Geni Rina Sunaryo
Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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MEKANISME REAKSI ASAM BORAT DENGAN PRODUK RADIOLISIS AKIBAT RADIASI SINAR- PADA TEMPERATUR 25OC

Jurnal Pengembangan Energi Nuklir Vol 14, No 2 (2012): Desember 2012
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan simulasi yang bertujuan untuk memahami mekanisme reaksi antara asam borat (H3BO3) yang ditambahkan kedalam air pendingin primer PWR dengan produk radiolisis akibat radiasi dengan sinar- pada temperatur 25oC. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak ‘Facsimile’ yang berbasis kinetika reaksi yang berkelanjutan. Sebagai masukan adalah set reaksi kimia yang terdiri dari 61 jenis reaksi dengan konstanta kecepatan reaksinya, nilai-G spesi radiolisis akibat radiasi sinar-, laju dosis 10 dan 104 Gy/s, konsentrasi awal oksigen yang berhubungan dengan sistem aerasi (0,25M), deaerasi dan konsentrasi asam borat hingga konsentrasi 1M. Luaran di program berupa seri perubahan konsentrasi vs waktu iradiasi. Data luaran kemudian diolah menggunakan perangkat pembuat grafik ‘Origin’. Validasi dilakukan dengan membandingkannya dengan hasil simulasi sebelumnya. Hasil validasi menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak signifikan, sehingga diputuskan bahwa set reaksi sekarang adalah valid. Penambahan asam borat menekan konsentrasi oksigen secara signifikan. Hubungan kenaikan logaritmik penambahan konsentrasi H3BO3 vs produk oksigen menunjukkan hubungan linear yang menurun. Dari hasil simulasi dapat dipahami bahwa penambahan H3BO3 tidak hanya mengatur reaktivitas neutron pada temperatur 25oC tetapi juga memberikan imbas positif didalam menekan konsentrasi produk oksigen yang memegang peran penting di dalam proses korosi.Kata kunci: radiolisis, sinar-, larutan H3BO3, facsimileSimulation to understanding the reaction mechanism between boric acid that is being added into the PWR primary water and radiolysis products under -rays irradiation at 25oC was done. Simulation has been done by using ‘Facsimile’ software based on continuing kinetic reaction. As inputs are set reactions that consist of 61 reactions, G-values under –rays irradiation, doserate of 10 and 104 Gy/s, initial concentration of oxygen for aeration (0.25M) and deaeration, and boric acid up to 1M. Outputs are series of concentration vs irradiation time. The putput data is being analysed by plotting them into graph by using ‘Origin’. Validation was done by comparing the results with the previous work. From validation, it is know that the set reaction that is being used does not give any significant difference, then dicided that the set reactions used is valid. The relation between concentration of boric acid and oxygen concentration logarithmically is linearly decrease. From the simulation, it can be understood either that the addition of H3BO3 is not only for controlling the neutron reactivity but also give positive effect on suppressing the oxygen concentration that play role on corrosion process.Keywords: radiolyses, -ray, H3BO3, facsimile

MEKANISME REAKSI ASAM BORAT DENGAN PRODUK RADIOLISIS AKIBAT RADIASI SINAR-GAMMA PADA TEMPERATUR 25oC

Jurnal Pengembangan Energi Nuklir Vol 14, No 2 (2012): Desember 2012
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

