Christanti Sumardiyono
Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

Published : 41 Documents
Articles

KARAKTERISTIK ISOLAT Rhizoctonia sp. PATOGENIK DAN Rhizoctonia MIKORIZA PADA TANAMAN ANGGREK TANAH (Spathoglottis plicata) Soelistijono, Soelistijono; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Semiarti, Endang
Agrineḉa Vol 12, No 1 (2012): jurnal AGRINEÇA
Publisher : Agrineḉa

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Abstract

Mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia is a fungus that capable to associate with terrestrial orchids. Apart from being mycorrhizal, there are isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. that are pathogenic and caused root rot disease on Spathoglottis plicata. This study aimed to know the differences between pathogenic Rhizoctonia sp. and mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia in morphology and molecular structure using RAPD technique. The results showed that colony colour,  cell lenght and nucleus number a several isolates of pathogenic Rhizoctonia sp. and of mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia on S. plicata had no differences, but had differences on cell thickness and isolate grouping based on hyphal anastomosis test. RAPD molecular technique showed that each isolate of pathogenic Rhizoctonia sp. and mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia had differences on DNA structure.
Pengendalian Penyakit Budok dengan Fungisida dan Deteksi Residu pada Daun Nilam Sumardiyono, Christanti; Hartono, Sedyo; Nasrun, Nasrun; Sukamto, Sukamto
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 9, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Budok caused by Synchytrium pogostemonis is the important and destructive disease on patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin). Chemical control must be done in incidence with high disease intensity and prediction of outbreak. The experiment was done using benomyl (Benlate 50 WP) and cuprous oxide (Kocide 77WP) 0.1%, 0.2% and mixture of both ( 1 g cuprous oxide and 1 g L-1 benomyl). Patchouli plant was sprayed eight times with one week interval. Harvesting was done two weeks after the end of spraying. Residue analysis of Cu was done with AAS and benomyl residue with HPLC. The result showed that 0.1% benomyl significantly reduced the disease intensity. The other treatments showed lower result. Harvested patchouli plants treated with 0.1% benomyl showed higher yield compare with 0.2% benomyl and cuprous oxyde. Cu residue in dried leaves was between 460 ppm and 950 ppm. Residue of benomyl was 54–100 ppb. Diseased seedling still can be used after spraying by benomyl four times with 2 weeks interval.
Race and Virulence Determination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Isolates from Sidomulyo Village of Bantul, Yogyakarta Jayatri, Herika Novrelly; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Wibowo, Arif
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.26283

