TITIK SUNDARI
Pusat Teknologi Limbah Radioaktif-Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (PTLR-BATAN) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong Gedung 50 Tangerang Selatan, Banten, 15310

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Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Shading Tolerant and Sensitive Mungbean Genotypes

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 4 (2009): December 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Study of morphological and physiological characteristics of the tolerant and sensitive mungbean genotypes to shading was carried out in the Station Research of the Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI) from September to December 2004. Nine tolerant genotypes (MMC 87 D-KP-2, MLG 369, MLG 310, MLG 424, MLG 336, MLG 428, MLG 237, MLG 429, and VC2768B) and three sensitive genotypes to shading (Nuri, MLG 460, and MLG 330) were tested in two shading levels, that were without shading and shading of 52%. The randomized complete block design with three replications analysis. The results showed that leaf characters of shading tolerant and sensitive genotypes were different. The shading tolerant mungbean genotypes had good response to light stress so that the growth and development of the leaves were better than that of sensitive genotypes. The shading tolerant mungbean genotypes had bigger and thicker leaves than that of sensitive genotypes. The shading treatments caused reducing rate of PAR absorption, transpiration, photosynthesis, and CO2 stomata conductance. The reduction of all parameters in tolerant genotype was smaller than that of sensitive genotype. The specific leaf area at  four weeks after planting could be used as shading tolerant indicator of mungbeans.         Key words: mungbean, characteristics, morphology, physiology, leaves, tolerant, sensitive, shading

Perubahan Karakter Agronomi Aksesi Plasma Nutfah Kedelai di Lingkungan Ternaungi

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Excessive shading during plant growth is one of the factors that might decrease the productivity of crops. The aim of this study was to determine agronomic characters of soybean germplasms grown under shaded environment. The research was carried out at Kendalpayak experimental station (grey Alluvial soil, 450 m above the sea level with C3 climate type) during dry season in Malang, from February to April 2006. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The genetic material observed were 120 accessions of Balitkabi’s soybean germplasm; the treatments were without shading and 50% shading using shading net. The results showed that 50% shading decreased plant age to harvest, increased plant height, and reduced the number of pods and seed weight compared to those in no shading environment. Based on Stress Tolerancy Index (STI) analysis on the seed weight per plant, fi  ve accessions i.e. MLGG 0845, MLGG 3335, MLGG 0010, MLGG 0771, and Wilis demonstrated  high tolerance on 50% shade.   Keywords : shading environment, soybean, yield, yield component 

Tingkat Kritis Intensitas Cahaya Relatif Lima Genotip Kacang Hijau (Vigna radiatus L.)

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 33, No 3 (2005): Jurnal Agronomi Iindonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to determine the critical relative light intensities (RLI) level of mungbean. The critical level was determined by 50% decreasing of grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the ILETRI (Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute), Malang, from February to May 2004. Five genotypes of mungbean, i.e. VC2768B, Kenari, Local Wongsorejo, Nuri and MLG 431 were grown in  four relative light intensities (RLI) levels, respectively 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%, that were prepared before planting with artificial shading. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replicates. The results showed that reducing RLI increased specific leaf area, but decreased leaf number, leaf area, leaf, stem and root dry weight, as well as pod number, pod dry weight and grain yield per plant. Reducing RLI from 100% to 75%, 50% and 25% did result in 15%, 56% and 71% decreased grain yield of mungbean. The critical level of RLI on mungbean was 48% or was found at 52% shading.   Key words: Vigna radiatus L., genotype, critical level, relative light intensities, growth, yield

Anatomi Daun Kacang Hijau Genotipe Toleran dan Sensitif Naungan

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The research to study the leaf anatomy of tolerant and sensitive mungbean genotypes to shading was conducted at Research Station of the Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI) from September to December 2004. Nine tolerant genotypes to shading including MMC 87 D-KP-2, MLG 369, MLG 310, MLG 424, MLG 336, MLG 428, MLG 237, MLG 429 and VC2768B and three sensitive genotypes including Nuri, MLG 460 and MLG 330 were tested in two shading levels, i.e., 0% (control) and 52% using randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the leaves of tolerant genotypes have fewer thrichomes, thicker leaves, thinner epidermis cells, longer palisade tissues and greater number of stomata than those of sensitive genotypes when  planted under shading condition.   Key words: Mungbean, leaf anatomy, tolerant, sensitive, shading

PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR DARI INDUSTRI: IMOBILISASI LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF URANIUM MENGGUNAKAN BAHAN MATRIKS SYNROC SUPERCALCINE FOSFAT

