Muhammad Dani Supardan
Jurusan Teknik Kimia Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Syech Abdurrauf, No. 7, Banda Aceh - Indonesia

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Kapasitas Adsorpsi Bentonit terhadap Sulfur dan Merkuri secara Simultan pada Pembakaran Batubara

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 10, No 4 (2015): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Pemanfaatan batubara sebagai sumber energi melalui pembakaran langsung akan menghasilkan emisi gas, partikulat trace metal (logam berat) dan abu (terutama abu terbang) yang akan mencemari udara. Penanganan terhadap pencemaran tersebut merupakan hal yang sangat mendesak. Dalam studi ini ditawarkan penyelesaian secara simultan terhadap emisi SOx dan partikulat logam berat merkuri pada pembakaran batubara peringkat rendah yang ada di Aceh melalui penyerapan menggunakan bentonit alam yang juga terdapat di Aceh (juga di daerah lain di Indonesia). Penggunaan bentonit dapat mengurangi emisi gas SO2 dan partikulat trace metal Hg dalam gas buang dan abu terbang. Bentonit dapat meningkatkan afinitas atau gaya tarik menarik antara Hg dan mineral-mineral dalam bentonit dan sekaligus menurunkan afinitas Hg terhadap S atau SO2. Konsentrasi bentonit dalam kajian ini, tanpa kalsinasi dan langsung dicampur dalam batubara, adalah 0 – 16% dan temperatur pembakaran adalah 700 – 900oC. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa kondisi maksimum penyerapan sulfur dan/atau SO2 serta merkuri terjadi pada kandungan bentonit 6% dan temperatur 700oC.

Optimasi Proses Ekstraksi Oleoresin Jahe (Zingiber officinale Rosc) Menggunakan Ultrasonik

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

The study on extraction of oleoresin from ginger by using ultrasonic was carried out in order to obtain the optimum condition of extraction process. The effect of ratio of ginger to solvent (ethanol, X1), extraction temperature (X2), and extraction duration (X3) are studied on the yield of oleoresin. Response surface design method with Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to obtain a mathematical model which describes the relationship between the yield of ginger oleoresin and influencing variables. The experimental results indicate that the optimum condition of extraction which yield of oleoresin of 11.026% was found at ratio of ginger to ethanol (X1) of 1:4.68 gr.ml-1, extraction temperature (X2) of 420 OC, and extraction duration (X3) of 79 minutes.Keywords: extraction, response surface method, ginger oleoresin, ultrasonic

Penggunaan Ultrasonik untuk Transesterifikasi Minyak Goreng Bekas

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 8, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

In this work, the ultrasound-assisted transesterification of used frying oil (UFO) was studied. A two-step pretreatment of degumming and esterification was conducted to prepare UFO as raw material for transesterification. The esterification and transesterification was performed by using ethanol as solvent in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at frequency of 40 kHz. The esterification was carried out with oil to ethanol ratio of 1:10, temperature of 60oC and reaction time of 4 hours in the presence of 1 wt .% H2SO4 as an acid catalyst. Meanwhile, the transesterification reaction was carried out with oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, 1:15; KOH catalyst concentration of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 wt.%; and reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60oC. The highest biodiesel yield of 65% obtained at ultrasound-assisted transesterification condition of oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:12, reaction temperature of 50oC and KOH concentration of 1 wt.%. The results of analysis of some parameters of the product showed biodiesel has fulfilled the specifications according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 04-7182-2006 number.Keywords: Biodiesel, Esterification, Used frying oil, Transesterification, Ultrasonic

Penggunaan Microsoft Excel dalam Memprediksi Aliran Fluida dalam Packed Bed

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 9, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Flow distribution is often a problem in the operation of the packed bed reactor. The problem is often referred as flow maldistribution and formation of localized hot spot region. This research is generally aimed to predict  fluid flow distribution in the packed bed containing porous media by finite difference method using the software MS. Excel. Model verification result shows conformity between analytic method and  result of calculation. Simple study of the finite difference method using the software MS. Excel can describe the fluid velocity profile in a packed bed containing porous media. This profile is similar with experiment of Kufner and Hofmann (1990) and Stephenson and Stewart (1986). The simulation was performed to determine the effect of process variables on the fluid flow velocity profile. Particle diameter influences fluid flow velocity. Bulk porosity also influences fluid flow velocity at axis up to certain distance from wall of reactor. Keywords: finite difference method, flow distribution, packed bed reactor

Esterification of Free Fatty Acid in Crude Palm Oil Off Grade

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 7, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) found in crude palm oil (CPO) off grade with methanol is a promising technique to convert FFA into valuable fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In this work, the effects of the main variables involved in the esterification process i.e. alcohol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, agitation speed and the initial amount of FFA of oil, were studied in the presence of sulphuric acid as catalyst at concentration of 1%-w. The experimental results show that the esterification process could lead to a practical and cost effective FFA removal unit in front of typical oil transesterification for biodiesel production.Keywords: CPO off grade, esterification, free fatty acid