elah dilakukan simulasi yang bertujuan untuk memahami mekanisme reaksi antara asam borat (H3BO3) yang ditambahkan kedalam air pendingin primer PWR dengan produk radiolisis akibat radiasi dengan sinar- pada temperatur 250C. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak ‘Facsimile’ yang berbasis kinetika reaksiyang berkelanjutan.  Sebagai masukan adalah set reaksi kimia yang terdiri dari 61 jenis reaksi dengan konstanta kecepatan reaksinya, nilai-G spesi radiolisis akibat radiasi sinar-, laju dosis 10 dan 104 Gy/s, konsentrasi awal oksigen yang berhubungan dengan sistem aerasi (0,25M), deaerasi dankonsentrasi asam borat hingga konsentrasi 1M.  Luaran di program berupa seri perubahan konsentrasi vs waktu iradiasi.  Data luaran kemudian diolah menggunakan perangkat pembuat grafik ‘Origin’.  Validasi dilakukan dengan membandingkannya dengan hasil simulasi sebelumnya.  Hasilvalidasi menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak signifikan, sehingga diputuskan bahwa set reaksi sekarang adalah valid.  Penambahan asam borat menekan konsentrasi oksigen secara signifikan. Hubungan kenaikan logaritmik penambahan konsentrasi H3BO3 vs produk oksigen menunjukkan hubungan linear yang menurun.  Dari hasil simulasi dapat dipahami bahwa penambahan H3BO3 tidak hanya mengatur reaktivitas neutron pada temperatur 250C tetapi juga memberikan imbas positif didalam menekan konsentrasi produk oksigen yang memegang peran penting di dalam proses korosi.Kata kunci: radiolisis, sinar-, larutan H3BO3, facsimileABSTRACTSimulation to understanding the reaction mechanism between boric acid that is being added into the PWR primary water and radiolysis products under -rays irradiation at 25oC was done.  Simulation has been done by using ‘Facsimile’ software based on cont inuing kinetic reaction.  As inputs are set reactions that consist of 61 reactions, G-values under –rays irradiation, doserate of 10 and 104  Gy/s, initial concentration of oxygen for aeration (0.25M) and deaeration, and boric acid up to 1M.  Outputs are series of concentration vs irradiation time.  The putput data is being analysed by plotting them into graph by using ‘Origin’.  Validation was done by comparing the results with the previous work.  From validation, it is know that the set reaction that is being used does not give any significant difference, then dicided that the set reactions used is valid.  The relation between concentration of boric acid and oxygen concentration logarithmically is linearly decrease.  From thesimulation, it can be understood either that the addition of H3BO is not only for controlling the neutron reactivity but also give positive effect on suppressing the oxygen concentration that play role on corrosion process.Keywords: radiolyses, -ray, H3BO3, facsimile

CARBON DUST IN PRIMARY COOLANT OF RDE: ITS PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI REAKTOR NUKLIR TRI DASA MEGA Vol 20, No 2 (2018): JUNI 2018
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Dan Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir (PTKRN)