Buletin Limbah Vol 16, No 3 (2013): Nopember 2013
Publisher : Buletin Limbah

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Abstract

AHAN LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF CAIR INDUSTRI: IMOBILISASI LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF URANIUM MENGGUNAKAN BAHAN MATRIKS SYNROC SUPERCALCINE FOSFAT. Kegiatan dekomisioning fasilitas Pemurnian Asam Fosfat Petrokimia Gresik (PAF-PKG) menimbulkan limbah radioaktif cair yang mengandung uranium. Limbah tersebut diolah dengan proses biooksidasi menggunakan bakteri untuk reduksi volume limbah menjadi limbah sludge radioaktif. Limbah sludge tersebut mengandung uranium termasuk dalam klasifikasi limbah alfa umur panjang yang harus diimobilisasi melalui proses pemadatan. Pada penelitian ini bertujuan untuk imobilisasi limbah sludge radioaktif melalui proses pemadatan menggunakan synroc supercalcine fosfat sebagai bahan matriks. Proses imobilisasi dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan limbah sludge radioaktif dengan prekursor oksida, kemudian campuran tersebut dikeringkan, dipres dalam cetakan. Proses berikutnya adalah kalsinasi pada 750 o C dan sintering pada suhu 1100 - 1300 0 C selama 1 – 5 jam untuk membentuk suatu keramik multi-fase yang padat. Komposisi prekursor oksida (dalam % berat) adalah : Al2O3 (5,4); BaO (5,6); CaO (11,0); Ca3(PO4)2 (71,4) dan ZrO2 (6,6). Tingkat muat limbah dalam blok synroc limbah divariasi antara 10 – 60 % berat. Kualitas blok synroc limbah hasil imobilisasi ditentukan dengan pengujian densitas, kuat tekan, dan laju pelindihan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas terbaik blok synroc supercalcines fosfat limbah hasil imobilisasi diperoleh pada tingkat muat limbah 50 % berat, proses sintering pada suhu 1300 o C selama 3 jam, dengan harga densitas 2,48 g/cm 3 , kuat tekan 27,99 kN/cm 2 , laju pelindihan total dan laju pelindihan uranium adalah 5,25x10-4 g.cm-2.hari-1 dan 1,05x10 -6 g.cm -2 .hari -1 . Kualitas blok synroc supercalcine fosfat limbah hasil imobilisasi tersebut sesuai dengan synroc supercalcine titanat standar. Kata kunci: imobilisasi limbah, limbah radioaktif uranium, limbah alfa umur panjang, synroc. ABSTRACT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT: THE IMMOBILIZATION OF URANIUM RADIOACTIVE WASTE USING SYNROC MATRIX MATERIAL OF SUPERCALCINES PHOSPHATE. The decommissioning of Phosphoric Acid Purification – Petro Chemical of Gresik (PAP-PCG) facility generates radioactive liquid waste containing uranium. The waste was treated by bio-oxidation process using bacteria for volume reduction of the waste to become radioactive sludge waste. The sludge waste contains uranium including long-life alpha waste classification, must be immobilized by solidification process. In this research aim to immobilization of the radioactive sludge waste by solidification using synroc matrix material of supercalcines phosphate. The immobilization process of the waste using synroc matrix was carried-out by mix the radioactive sludge waste with precursor oxides, this mixture was dried then it was pressed in the molder, further process are calcination at temperature 750 oC and sintering at the temperature of 1100-1300 oC for 1-5 hours to form the solid multiphases of monolite ceramic. Immobilization process by synroc matrix using precursor oxides with composition (in % weight) i.e : Al2O3 (5.4); BaO (5.6); CaO (11.0); Ca3(PO4)2 (71.4) and ZrO2 (6.6). Waste loading in the synroc block is 10 – 60 wt %. The quality of the synroc block producted from imobilization was determinated by testing of density, compressive strength, and leach-rate. The best quality of the synroc supercalcines phosphate block waste was obtained at the waste loading 50 wt%, sintering process at 1300 oC for 3 hours with values of density 2.48 g/cm3, compressive strength 27.99 kN/cm2, total leach-rate and leach-rate of uranium are 5.25x10-4 Gunandjar, Titik Sundari: Pengembangan Teknologi Pengolahan Limbah Radioaktif Cair Industri: Imobilisasi Limbah Radioaktif Uranium Menggunakan Bahan Matriks Synroc Supercalcine Fosfat 250 g.cm2.day-1 and 1.05x10-6 g.cm-2.day-1 respectively. The quality of phosphate supercalcines synroc relatively same with quality of standard titanate supercalcines synroc. Keywords: immobilization of waste, uranium radioactive waste, long life alpha waste, synroc.

PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR DARI INDUSTRI: IMOBILISASI LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF URANIUM MENGGUNAKAN BAHAN MATRIKS SYNROC SUPERCALCINE FOSFAT

Jurnal Teknologi Pengelolaan Limbah Vol 16, No 3 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF CAIR INDUSTRI: IMOBILISASI LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF URANIUM MENGGUNAKAN BAHAN MATRIKS SYNROC SUPERCALCINE FOSFAT. Kegiatan dekomisioning fasilitas Pemurnian Asam Fosfat Petrokimia Gresik (PAF-PKG) menimbulkan limbah radioaktif cair yang mengandung uranium. Limbah tersebut diolah dengan proses biooksidasi menggunakan bakteri untuk reduksi volume limbah menjadi limbah sludge radioaktif. Limbah sludge tersebut mengandung uranium termasuk dalam klasifikasi limbah alfa umur panjang yang harus diimobilisasi melalui proses pemadatan. Pada penelitian ini bertujuan untuk imobilisasi limbah sludge radioaktif melalui proses pemadatan menggunakan synroc supercalcine fosfat sebagai bahan matriks. Proses imobilisasi dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan limbah sludge radioaktif dengan prekursor oksida, kemudian campuran tersebut dikeringkan, dipres dalam cetakan. Proses berikutnya adalah kalsinasi pada 750 o C dan sintering pada suhu 1100 - 1300 0 C selama 1 – 5 jam untuk membentuk suatu keramik multi-fase yang padat. Komposisi prekursor oksida (dalam % berat) adalah : Al2O3 (5,4); BaO (5,6); CaO (11,0); Ca3(PO4)2 (71,4) dan ZrO2 (6,6). Tingkat muat limbah dalam blok synroc limbah divariasi antara 10 – 60 % berat. Kualitas blok synroc limbah hasil imobilisasi ditentukan dengan pengujian densitas, kuat tekan, dan laju pelindihan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas terbaik blok synroc supercalcines fosfat limbah hasil imobilisasi diperoleh pada tingkat muat limbah 50 % berat, proses sintering pada suhu 1300 o C selama 3 jam, dengan harga densitas 2,48 g/cm 3 , kuat tekan 27,99 kN/cm 2 , laju pelindihan total dan laju pelindihan uranium adalah 5,25x10-4 g.cm-2.hari-1 dan 1,05x10 -6 g.cm -2 .hari -1 . Kualitas blok synroc supercalcine fosfat limbah hasil imobilisasi tersebut sesuai dengan synroc supercalcine titanat standar. Kata kunci: imobilisasi limbah, limbah radioaktif uranium, limbah alfa umur panjang, synroc. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT: THE IMMOBILIZATION OF URANIUM RADIOACTIVE WASTE USING SYNROC MATRIX MATERIAL OF SUPERCALCINES PHOSPHATE. The decommissioning of Phosphoric Acid Purification – Petro Chemical of Gresik (PAP-PCG) facility generates radioactive liquid waste containing uranium. The waste was treated by bio-oxidation process using bacteria for volume reduction of the waste to become radioactive sludge waste. The sludge waste contains uranium including long-life alpha waste classification, must be immobilized by solidification process. In this research aim to immobilization of the radioactive sludge waste by solidification using synroc matrix material of supercalcines phosphate. The immobilization process of the waste using synroc matrix was carried-out by mix the radioactive sludge waste with precursor oxides, this mixture was dried then it was pressed in the molder, further process are calcination at temperature 750 oC and sintering at the temperature of 1100-1300 oC for 1-5 hours to form the solid multiphases of monolite ceramic. Immobilization process by synroc matrix using precursor oxides with composition (in % weight) i.e : Al2O3 (5.4); BaO (5.6); CaO (11.0); Ca3(PO4)2 (71.4) and ZrO2 (6.6). Waste loading in the synroc block is 10 – 60 wt %. The quality of the synroc block producted from imobilization was determinated by testing of density, compressive strength, and leach-rate. The best quality of the synroc supercalcines phosphate block waste was obtained at the waste loading 50 wt%, sintering process at 1300 oC for 3 hours with values of density 2.48 g/cm3, compressive strength 27.99 kN/cm2, total leach-rate and leach-rate of uranium are 5.25x10-4 Gunandjar, Titik Sundari: Pengembangan Teknologi Pengolahan Limbah Radioaktif Cair Industri: Imobilisasi Limbah Radioaktif Uranium Menggunakan Bahan Matriks Synroc Supercalcine Fosfat 250 g.cm2.day-1 and 1.05x10-6 g.cm-2.day-1 respectively. The quality of phosphate supercalcines synroc relatively same with quality of standard titanate supercalcines synroc. Keywords: immobilization of waste, uranium radioactive waste, long life alpha waste, syn

