of pharmacist in a community health center covers good drug management just like their job description, especially in prescription dispensing and drug use report. 3. The role of the pharmacist in pharmaceutical services: (a) information carried on the delivery of drugs prescription drugs to the patient, prior to clinic services began, and during a visit to posyandu posyandu toddlers and the elderly, (b) drug counseling is limited given the availability of time and there is no room , (c) visite the patient was done, either with the patients own doctor or maternity hospitalization, (d) home care have not been going well. 4. Issues related to pharmacists in community health centers is the availability and the number does not match to the workload, so that pharmaceutical care have not been going well due to limitations of time and effort. Also there are pharmacists feel less capable in providing drug information to other health professionals, especially medical specialist several health centers, so it is still necessary coaching and training. Keywords: pharmacist, Guideline of pharmaceutical care, community health center, drug management Abstrak Dalam Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 51 tahun 2009 disebutkan pelayanan resep dokter di pelayanan kefarmasian (salah satunya puskesmas) harus dilakukan oleh apoteker. Data tahun 2010 menunjukkan hanya 10% puskesmas yang memiliki apoteker. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi tentang peran apoteker di puskesmas dan permasalahan dalam pelayanan kefarmasian di puskesmas. Hasil penelitian diharapkan sebagai masukan bagi pihak yang terkait untuk meningkatkan ketersediaan apoteker dalam pelayanan kefarmasian di puskesmas. Penelitian potong lintang (cross sectional) dengan pendekatan kualitatif dilakukan terhadap instansi yang terkait dengan peran apoteker di puskesmas pada tahun 2011. Lokasi penelitian yang dipilih adalah Provinsi Banten, Jawa Barat, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan Jawa Timur. Dari masing-masing provinsi diambil satu kota, yaitu Kota Tangerang, Kota Bandung, Kabupaten Bantul dan Kota Surabaya. Informan penelitian untuk wawancara mendalam adalah Dinkes Kabupaten/Kota dan Kepala Puskesmas, sedangkan peserta diskusi kelompok terarah adalah 12 apoteker yang mewakili Dinkes Kabupaten/Kota, puskesmas perawatan, Perguruan Tinggi Farmasi (PTF) dan Pengurus Daerah Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (PD IAI). Analisis data secara deskriptif kualitatif dengan metoda triangulasi sumber data dan triangulasi metoda pengumpulan data. Hasil sementara disempurnakan dengan Round Table Discussion di Jakarta dengan mengundang nara sumber. Hasil studi adalah sebagai berikut : 1.  Apoteker belum tersedia di semua puskesmas perawatan, apalagi puskesmas non perawatan, sehingga pelayanan resep dikerjakan oleh tenaga non profesional. 2.  Peran apoteker dalam pengelolaan obat umumnya sudah berjalan, khususnya dalam pelayanan obat resep dan pembuatan LP-LPO bulanan. 3.  Peran apoteker dalam pelayanan kefarmasian: (a) informasi obat dilakukan pada saat penyerahan obat resep kepada pasien, sebelum pelayanan puskesmas dimulai, dan pada saat kunjungan ke posyandu balita dan posyandu lansia, (b) konseling obat dilakukan terbatas mengingat ketersediaan waktu dan belum ada ruangan, (c) visite pasien sudah dilakukan, baik dengan dokter maupun sendiri kepada pasien bersalin rawat inap, (d) home care belum berjalan dengan baik. 4.  Permasalahan yang terkait dengan apoteker di puskesmas adalah ketersediaan dan jumlah tidak sesuai dengan beban kerjanya, sehingga pelayanan kefarmasian belum berjalan baik akibat keterbatasan waktu dan tenaga. Juga ada apoteker merasa kurang mampu dalam memberikan informasi obat kepada tenaga kesehatan lain, khususnya dokter spesialis di beberapa puskesmas perawatan, sehingga masih diperlukan pembinaan dan pelatihan.   Kata kunci: apoteker, pelayanan kefarmasian, pengelolaan obat, puskesmas
PENYEDIAAN OBAT GENERIK BERLOGO DI APOTEK SWASTA Supardi, Sudibyo; Kadarwati, Umi; Muktiningsih, S. R.
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 21, No 2 Jun (1993)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/339