Prediction of Water Loss During Potato Vacuum Frying Process

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Vacuum frying may be a good alternative for the production of dehydrated fruit and vegetable slices. In this study, a relationship between water losses with frying time during vacuum frying process of potato chips has been developed. A first order kinetic model was used, in which drying rate constant is a function of the main process variables, i.e. oil temperature, sample thickness and vacuum pressure. The experimental data of Garayo and Moreira (2000) have been used to validate the model. Generally there was a good agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data. Then, the effect of initial water content and vacuum pressure has been studied.Keywords: kinetic model, potato, vacuum frying, water loss

Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Department, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Abstract

Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD) technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

Central composite design applied to purify lemongrass essential oil using vacuum distillation

Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 3, No 2 (2013): Engineering
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Vacuum distillation process can be applied for purification of lemongrass essential oil by increasing the concentration of citral in lemongrass essential oil. In this study, the relationship between experimental parameters of purification of lemongrass oil was investigated. The effect of pressure, temperature and pH was examined to determine the best performance of the product yield. CentralComposite Design was applied to optimize the operating parameters of the process. It was found that the product yield of bottom product achieved an optimum level of 98.4% yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. pressure of 55.9 mbar, temperature of 104.6oC and pH of 4.8

Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Jarak Pagar Menggunakan Kavitasi Hidrodinamik

Agritech Vol 34, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

In this study, the in situ transesterification of jatropha seed using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodieselwas studied. Experiments were carried out under the following conditions: 800 mL of methanol volume, 50oC of reaction temperature, 2 g of potassium hidroxide catalyst, less than 3% of moisture content in jatropha seed and 0,355-1,18 mm of particle size. From experiment without co-solvent addition, the highest biodiesel yield of 35% obtained at condition: time of process of 120 minute and ratio of methanol to jatropha seed of 16 (mL/g) . The use of co-solvent of hexane provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system without co-solvents. The highest biodiesel yield of 60% were obtained under the addition of 95 mL of hexane volume. In addition, the use hydrodynamic cavitation provided a higher yield of biodiesel compared to the system using mechanical stirring. The biodiesel produced in the experiment was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which showed that methyl oleate was the highest compound in biodiesel.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses produksi biodiesel dari biji jarak pagar melalui proses transesterifikasi in situ menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik. Transesterifikasi in situ dilakukan pada kondisi: volume metanol 800 mL, temperatur proses 50oC, katalis kalium hidroksida 2 g, kandungan air biji jarak kurang dari 3% dan ukuran partikel biji jarak 0,355-1,18 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen biodiesel tertinggi sebesar 35% yang dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak pagar menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik tanpa penambahan co-solvent diperoleh pada penggunaan waktu proses 120 menit dan rasio volume metanol terhadap berat biji jarak 16 (mL/g). Penggunaan co-solvent heksana terbukti dapat meningkatkan rendemen biodiesel yang dihasilkan dimana pada penambahan volume heksana sebanyak 95 mL diperoleh rendemen biodiesel sebesar 60%. Proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak menggunakan kavitasi hidrodinamik menghasilkan rendemen biodiesel yang lebih besar dibandingkan proses menggunakan pengaduk mekanik. Hasil analisis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) menunjukkan komponen terbesar dalam produk biodiesel adalah metil oleat.

METODE EKSTRAKSI PELARUT BERBANTUAN ULTRASONIK UNTUK RECOVERY MINYAK DARI LIMBAH CAIR PABRIK KELAPA SAWIT Application of Ultrasound-assisted Solvent Extraction for Recovery of Oil from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Jurnal Agritech Vol 31, No 04 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

In this study, application of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME)was studied. Extraction conditions such as volume ratio of POME to solvent, extraction time and type of solvent were investigated. Extraction was carried out at room temperature with total volume (POME and solvent) of 300 ml. The experimental results showed that ultrasound-assisted extraction provided higher yield than without ultrasound using mechanical stirring. The highest oil yield of 0.265 % obtained at ultrasound-assisted extraction condition of volume ratio of POME to solvent 5:1, extraction time of 60 minutes using n-hexane as solvent. The highest oil yield and carotene concentration were obtained by n-hexane. Meanwhile, there was no significant differenece of carotene concentration obtained from ultrasound-assisted and without ultrasound-assisted extraction.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik untuk recovery minyak dari limbahcair pabrik kelapa sawit. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada temperatur kamar dengan menggunakan volum total campuran (limbah dan pelarut) sebanyak 300 ml. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut (1:1; 2:1; 4:1; dan 5:1), waktu ekstraksi (30, 60, 90 dan 120 menit), dan jenis pelarut (n-heksan dan petroleum eter). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik menghasilkan rendemen minyak yang lebih besar dibandingkan ekstraksi tanpa bantuan ultrasonik dengan menggunakan pengadukan mekanik. Rendemen minyak tertinggi sebesar 0,265 % diperoleh pada proses ekstraksi berbantuan ultrasonik dengan rasio volum limbah terhadap pelarut 5:1, waktu ekstraksi 90 menit dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Rendemen minyak dan konsentrasi karoten yang lebih tinggi diperoleh pada ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut n-heksan. Metode ekstraksi pelarut berbantuan ultrasonik dan tanpa bantuan ultrasonik memberikan perbedaan yang tidak signifikan terhadap konsentrasi karoten yang terdapat dalam minyak yang telah direcovery.