S. Sunarso
Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275, Central Java

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The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility Mawati, Sri; Soedarsono, S.; Sunarso, S.; Purnomoadi, Agung
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v4i2.4584

Abstract

The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05) was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05). The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP) 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show different (P>0.05) among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration’s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.75-79 [How to cite this article: Mawati, S., Soedarsono, S., Sunarso, S. & Purnomoadi, A. (2013). The Effects of Different Energy and Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2),76-79. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.75-79]
Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration on Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw with Different Protein Level Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, S.; Christiyanto, M.; Ballo, F.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v4i2.4687

Abstract

Complete feed (CF) utilization is expected to have impact on higher productivity due to increased intake and digestibility. The objective of research was to evaluate the effects of different level protein of CF based-on fermented ammonization (amofer) rice straw to Simmental offspring intake and digestibility  Twenty males Simmental offspring with average live weight 372.15± 26.64 kg (coefficient of variance 7.16%) were used in this study. Feed treatment consisted of BC Nutrifeed 132 concentrate as control feed (T0) and CF based-on amofer rice straw consisted of T1, T2, T3 and T4 which had crude protein content 11, 12, 13 and 14% respectively and also total digestible nutrients (TDN) ±  62%. Completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates were designed for this research. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% significance level. The results showed that different crude protein did not affect the intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and TDN. It was significantly affected the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein (p<0.01). The highest digestibility was obtained to treatment with 12% crude protein and ± 62% TDN. Conclusion of this study was different level of crude protein constituted in CF which produced from specific material resource was proven to have impact in increasing cattle’s digestibility.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, S.,  Christiyanto, M. and Ballo, F. (2013). Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration On Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw  With Different Protein Level.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2),86-91. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91]
Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent Sunarso, S.; Budiyono, B.; Sumardiono, Siswo
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 1, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Abstract

IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v), 0.08% (w/v), 0.04% (w/v), 50% (v/v) of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value
The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums Sunarso, S.; Johari, Seno; Widiasa, I Nyoman; Budiyono, B.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 1, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Abstract

In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I) ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54). The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid). The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system
The Effect of King Grass Silage on the Nitrogen Balance and Hematological Profile of Ettawa Grade Male Goat Sunarso, S.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Abstract

The aims of this research was to study the nutritional value of ensiled King Grass (Pennisetum purpuphoides) to be applied for goat. Twelve Ettawa grade male (PE), + 10 months old, and with average body weight of 19.45 + 3.03 kg were used to determine the voluntary intake, balance nitrogen and their hematological profile. All of the animals were randomly allotted at individual pens. Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance, based on completely randomized design arrangement with four treatments (level of King Grass silage) and three replicates. Treatment means were compared using Duncan multiple range test. The result showed that increasing level of King Grass silage within ration significantly increased the average dry matter (DM) intake per metabolic body weight. In fact, the daily DM intake, nitrogen balance, blood hemoglobin and blood hematocrit of the experimental animals were not affected by level of King Grass silage feed. Experiment had no bad effect on healthy condition of the treated goat, so it implies that conserving grass as silage and then feeding grass silage to goat might be implemented by farmers to secure the continuous supply of green forage to keep the goat production sustainability all year round. [Keywords: silage, nitrogen balance, haemoglobin, haematocryt, goat]
THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA Prasetyo, E.; Sunarso, S.; Santosa, P.B.; Rianto, E.; Ekowati, T.; Yuwana, D.M.; Mulyatno, B.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 37, No 3 (2012): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.37.3.213-219

Abstract

The aims of study were to analyze (i) income of beef cattle farming, (ii) ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii) role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C) and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation), who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00), as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%). Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.
THE INFLUENCE OF AGRIBUSINESS SUBSYSTEM ON BEEF CATTLE FATTENING FARM’S PROFIT IN CENTRAL JAVA Prasetyo, E.; Sunarso, S.; Santosa, P.B.; Rianto, E.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 37, No 2 (2012): (June)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.37.2.121-126