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Abstract

There are two kinds of impurities in primary coolant of Reaktor Daya Eksperimental (RDE) i.e. gaseous and particulate impurities. Carbon dust as a particulate impurity is generated from abrasion of pebble friction in the core and friction between pebble and refueling pipelines. Due to negative impact to the system, structure and component (SCC), therefore carbon dust must be removed from primary coolant. This paper discusses the carbon dust removal in RDE. The objected of the research is to analyze the helium purification system (HPS) capability of removing carbon dust through particle size distribution analysis. The carbon dust size particle varies from 0.1 µm up to 10 µm regarding to the experiences of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) operation. Three models have been made by using ChemCAD. First model was using single filter, second model was using 2 filters in series and the last one was using both double filters in series and cyclone. The dust removal total efficiency of first model is 88.70 %, the second model is 98.10% and the last one is 98.89%. The highest efficiency of 98.98 % was achieved in the model that used both double filters and cyclone. The cyclone should be installed in HPS of RDE if there are coarse carbon dust particle, which was found in the primary coolant to increase its dust removal capability.Keywords: Carbon dust problem, primary coolant, particle size distribution, RDE DEBU KARBON PADA PENDINGIN PRIMER RDE: PERMASALAHAN DAN SOLUSINYA. Ada dua jenis pengotor pada pendingin primer RDE yaitu pengotor berbentuk gas dan partikel padat. Debu karbon adalah salah satu pengotor berbentuk partikel padat. Debu ini dihasilkan dari gesekan antara bahan bakar di teras dan gesekan antara bahan bakar dengan pipa pengisian bahan bakar. Karena berdampak negatif terhadap sistem, struktur dan komponen (SSK), maka debu karbon tersebut harus dibersihkan dari pendingin primer. Makalah ini membahas proses pembersihan debu karbon pada pendingin RDE. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memahami kemampuan sistem pemurnian helium (SPH) dari RDE dalam menghilangkan debu karbon melalui analisis distribusi ukuran partikel. Ukuran distribusi debu karbon divariasikan dari 0,1 µm sampai dengan 10 µm berdasarkan pengalaman operasi HTGR. Tiga model telah dibuat menggunakan perangkat lunak ChemCAD. Model pertama menggunakan filter tunggal, model kedua menggunakan 2 filter yang disusun secara serial dan yang ketiga adalah model menggunakan 2 filter dan cyclone. Efisiensi total pembersihan debu karbon dari model yang pertama 88,70 %, model yang kedua adalah 98,10% and model yang terakhir adalah 98,89%.  Efisiensi pembersihan debu karbon tertinggi yaitu 98,98% diperoleh pada model yang menggunakan 2 filter dan cyclone. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pembersihan debu karbon, desain SPH RDE perlu ditambahkan cyclone jika ditemukan partikel debu karbon kasar pada saat beroperasi.Kata kunci: permasalahan debu karbon, pendingin primer RDE, distribusi ukuran partikel

APLIKASI MSC PATRAN UNTUK PENENTUAN RENTANG MAKSIMUM PENYANGGA PIPA PRIMER REAKTOR AP1000

Jurnal Pengembangan Energi Nuklir Vol 17, No 1 (2015): Juni 2015
Publisher : BADAN TENAGA NUKLIR NASIONAL

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Abstract

ABSTRAK APLIKASI MSC PATRAN UNTUK PENENTUAN RENTANG MAKSIMUM PENYANGGA PIPA PRIMER REAKTOR AP1000. Penyangga pipa digunakan antara lain untuk menjaga agar pipa tidak membebani komponen dan mencegah terjadinya lendutan yang berlebihan. Penentuan posisi penyangga pipa ditetapkan oleh beberapa faktor, seperti adanya katup, adanya belokan pipa dan jarak antara dua komponen utama reaktor yaitu tangki reaktor dan pembangkit uap. Untuk transpor panas dari tangki reaktor ke pembangkit uap digunakan pipa hot leg. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk dapat menentukan batas jarak penyangga yang baik dan sudut belok pipa pada pipa primer reaktor daya AP1000 berdiameter 37,5 inchi diameter luar dan 31 inchi diameter dalam. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah metode komputasi dengan pemodelan menggunakan software MSC Patran. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa semakin jauh jarak penyangga pipa maka besar lendutan yang terjadi makin besar. Nilai maksimal yang cukup baik dan sesuai standar ASME adalah pada jarak 5 m dengan sudut belok pipa 45 derajat. Pada jarak tersebut defleksi maksimum yang terjadi sebesar 1.76 cm dan tegangan tekuk sebesar 2.06 MPa. Kata kunci: Tegangan tekuk, Defleksi, Penyangga pipa, Hotleg reaktor AP1000.   ABSTRACT APPLICATION OF MSC-PATRAN TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM RANGE SUPPORT OF PRIMARY PIPES NUCLEAR REACTOR AP100. Pipe supports used among others, to keep the pipes from overloding the components and prevent excessive deflection. The position of the pipe support is determined by several factors, such as the presence of valves, pipe bends and the distance between the two main components of reactor. Heat transport from reactor tank to the steam generator are performed using hotleg pipe. The purpose of this study was to determine a safe support distance limit and the angle of the pipe turn and bending on the primary pipe of AP1000 power reactor with the outer pipe diameter of 37.5 inches, and the inner diameter of the pipe is 31 inches. The analytical method used is the computational modeling methods using  the MSC Patran software. The calculation results show that the greater the distance of  the pipe support, then deflection occurs is greater. The maximum value that is quite good, and in  accord to ASME standards is at a distance of 5 meter and the angle of pipe turn is 45 degree. At that distance, the maximum deflection occurs is  1.76 cm and bending stress is 2.06 MPa. Keywords: Deflection, Bending stress, Support pipes, Hotleg reactor AP1000.