Abstract

One method to enhance equal distribution accessibility to medicines is the Programme on Generic Drugs. The so called "generic drugs" are made by producers of drugs according to stipulations in Methods to Produce Good Drugs, which are given a special trade mark or logo, called O.G.B (Obat Generik Berlogo). In its effort to promote the Programme on OGB a ministerial decree no.085/Menkes/Per/I/1989 has been enacted, which among others obliged dispensaries to provide them. After having been in force for 3 years, how is the participation of private dispensaries in providing OGB ? To gain information on factors relating to the behaviour of the responsibility to obtain and provide drugs (PPO) in dispensaries and its problems, a study has been conducted, descriptive and analytical, on 110 dispensaries in 6 Regions. Data collecting was done through interviews with PPOs guided by questionnaires and prescriptions photocopies of all dispensaries during the last 6 days prior to the study. Data analysis to know the related significance, uses the Chi-square Test. As a result of the study and analysis, the conclusions were: Of the PPOs, 66,4% were graduated pharmacists or assistant pharmacists, over 3 years in occupation.A positive correlation exist statistically between the educated PPO and his/her knowledge on OGB.Among dispensaries, 57,3% are OGB undersupplied, that is having lesser than half the amount of OGB items already produced.Supply of OGB items in dispensaries is to support society, since accessibility of its prices and fulfil governments regulations.Problems of OGB in dispensaries are: competitions between producers of OGB, unavailability of certain items, and the demand is low.
PERAN WARUNG DALAM PENYEDIAAN OBAT DAN OBAT TRADISIONAL UNTUK PENGOBATAN SENDIRI DI KECAMATAN TANJUNGBINTANG, LAMPUNG SELATAN Supardi, Sudibyo; Jamal, Sarjaini; Herman, M. J.
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 27, No 2 Jun (1999)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/308

Abstract

One of the many factors that influences self-medication is the availability of drug and traditional medicine for the community. The objective of this study is to obtain information about the role of retailers in the village. This survey was carried out at all warung who sell drug or traditional medicine at two villages in the Tanjungbintang district, South Lampung. Data were collected by interviewing warung and observation. Results showed that warung generally have adequate knowledge about drugs used for headache, cough and fever, as well as about traditional medicine used for diarrhoe, muscle-pain and maintaining healthy condition. They got that information from drug store. Warung played an important role in delivering drug and traditional medicine that meet the needs of the community.
HUBUNGAN PENGGUNAAN LP-LPO DENGAN KECUKUPAN DAN KERASIONALAN PENGGUNAAN OBAT DI PUSKESMAS Herman, Max Joseph; Aziz, Sriana; Jamal, Sarjaini; Supardi, Sudibyo; Murad, Janahar; Muktiningsih, SR.; Sasanti, Rini
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 27, No 2 Jun (1999)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/307

Abstract

A study to determine the impact of the implementation of LP-LPO (Drug-use Report and Drug-request Form) upon the availability and the rational use of drugs at Puskesmas (Health Centre) had been carried out during 1998. The study location were four districts, i.e. Pasaman and Agam in West Sumatera and Pasuruan and Malang in East Java. The survey was conducted retrospectively by visiting 40 PHCs selected purposively to interview, observe and tranfer data from 1997/1998 LP-LPO. Data concerning the implementation of LP-LPO through some variables, the availability of drugs and an evaluation of rational prescription based on the standard treatment guidelines in the year of 1997/1998 were collected. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation among variables of the implementation of LP-LPO and the availability as well as the rational use of drugs, following a general description of each variable involved at selected HCs. The study revealed good results in the implementation of LP-LPO to manage the availability of indicator drugs at HCs. However, at most HCs the drug supply did not fit the request. The percentages of HCs in implementing LP-LPO in terms of variables of planning, scheduling, record keeping, timing of reporting, methods and data resources ranged from 50 to 80%. Statistically there was a significant correlation between the implementation of LP-LPO in terms of the above variables and the availability of drugs. On the contrary, there was no statistically significant correlation between drug availability and rational prescription, which was found only at 5% of HCs.
POLA PENGGUNAAN OBAT DAN OBAT TRADISIONAL DALAM UPAYA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI DI TANJUNG BINTANG, LAMPUNG Supardi, Sudibyo; Sukasediati, Nani; Aziz, Sriana
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 25, No 3&4 Des (1997)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/300

Abstract

Self-medication appeared to be the initial effort of around 60% of the urban community in three cities on Java Island, in 1993. Drugs were used more frequently than the traditional medicines. Self-medication might potentially be an efficient self-help means for the community before getting the opportunity to reach the Primary health center. To achieve effectiveness of the self-medication effort, providing good information, how ever is strongly needed. The cross sectional study has been carried out among a rural community in two villages of Subdistrict Tanjung Bintang, in the Southern part of Lampung province. The sample population consist of housewives, who had ever taken drug or traditional medicines within the last month prior to the interview. Respondents (320 housewives) were choosen by multistage random sampling based on the number of households, RT and RW. Data were analyzed and presented as means and as the frequency distribution of the variables. The result obtained are : (1) A total of 74,5% prevalence was found taking drugs and traditional medicines for a period of one month, drugs how ever were used more frequently. (2) Drugs were taken as an effort in relieving their perceived headache, fever, or cough, according to their knowledge obtained from advertisement through television and radio programs. They got acces to the remedial products in small shops (warung), within a distance up to 500 meter from their home, without needing any transportation, and with a cost of Rp 194 (SD.± 289). (3) On the other hand, traditional medicines were taken as a remedy against diarrhoea, muscle-aches and health preventive/ fitness, according their knowledge received from their relatives and neighbours. They obtained the remedial product from the Vendors, within a distance up to 500 meter from thier dweeling place, without needing any transportation, and with a cost of Rp 407 (SD.± 500). (4) Effectiveness of the self-medication effort were perceived by around 78,5% and 72,2% of the user, for drug and traditional medicines respectively.
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PEMILIHAN OBAT ATAU OBAT TRADISIONAL DALAM UPAYA PENGOBATAN SENDIRI DI PEDESAAN Supardi, Sudibyo; Muktiningsih, S. R.; Handayani, Rini Sasanti
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 25, No 3&4 Des (1997)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/297