Abstract

Banana is one of the important fruit crop in Village of Sidomulyo, Bantul, Yogyakarta. One of important diseases which become the constraint in development of banana is Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). This fungus has high race diversity and  virulence, so that it required early detection for prevention and control of disease. This experiment was aimed to figure out race and virulence of Foc isolates from Village of Sidomulyo, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The 13 tested isolates were isolates of PR11, PKJ20, RU20, PR30, AH40, PKJ40, A41, RB42, PR43, RU51, A60, RP60, and A80. Race was molecularly detected using two types of primers, i.e. General Foc primer FocEf3 and specific primer for race 4 (Foc-1/Foc-2). Virulence test was performed on banana seedlings of Ambon Kuning cultivar using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 14 treatments and 4 repetitons. The observed parameters were external and internal symptoms, calculation of disease severity index and disease intensity. Data were analyzed using variance and further test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5 % level. The results showed that all isolates were Foc and 9 of 13 isolates were grouped into race 4, i.e. A80, RP60, PR11, A41, AH40, PKJ40, PR30, RB42, and PR43. The highest and lowest virulences were consecutively expressed by PR30, RB42, RU51, RP60, PR43, PKJ40, PR11, A41, AH40, RU20, PKJ20, A60, and A80, with severity index on leaves and rhizomes ranging 1.61-2.91 and 2.25-7, respectively. IntisariPisang merupakan tanaman buah unggulan di Desa Sidomulyo Kecamatan Bambanglipuro, Kabupaten Bantul. Salah satu penyakit penting yang menjadi kendala dalam pengembangan pisang adalah layu fusarium yang disebabkan oleh jamur Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Jamur ini memiliki keragaman ras dan virulensi yang tinggi, sehingga deteksi dini diperlukan untuk pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ras dan virulensi isolat Foc asal Desa Sidomulyo, Kecamatan Bambanglipuro, Kabupaten Bantul. Isolat yang diuji sebanyak 13 isolat, yakni isolat PR11, PKJ20, RU20, PR30, AH40, PKJ40, A41, RB42, PR43, RU51, A60, RP60, dan A80. Pengujian ras secara molekuler dengan menggunakan dua jenis primer yakni primer Foc in general FocEf3 dan primer spesifik ras 4 Foc-1/Foc-2. Uji virulensi pada bibit kultivar ambon kuning dengan menggunakan Racangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari 14 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati berupa pengamatan gejala luar dan gejala dalam, penghitungan indeks keparahan penyakit dan intensitas penyakit. Analisis data menggunakan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf 5 %. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat merupakan isolat Foc dan dari 13 isolat yang digunakan terdapat 9 isolat yang merupakan ras 4 yakni isolat A80, RP60, PR11, A41, AH40, PKJ40, PR30, RB42, dan PR43. Isolat yang memiliki virulensi tertinggi sampai terendah berturut-turut adalah PR30, RB42, RU51, RP60, PR43, PKJ40, PR11, A41, AH40, RU20, PKJ20, A60, dan A80, dengan indeks keparahan pada daun berkisar 1,61−2,91 dan indeks keparahan pada bonggol 2,25−7.
EKSPLORASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI TRICHODERMA ENDOFITIK PADA PISANG Taribuka, Johanna; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Wibowo, Arif
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 16, No 2 (2016): SEPTEMBER, JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.943 KB) | DOI: 10.23960/j.hptt.216115-123

Abstract

Exploration and identification of endophytic Trichoderma in banana. Endophytic fungi Trichoderma is an organism that can used as biocontrol agent. This study aims to isolate and identify endophytic Trichoderma in roots of healthy banana plants from three districts in Yogyakarta, which will be used as biological control agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Isolation was conducted using TSM (Trichoderma Selective Medium). We obtained six isolates of endophytic Trichoderma spp., i.e., Swn-1, Swn-2, Ksn, Psr-1, Psr-2, and Psr-3. Molecular identification was done by using ITS1 and ITS2 primer pain and sequenced. The sequence of DNA obtained was analysed and compared with NCBI database by using BLAST-N programe. The results showed that all isolates were amplified at 560-bp. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates Swn-1, Swn-2 and Psr-1 are homologous to Trichoderma harzianum, isolate Ksn homologous to Trichoderma asperrellum, isolate Psr-2 homologous to Trichoderma gamsii, and isolate Psr-3 homologous to Trichoderma koningiopsis, with the homologous value of 99%.
Peranan Asam Salisilat pada Interaksi Inang-Patogen Penyakit Kudis Ubijalar (Elsinoe batatas) Martanto, Eko Agus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Semangun, Haryono; Hadisutrisno, Bambang
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12243

Abstract

The role of salicylic acid on host-pathogen interactions of sweet potato scab disease (E. batatas) was done by measuring (1) the level of resistance of sweet potato cultivars to scab disease, (2) salicylic acid content in sweet potato leaves before inoculation, 3 days, 6 days, and 9 days after inoculation, and (3) effect of salicylic acid to the germination of E. batatas conidia. The result showed that there were different responses of sweet potato cultivars to pathogens infection. Inoculation with E. batatas isolate from Wonosobo (WO2) showed resistant reaction on Muaratakus, moderate resistant on Cangkuang, moderate susceptible on Malothok, and susceptible on Mlg 12549. Resistant cultivar (Muaratakus) has higher salicylic acid content than moderate resistant (Cangkuang), moderate susceptible (Malothok), and susceptible cultivar (Mlg 12549). Salicylic acid inhibited germination of E. batatas conidia.
Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) dengan Trichoderma sp. Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 17, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9396