RESPONS TANAMAN KEDELAI TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN TUMBUH

Buletin Palawija No 23 (2012)
Publisher : Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian

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Abstract

Tanaman kedelai (Glycine max L.) dapat memberikan respon positif dan negatif terhadap perubahan lingkungan tumbuh di atas tanah maupun di dalam tanah. Respon tersebut dapat diketahui dari perubahan perubahan fenotipik dan fisiologis tanaman. Lingkungan di atas tanah yang berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai terutama adalah lama dan intensitas penyinaran, suhu udara dan kandungan CO2 di atmosfer. Lama penyinaran yang optimal adalah 10-12 jam. Berkurangnya intensitas cahaya matahari menyebabkan tanaman tumbuh lebih tinggi, ruas antar buku lebih panjang, jumlah daun dan jumlah polong lebih sedikit, dan ukuran biji semakin kecil. Respon kedelai terhadap perubahan suhu tergantung pada fase pertumbuhan. Suhu yang sesuai pada fase perkecambahan adalah 15-22oC, fase pembungaan 20-25oC, dan pada fase pemasakan 15-22oC. Peningkatan CO2 atmosfer dari 349 µL menjadi 700 µL meningkatkan laju pertukaran karbon (C), menurunkan laju transpirasi, dan meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air. Kondisi lingkungan di dalam tanah yang berperan terhadap pertumbuhan kedelai terutama adalah tekstur tanah, kadar air tanah dan unsur hara, unsur-unsur toksik, kemasaman tanah, suhu tanah, dan salinitas. Kedelai tumbuh baik pada tanah bertekstur ringan hingga berat, namun tanah yang padat (BI >1,38 kg/m3) tidak sesuai untuk kedelai. Kebutuhan air tanaman kedelai pada fase generatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada fase vegetatif, sehingga pada fase generatif lebih peka terhadap kekeringan terutama pada fase pembungaan hingga pengisian polong. Kandungan air optimal adalah 70-85% dari kapasitas lapangan. Kandungan unsur hara tanah harus di atas batas kekahatan agar tanaman tumbuh optimal. Nilai kritis suatu unsur hara dalam tanah beragam tergantung jenis tanah dan metode analisis yang digunakan. Pengaruh suhu tanah terutama pada fase perkecambahan, dan suhu tanah optimal adalah 24,2-32,8°C. Kedelai agak sensitif terhadap kemasaman tanah, unsur-unsur toksik, dan salinitas. Nilai kritis pH, Al, Mn, dan salinitas berturut-turut adalah pH 5,5, Al-dd 1,33 me/100 g, Mn 3,3 ppm, dan 1,3 dS/m. Rhizobium berperan dalam memasok kebutuhan N tanaman kedelai, namun inokulasi tidak efektif pada tanah yang sering ditanami kedelai.

Ubi Kayu Sebagai Bahan Baku Industri Bioetanol

Buletin Palawija No 17 (2009)
Publisher : Balai Penelitian Tanaman Kacang-kacangan dan Umbi-umbian

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Abstract

Ubi kayu sebagai bahan baku industri bioetanol. Penggunaan sumber energi alternatif terbarukan yang berasal dari hasil pertanian seperti bioetanol perlu dilakukan karena meningkatnya harga Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM) di pasaran dunia dan menipisnya cadangan fosil. Ubi kayu cukup berpotensi sebagai bahan baku industri etanol karena mampu memproduksi etanol sebanyak 2.000–7.000 l/ha/th. Kandungan pati yang tinggi pada ubi kayu merupakan substrat yang baik untuk menghasilkan glukosa sebagai produk antara pada pembuatan etanol. Proses pengolahan ubi kayu menjadi etanol meliputi gelatinisasi pati, diikuti hidrolisis pati secara enzimatis menjadi glukosa dengan menggunakan enzim amilase dan glukoamilase (likuifikasi dan sakarifikasi), lalu difermentasi menjadi etanol dan dilanjutkan dengan distilasi dan dehidrasi untuk mendapatkan bioetanol dengan kadar 99,5% (fuel grade). Berdasarkan kadar gula total, pati dan ratio fermentasinya, beberapa varietas/klon ubi kayu, di antaranya CMM 99008-3, MLG 0311, OMM 9908-4 dan UJ-5 sesuai untuk bahan baku industri etanol dengan nilai konversi 4–4,5 kg umbi kupas segar/liter etanol 96%. Departemen Pertanian melalui program Peningkatan Mutu Intensisifikasi (PMI) dan perluasan areal tanam, telah memproyeksikan secara bertahap pengembangan ubi kayu untuk mendukung industri bioetanol. Program tersebut perlu mendapat dukungan semua stake holder, termasuk pengusaha/industri serta kebijakan serius dari Pemerintah untuk mendorong realisasi substitusi 10% premium dengan bioetanol (Gasohol E-10).