KARAKTERISASI MIKROBA DALAM AIR PENDINGIN SEKUNDER RSG-GAS

SIGMA EPSILON - Buletin Ilmiah Teknologi Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir Vol 12, No 3 (2008): Agustus 2008
Publisher : Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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Abstract

Telah diperoleh hasil identifikasi karakteristik bakteri yang terkandung dalam air sistem pendingin sekunder RSG-GAS berdasarkan sifat-sifat morfologi sel, sifat-sifat fisiologi sel dan respon terhadap reaksi karbohidrat serta dihitung jumlah koloni bakteri dengan metode total plate count. Sampling air dilakukan pada beberapa tempat antara lain di kolam pendingin sekunder (1), setelah lewat kran (2), seteleh sistem penukar panas (3), dan air masuk ke kolam pendingin setelah lewat kran (4). Sampel dianalisis secara mikrobiologi menurut prosedur Bergey’s Manual. Berdasarkan hasil isolasi, telah teridentifikasi adanya spesies bakteri pereduksi sulfat dari species desulfococcus multivoran. Masing-masing, lokasi (1) mengandung 7,4 x 104 cfu/ml, lokasi (2) 6,9 x 104 cfu/ml, lokasi (3) 2,8 x 104 cfu/ml, dan lokasi (4) 1,9 x 104 cfu/ml. Hasil analisis dari keempat lokasi diperoleh bahwa kandungan bakteri masih dibawah spesifikasi air pendingin sekunder yaitu <106 cfu/ml. Ukuran mikro partikel bakteri 0,5 μ masih mampu lolos dari sistem filtrasi air pendingin kecuali memakai filter bakteri semi permeable berukuran 0,22 μ. Keberadaan bakteri pereduksi sulfat yang terakumulasi membentuk lapisan dapat menimbulkan biokorosi dan pada suatu saat dapat menurunkan kemampuan sistem pertukaran panas.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF HELIUM INVENTORY CONTROL OF RGTT200K COOLING SYSTEM

SIGMA EPSILON - Buletin Ilmiah Teknologi Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir Vol 19, No 1 (2015): Februari 2015
Publisher : Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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Abstract

RGTT200K is a power reactor, designed based on HTGR tech-nology having capability to operate at high temperatures. RGTT200K features are 200 MWth power, helium-cooled, graphite moderator and reflector, pebble fuel type, and uses the Brayton direct cycle. Helium Inventory Control System (HICS) is one of its safety system which maintains the pressure, the helium coolant quality and quantity to meet safety requirements. The HICS consists of 3 subsys-tems, namely: Inventory Control System (ICS), Helium Purification System (HPS), and Helium Make-Up System (HMS). All of the systems have the function to maintain pressure, helium quality and quantity so that the reactor can operate reliable and safely. This paper discusses the performance of the ICS, which is integrated to the reactor coolant. The research objective was to determine the helium storage tank response rate, when primary coolant is overpressured and depressurized. The methodology used in this research is modeling and simulation by using ChemCAD. In previous re-search, the HPS, ICS and HMS have been modeled but have not been integrated yet in to the primary coolant. The simulation results showed that the time required for the injection tank back to the cool-ant normal pressure of 52 bars, due to depressurization up to 5 % was 160 seconds. While the time required for bleeding / blowdown to the storage tanks due to overpressurization up to 5 % was 186 seconds.