Abstract

This study was aimed : (i) to know the subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning inbeef cattle fattening; (ii) to count the profit of beef cattle farming; (iii) to analyze the effect ofagribusiness subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning to beef cattle fattening profit. Thisstudy was carried out using survey method and the elementary units were feedlot farmers. The samplewas determined by Purposive Quota Sampling Method on 112 respondents spread across five regencies,namely Blora, Rembang, Grobogan, Wonogiri, and Boyolali. Data were collected from primary andsecondary sources. The data analysis used quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics method,which include scoring, financial, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that : (i) theimplementation of agribusiness subsystem (including preproduction subsystem, marketing, andagribusiness support services) and agribusiness planning were not so good category, while the cattlefarming subsystem was moderate category; (ii) the average of farming scale in each feedlot farmer was2.95 head of cattle with the profit rate was IDR 1,044,719 per fattening period during 6.68 months(equivalent to IDR 156,395 per month); (iii) agribusiness subsystem and agribusiness planning hadsignificant impact on feedlot farmer profit simultaneously, but preproduction subsystem and theagribusiness support services subsystem partially had a significant impact on feedlot farmer profit.
PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS Hamidah, A.; Sutrisno, C.I.; Sunarso, S.; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L.K.; Muthalib, R.A.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 36, No 3 (2011): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.36.3.185-189

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feedbased oil palm fronds (OPF). This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD)with 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass incomplete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed thatOPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency ratio(FER). Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05) fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI), organicmatter intake (OMI), crude protein intake (CPI), ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, andFER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concludedthat C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPFcan be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increasethe performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.
THE CHANGE OF BODY COMPOSITION OF INDIGENOUS RAMS ON DIFFERENT BODY WEIGHT AND FEEDING LEVEL Setyawan, A.R.; Rianto, E.; Sunarso, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Mahesti, G.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 34, No 3 (2009): (September)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.34.3.159-166

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The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of body weight and feeding level on the changeof body composition of indigenous ram. This research was expected to establish the efficient feeding levelto produce high growth rate and meat quality of ram in tropical environment. Sixteen rams with differentbody weight (BW) were divided into 2 groups, i.e. light BW (10 + 1.47 kg) and heavy BW (18 + 1.18 kg).The experimental design was Split Plot design with two factors. The main plot was body weight (light andheavy) and the sub plot was level of feeding (FL, 1x maintenance and 1.5 x maintenance). The parametersmeasured in this experiment were live weight gain and body composition. The results of this study showedthat body water, body protein and body fat were significantly higher (P<0.01) in heavy body weight (HBW)than those in light body weight (LBW), and was higher in 1.5xM than those 1xM. Ram of HW and LW hadsimilar change rate of physical composition. Ram given 1.5xM had higher rate of change of body fat andbody water than those given feed at maintenance level. It can be concluded that there was no interactionbetween BW and FL on the change of body water, body protein and body fat. Ram of HBW and LBW hadsimilar rate of change of physical composition. Level of feeding affected body water content, the higherlevel of feeding resulted in fatter ram, leading to less body water content.
A STUDY ON THE USE OF FECAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR FEED DIGESTIBILITY DETERMINATION IN GOAT Santoso, S.A.B.; Puspitasari, G.; Muktiani, A.; Sunarso, S.; Purnomoadi, A.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture Vol 40, No 1 (2015): March
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jitaa.40.1.59-67

Abstract

This study aimed to explore physical characteristics and its correlation to feed digestibility in goat.Sixteen Ettawah Grade goats in the second milk production periods and in the 4-5th month of lactationwere used in this study. The study was arranged with completely randomized block block design basedon milk production as replications. The goats were fed ration containing 16% of crude protein and 65%of total digestible nutrients (TDN). Some of crude protein content were supplied by urea. The treatmentswere control ration (without urea; T0), ration with 0.4% urea (T1), ration with 0.8% urea (T2), andration with 1.2% urea (T3). Parameters observed were feed digestibility, fecal extended level (FEL), andfecal rough particle distribution (FRPD). Data were analyzed using correlation-regression to find thecorrelation between fecal characteristics and feed digestibility. The results showed that urea content inthe rations up to 1.2% of dry matter did not affect dry mater digestibility, water content and fecalcharacteristics (FEL and FRPD). There were highly negative correlation (r= -0.665) between feeddigestibility and water content of feces as well as feed digestibility and FEL (r= -0.553), whilecorrelation between digestibility and FRDP was positive (r=0.608). The conclusion of this study waswater content, degree of FEL and FRPD can be used to determine the quality of feed. If feces composedof finer texture, dried and small particles indicated having better digestibility, while if feces composed ofrough texture, wet, and large particles indicated having low digestibility.