Perbaikan Ketahanan Kedelai terhadap Hama Ulat Grayak

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 10, No 1 (2015): Juni 2015
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Armyworm (Spodoptera litura) is a major pest on soybean. Severe attack of this pest could cause 100% leaf defoliation and harvest failure. Soybean resistant to armyworm follows antibiosis and antixenosis mechanism. Antibiosis resistance was induced by certain chemical substances in the parts of plant that disturbed the physiological and biological processes of pest. Antixenosis resistance was a mechanism by plant morphological barrier that could affect the behavior of pests, such as leaf morphology, especially related to the pubescense density. The availability of soybean variety resistant to armyworm was expected to reduce the use of insecticides and to minimize the harvest failure. Soybean variety resistant to armyworm would be possible to be developed considering the source of genes for resistance had been identified, such as variety Sodendaizu, Himeshirazu, IAC-100, IAC-80-596-2, Bay, and W / 80-2-4- 20. An effective and efficient breeding method had also been available, through repeated backcrosses assisted by DNA markers as selection indicator. IAC-100/Kaba-G-80, IAC-100/Kaba-G-67, IAC-100/Burangrang-P-95, IAC-100/Kaba-G-47, and IAC-100/Burangrang-G-119 were reported as promising lines, having moderately resistance to resistance to the pest, each line derived from the progenies of crossbreeding using IAC 100 as parent.

Imobilisasi Limbah Radioaktif dari Produksi Radioisotop Molibdenum-99 (99Mo) Menggunakan Bahan Matriks Synroc Titanat

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2016: Prosiding SNTKK 2016
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan"

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Abstract

The Immobilization Of Radioactive Wastes Generated From Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) Radioisotope Production Using Titanate Synroc Matrix Materials. The assessment of immobilization technology using synroc matrix material for the long life radioactive liquid wastes generated from Mo-99 radioisotope production containing of uranium, transuranic and fission product elementswas carried out. For that purpose have been developed the titanate synroc matrix material by hot isostatic pressing process. All basic science studies confirm that the leach-rates and a-decay damage in synroc relatively very low and acceptable.  In Indonesia, adaptation of immobilization technology using titanateof synroc matrix materials was carried-out for immobilization of the long life radioactive liquid wastes generated from 99Mo radioisotope production by sintering process at high temperature. Immobilization process was carried-out by mix the radioactive waste with  precursor oxides, then drying the mixture at 100 oC, calsination at 750 oC, then it was preesed in the moulder. Further process are  sintering at the temperature of 1000-1300 oC with the time 1-4 hours to form the solid multiphase ceramic. The composition of  precursor oxides for titanate synroc (in % weight) i.e :  Al2O3  (5.4);  BaO (5.6);  CaO (11.0); TiO2 (71.4) and ZrO2 (6.6). Waste loading in the waste synroc block are 10 – 60 % weight. The quality of the synroc block was determinated by testing of density, pressing strength, and leaching-rate. The testing results showed that the best quality of waste synroc block was obtained at the waste loading 20% weight, sintering process at 1200 oC for 3 hours with values of density 3.35 g/cm3, pressing strength 14.18 kN/cm2, total leaching-rate 2.5.10-3 g.cm-2.day-1 , and leaching-rate of Cs, Sr, and U are  4.1x.10-4 g.cm-2.day-1, 2.3x10-6 g.cm-2.day-1 and 6.3x10-7 g.cm-2.hari-1 respectivelly. The titanate synroc matrix materialscan succeed for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste containing of U, Cs and Sr elements, so that it is very good for immobilization for the radioactive waste generated from 99Mo production.