Abstract

Self-medication might potentially be an efficient self-help means for the community before getting the opportunity to reach the Primary health center. Information about the determinants of self-medication is needed to enhance community participation in self-medication. The cross sectional study has been carried out among a rural community in two villages of Subdistrict Tanjung Bintang, in the Southern part of Lampung province. The sample population consists of housewives, who had ever taken drug or traditional medicines within the last month prior to the interview. Respondents (320 housewives) were choosen by multistage random sampling based on the number of household, RT and RW. The variables are knowledge, attitude, distance, purpose (curative/preventive), reference, and drugs usage or traditional medicines. Data were analized by Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis. The results of the study are as follows : Modern drugs are used more frequently than traditional medicines. Most of the respondents obtained information about drugs from advertisement in television and radio program, and about traditional medicines from their neighbours. Most of the respondents know about brandname of drug to relieve headache, fever and cough, and traditional medicines to relieve diarrhoea and muscle pain. The determinants of self medication are purpose (curative/ preventive), attitude and distance.
POLA PENGGUNAAN OBAT, OBAT TRADISIONAL DAN CARA TRADISIONAL DALAM PENGOBATAN SENDIRI DI INDONESIA Supardi, Sudibyo; Jamal, Sarjaini; Raharni, Raharni
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 33, No 4 Des (2005)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/222

Abstract

The National Socio-Economic Survey data 2001 has been analyzed to obtain information on the pattern of the use of medicine, traditional medicine and traditional methods on self-medication. The target population was 225.057 Indonesians who claimed to be ill in 27provinces except Naggroe Aceh Darussalam and Maluku. The sample was people who took medicine, traditional medicine and or traditional methods on self-medication during the last one month before the survey. The data were analyzed using univariat and proportion method. The result of data analysis were: (1) The percentage of Indonesian people who took medicine on self-medication made a normal curve for age, inversity related with the cost of medication and was higher in the urban area, (2) The percentage of Indonesian people who took traditional medicine and traditional methods on self-medication was correlated with age, duration of illness, medication cost and was higher in rural area, (3) The percentage of Indonesian who took self medication was higher among the lower educated, lower economic status and who have less severe illness, and (4) The percentage of Indonesian who took self-medication has been decreased from 62.2% to 57.7% within 4 years period, especially on the use of medicine, but the use of traditional medicine and traditional method have been increased
PENGGUNAAN JAMU BUATAN SENDIRI DI INDONESIA (ANALISIS DATA RISET KESEHATAN DASAR TAHUN 2010) Supardi, Sudibyo; Herman, Max Joseph; Yuniar, Yuyun
Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan Vol 14, No 4 Okt (2011)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan

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Background: A study to analyze data of Basic Health Research 2010 (Riskesdas 2010) was done to describe the profile of household using self-made herbal medicines and to identify the characteristics of household members that related to use of self-made herbal medicines. Methods: The sampel was individuals aged fifteen years old or more and who use self-made herbal medicine i.e. 177,927 people from selected household in 33 Indonesian provinces. Data was collected by interviewing the respondent that use structured questionnaire, including age, sex, marital status, education, job, household monthly expenditure, residence, province and self-made herbal medicines usage. The data were analyzed by proportion and Chi square test and multiple logistic regression method. Results: Results of data analysis shows that nearly ten percents of household that ever used herbal medicines are those using self-made herbal medicines. A greater proportion of them used either Kaemferia sp. and or Zingiber sp. as raw material in liquid formulation and got the benefit of using it as well as living in North Maluku, Bali and East Nusa Tenggara. About seventeen percents of household members who ever used herbal medicines are those using self-made herbal medicines. Conclusion: Factors related to self-made herbal medicines are married/divorce (OR= 1.76; CI = 1.63-1.90), urban residence (OR= 1.45; CI = 1.38-1.53), female (OR= 1.43; CI = 1.363-1.50) dan higher economic group (OR= 1.34; CI = 1.27-1.40).   Keywords: self-made herbal medicines, traditional medicine, household