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation). Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag). Faktor kedua adalah waktu pemberian dengan tiga aras (dua minggu sebelum, bersamaan, dan dua minggu setelah inokulasi dengan Foc). Tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 10 ulangan. Intensitas penyakit diamati dengan sistem scoring (1–4) terhadap kelayuan daun. Biakan Trichoderma sp. ditumbuhkan dalam medium campuran sekam dan bekatul (2:1, g/g). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. bersifat antagonistik terhadap Foc in vitro dengan daya hambat terhadap perkembangan koloni Foc 86%. Mekanisme penghambatan berupa hiperparasitisme. Hifa Trichoderma sp. menempel, melilit pada hifa Foc sehingga terjadi lisis hifa. Lisis hifa Foc terjadi pada tempat persinggungan antara hifa Foc dan hifa Trichoderma sp. Hasil pengujian di rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa penyakit layu Fusarium dapat dihambat dengan pemberian Trichoderma sp. dalam medium campuran dedak dan bekatul sebanyak 25 g pada per polibag yang dilakukan bersamaan dengan waktu inokulasi Foc. 
Identifikasi Ras Fisiologis Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Berdasarkan Sifat Kompatibel Secara Vegetatif dan Pembentukan Bahan Volatil Wibowo, Arif; Suryanti, Suryanti; Sumardiyono, Christanti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.10099

Abstract

Race characterization of F. oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. & Hans. by determining disease reaction is difficult because the result may be biased due to the variability of growing condition. This study is aimed to identify physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in banana plantation in the province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta by examining the relation of the fungal pathogen isolates. The identification of physiological races of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was based on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The research was conducted in The Laboratory of Mycology Faculty of Agriculture GMU on March to November 2000. Observation of heterokarion formed by the mutant of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense on selective medium was carried out in order to identify the compatibility of two different fungal isolates. Nitrate non utilizing (nit) mutants obtained without mutagen were used as the label. Nit mutant obtained from the same wild type isolates could form heterokarion on minimal agar medium containing NaNO3 as nitrogen source. Eleven isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense have been isolated from several cultivars of banana. Vegetative compatibility tests showed that of 11 eleven isolates, there were six different group VCGs where four of them formed volatile compound in rice medium whereas two of them did not.Key words: Fusarium wilt, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs)
Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Pisang dengan Fusarium Nonpatogenik dan Fluorescent pseudomonads Sumardiyono, Christanti; Wibowo, Arif; Suryanti, Suryanti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11865

Abstract

The study was aimed to know the ability of fluorescent pseudomonads and nonpathogenic Fusarium for controlling fusarium wilt of banan. The research was conducted both in the laboratory and glass ouse in the Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University. Laboratorial trial incuded the examining of antagonistic capacity in vitro and the population of these two antagonistic microorganism in compost medium. The examination of the effect of these two microorganisms in compost medium against fusarium wilt of banana Ambon Kuning cultivar was conducted in a glass house. The result showed that there was no antagonistic mechanism occured between fluorescent pseudomonads and nonpathogenic Fusarium. The treatment of compost with fluorescent pseudomonads or/and nonpathogenic Fusarium showed that there were differences on the optimum population of these two antagonistic microorganisms. Fluorescent pseudomonads attained its optimum population one week after inoculation while nonpathogenic Fusarium attained its optimum population two weeks after inoculation. The glass house trial showed taht compost enriched with two microorganisms with one week inocubation time reduced percentage of wilted leaves, although it was nonsignificant with control treatment. Field experiment should be conducted with higher population density of antagonist microorganisms.
Ketahanan Beberapa Jamur Patogen terhadap Fungisida Sumardiyono, Christanti; Pusposendjojo, Nursamsi; Trisnowati, Sri
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9350