WATER CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS IN RSG-GAS SECONDARY COOLING SYSTEM

SIGMA EPSILON - Buletin Ilmiah Teknologi Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir Vol 20, No 2 (2016): November 2016
Publisher : Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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Abstract

The G.A Siwabessy reactor (RSG-GAS) located in the Puspiptek area uses water as a coolant. The water as a coolant will contact directly with the component or structure of the reactor, that a chemical reac- tion between water and those components might cause the possibility of corrosion process. Therefore, cooling water quality will determine the integrity of reactor components or structures. The research described in this paper was conducted in order to monitor the quality of secondary cooling water, so that the water quality specifications is maintained and the reactor can be safely operated. One way to monitor the cooling water quality is by performing analysis into the secondary cooling water and raw water on June 6, 2016. The methodology used was by analysing the pH value using a pH-meter, conductivity value using Conductivity-meter, water hardness analysis, and analysis for some chemical elements such as Cl-, SO42-, Fe, P using calibrated Spectrophotometer DR / 2400. Corrosion rate of the carbon-steel as the piping material of secondary cooling system under environmental corrosion condition was also analyzed using the Potentiostat. From those performed analysis, the overall measured values are still below the standard values as required in the RSG-GAS safety analysis report document, meaning that the water quality management of the secondary coo- ling system has been well performed so far. 

LOW-LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER RADIOLYSIS OF SUPERCRITICAL WATER AT 400 °C: DENSITY DEPENDENCE OF THE G(•OH)

SIGMA EPSILON - Buletin Ilmiah Teknologi Keselamatan Reaktor Nuklir Vol 20, No 2 (2016): November 2016
Publisher : Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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Abstract

Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the yield of primary specie •OH denoted as g(•OH) that is formed from the radiolysis of pure, deaerat- ed supercritical water (SCW) (H2O) at 400 °C in the range of water density between ~0.15 and 0.6 g/ cm3. It is known that •OH, is one of the oxidizing species that significantly can increase the possibil- ity of various corrosion and material degradation as well. The thorough radiolysis processes in SCW- cooled reactor is not established currently, and it is believed to be a challenge in developing chemis- try control strategies for future Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR). Since SCWR technology is now still under the conceptual design, hence there is only limited information published on the yields of radiolysis under these conditions. In this work, g(•OH) was calculated at spur lifetime (τs/ minimum time needed before the species within spur distributed homogeneously into the bulk solu- tion), 10-7 and 10-6 sec after the ionization event at all densities. From this work, it is shown that the data measured by other researcher at lower density (<0.35 g/cm3) is taken at longer time, while at higher density (>0.35 g/cm3) is taken about near the spur lifetime. Finally, more experimental data are highly required in order to examine more thoroughly modeling calculation. 

THERMODYNAMICS ANALYSES ON REGENERATIVE STEAM CYCLE WITH TWO TANKS FOR HTGR-10 CONCEPT

GANENDRA Majalah IPTEK Nuklir Volume 20 Nomor 2 Juli 2017
Publisher : PSTA BATAN

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Abstract

THERMODYNAMICS ANALYSES ON REGENERATIVE STEAM CYCLE WITH TWO TANKS FOR HTGR-10 CONCEPT. In this work, steam cycle from a nuclear power plant is explored in order to increase electric power efficiency and output. A thermal source in the form of a HTGR-10 concept is considered. The power conversion unit of HTGR-10 consists of steam generators, turbines, condensers, pumps , and connecting pipes. Helium is used as the core coolant and the working fluid for power conversion unit is water/steam. The proposed thermodynamic process modification has been evaluated for regenerative steam power cycle of this reactor. The scope of study covered regenerative steam cycle with two tanks including feed water tank and intermediate feed water tank. The evaluation analyzes the effect of pressure, efficiencies of turbine and pumps, and tanks against thermal efficiency. The Cycle-Tempo software is used to simulate and optimize those effects on steam cycle based on HTGR-10. The results indicate improvements of as much as 2.65 % in thermal efficiency and 0.271 MWe in electric power.

SURVEILLANCE MANAGEMENT FOR SECONDARY WATER COOLING QUALITY OF RSG GAS

Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir Indonesia Vol 18, No 1 (2017): Februari 2017
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

ABSTRAK MANAJEMEN PENGAWASAN KUALITAS AIR PENDINGIN SEKUNDER DARI RSG GAS.  Eksperimen pengawasan korosi baja karbon dan identifikasi bakteria air pendingin sekunder RSG GAS telah dilakukan. Tujuan utamanya adalah memahami kualitas air pendingin sekunder saat terutama terhadap korosi baja karbon akibat penambahan inhibitor  dan anti bakteria, serta mengkonfirmasi kualitas dari prosedur pengelolaan air pendingin sekunder yang berlaku saat ini.  Metoda yang diaplikasikan adalah pengawasan korosi dengan membuat rak kupon dari baja karbon dan baja stainless, dan kemudian merendamnya di kolam penampung air kran dan menara air pendingin sekunder.  Analisis kualitas air dari kedua kolam penampung dan pengamatan secara visual dari perubahan rak kupon dilakukan.  Laju korosi dari baja karbon dilakukan dengan menerapkan metoda elektrokimia.  Identifikasi total bakteria dan SRB dilakukan dengan menggunakan test kit.  Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan crevice, galvanik dan korosi homogen adalah proses korosi yang terjadi pada material baja karbon.  Produk korosi baja karbon yang dicelupkan di kolam menara air pendingin sekunder lebih ditekan. Laju korosi baja karbon untuk penambahan 100 ppm inhibitor adalah 0.13 ± 0.02 mpy, dan 0.20 ± 0.01 mpy untuk air yang diambil dari kolam penampung air kran.  Total bakteri yang teridentifikasi di kolam tower air pendingin sekunder adalah 107 cfu/ml, pada saat reaktor tidak dioperasikan dan tidak ada penambahan inhibitor dan oxi bio agent.  Adanya kedua bahan kimia tersebut menekan todal bakteria menjadi 103 cfu/ml.  Penambahan kedua bahan kimia tersebut sangat berpengaruh terhadap keberadaan SRB, dimana awal total jumlah koloni sebesar  >106 cfu/ml, kemudian menjadi sama sekali tidak terdeteksi. Kata kunci : surveillance, korosi, bakteri, ABSTRACT          SURVEILLANCE MANAGEMENT FOR SECONDARY WATER COOLING QUALITY OF RSG GAS.  Surveillance corrosion of carbon steel experiment and bacteria identification of RSG GAS secondary cooling water were carried out.  The main objective is to understand the current water quality of secondary cooling water of RSG-GAS from the aspect of corrosion induced by chemicals and bacteria, and confirming procedure for managing the secondary cooling water quality. Methodologies applied are surveillance corrosion, by making carbon steel and stainless steel coupons rack and immersing into the raw water basin and cooling tower basin.  The water quality for both basins were done and visual changes of coupen was observed visually.  Corrosion rate of carbon steel toward inhibitor was carried out by applying the electrochemical method.  The identification of total bacteria and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria were identified by using test kit. The results show visually that the crevice, galvanic and homogeny corrosion with the current water quality easily be observed for carbon steel.  The corrosion product seems to be suppressed by the adding of inhibitor. The corrosion rate of  0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.20 ± 0.01 mpy were obtained for 100ppm inhibitor added solutions and purely raw water, respectively.  The total bacteria detected are around 107 cfu/ml at the condition when reactor stops operation and without any inhibitor and oxi bio agent added. The oxi bio agent chemical addition suppresses the numbers becomes 103 cfu/ml. The SRB bacteria are detected as >106 cfu/ml at one position and one time without any oxi bio agent added and none detected with oxi bio agent addition. Keywords  : surveillance, corrosion, bacteria