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Chemical control of plant pathogens have been done for a long time using contact and systemic fungicides. Resistance of the pathogens to fungicides may caused failure of disease control program.Studies by in vitro, in green house and fields were done at Yogyakarta to know the fungal which were resistant to several fungicides after treatment. The pathogen tested to fungicides were Colletotrichum capsici on red pepper to propineb, mancozeb, mixture of carbendazim and mancozeb, and thiophanate methyl, Alternaria porri on garlic to thiophanate methyl, Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa to Al-fosetyl, metalaxyl, mancozeb, and Copper Oxychloride, and Peronosclerospora maydis on corn to metalaxyl.The study indicated that C. capsici was resistant to propineb, mancozeb, and mixture of carbendazim and mancozeb, but sensitive to thiophanate methyl. A. porri from plant treated with thiophanate methyl indicated resistant to the fungicides. ED50 of Al-fosetyl and metalaxyl on P. palmivora were higher than on mancozeb and copper oxychloride, so that it was resistance strain.Key words: contact fungicides, systemic fungicides, resistance
Ketahanan Jamur terhadap Fungisida di Indonesia Sumardiyono, Christanti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11869

Abstract

Plant diseases control with fungicides had been practised for decades in Indonesia. The orientation of consumers to have high quality agriculture product caused the intensif use of pesticides including fungicides. Systemic fungicides were used as therapeutant agens for disease control. Intensively used and sublethal dose of systemic fungicides induced fungi to be resistant. The purpose of this article was to describe the occurrence of developing fungicides resistance strains. Several publications reported that there were some fungicides which induced resistant strain i. e. benomyl and its metabolites, metalaxyl and simoksanyl. It was assumed that the resistant strain occurred due to the genetic of pathogens, mode of action of fungicides and method of application. Resistance to contact or nonsystemic fungicides was rare compared with systemic one. The single site action of systemic fungicides caused mutation of fungus to be resistant. This fenomena did not occure against contact fungicides with multisite actions. Among systemic fungicides, benomyl resistant strains were more frequently reported than the others. To avoid those problems the authors strongly suggested to use Integrated Pest Management in plant disease control. Reduced frequency of fungicides applications, using recommended dose and mixture of contact and systemic fungicides are several tactics to delay resistance. Risk assessment and monitoring of fungicides resistance at molecular level is also suggested. Pengendalian penyakit secara kimia dengan fungisida telah lama dilakukan di Indonesia. Cara ini masih selalu dilakukan karena praktis dan dapat memenuhi tuntutan konsumen akan produk yang mulus dan berkualitas tinggi. Hal ini menyebabkan pemakaian fungisida kontak maupun sistemik terus meningkat. Ulasan ini bertujuan untuk membahas terjadinya ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida. Beberapa peneliti telah melaporkan beberapa strain jamur telah tahan terhadap benomil dan metabolitnya. Di banyak negara telah dilaporkan bahwa pemakaian fungisida sistemik yang intensif telah menimbulkan strain jamur tahan. Sebaliknya kemunculan strain tahan terhadap fungisida kontak jarang ditemukan, karena cara kerja fungisida kontak yang tidak spesifik pada tubuh jamur. Fungisida sistemik mempunyai cara kerja yang spesifik sehingga mudah menimbulkan strain tahan. Ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida benomil dan yang sekelompok paling banyak dilaporkan. Telah dilaporkan juga adanya jamur tahan terhadap metalaksil dan simoksanil. Besarnya risiko timbulnya strain jamur tahan terhadap fungisida dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetis patogen, jenis fungisida dan kekerapan serta lamanya aplikasi. Aplikasi fungisida sistemik berselang-seling dengan fungisida kontak atau penggunaan fungisida campuran antara kontak dan sistemik akan menurunkan risiko timbulnya jamur tahan. Perhitungan risiko (risk assesment) perlu dilakukan dengan pemantauan ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida yang berkelanjutan. Pemantauan yang lebih pasti perlu dilakukan dengan cara molekuler. Prinsip Pengendalian Hama dan Penyakit secara Terpadu (PHT), perlu diintensifkan.