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UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT DAUN BINAHONG (Anredera scandens (L.) Moq.) TERHADAP Shigella flexneri BESERTA PROFIL KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS

PHARMACIANA Vol 2, No 1: Mei 2012
Publisher : PHARMACIANA

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Abstract

Antibakteri adalah senyawa yang dapat digunakan untuk pengobatan infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri. Secara tradisional tanaman Binahong (Anredera scandens (L.) Moq.) dikenal oleh masyarakat untuk mengobati berbagai macam penyakit, di antaranya adalah penyakit infeksi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etil asetat daun Binahong dan Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM) terhadap Shigella flexneri, serta untuk mengetahui kandungan kimia yang terdapat dalam ekstrak etil asetat daun Binahong (Anredera scandens(L.) Moq.). Serbuk daun Binahong diekstraksi dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut etil asetat. Uji antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode dilusi cair dengan berbagai konsentrasi ekstrak (8,5%, 8%, 7,5%, 7%, 6,5%, 6%, 5,5%, dan 5% b/v) untuk menentukan KBM. Uji kromatografi lapis tipis dilakukan untuk mengetahui golongan senyawa yang terdapat dalam ekstrak etil asetat daun Binahong. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa KBM ekstrak etil asetat daun Binahong terhadap Shigella flexneri adalah 8 % b/v. Hasil uji skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung dan kromatografi lapis tipis menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etil asetat daun Binahong mengandung polifenol, dan saponin.

KERAGAMAN ISOLAT ACTINOMYCETES BERDASARKAN ANALISIS RFLP TERHADAP GEN NRPS

PHARMACIANA Vol 3, No 1: Mei 2013
Publisher : PHARMACIANA

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Abstract

Actinomycetes merupakan salah satu jenis mikroorganisme yang sangat pentingsebagai penghasil senyawa aktif, salah satunya adalah antibiotika. IsolasiActinomycetes dari rizosfer tanaman padi (Oryza sativa L) dan tanaman tin (Ficuscarica L.) telah menghasilkan 13 isolat Actinomycetes penghasil antibiotik. Penelitianini bertujuan mengetahui keragaman isolat berdasarkan analisis RFLP (LestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism) terhadap gen NRPS (Non Ribosomal PeptideSynthetase). Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengisolasi DNA isolat Actinomycetes dandilakukan PCR terhadap gen 16SrRNA dan gen NRPS. Produk PCR terhadap genNRPS selanjutnya dilakukan analisis RFLP menggunakan enzim HaeIII. Identifikasikeberadaan DNA, hasil PCR dan hasil RFLP dilakukan dengan elektroforesis gelagarose. Keragaman isolat dianalisis dengan analisis multivariate. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa dari keragaman 13 isolat Actinomycetes dapat dikelompokkanmenjadi 5 kelompok yaitu isolat 5 (kelompok 1), isolat 8 (kelompok 2), isolat 11(kelompok 3), isolat 6,7,9 (kelompok 4) dan isolat 1,2,3,4,10,12,13 (kelompok 5).

AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI EKSTRAK ETANOL BATANG BINAHONG (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steen.) TERHADAP Candida albicans SERTA SKRINING FITOKIMIA

PHARMACIANA Vol 1, No 2: November 2011
Publisher : PHARMACIANA

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Abstract

Binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steen.) merupakan tanaman yang secara empiris telah digunakan untuk mengobati beberapa penyakit yang disebabkan jamur.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antifungi ekstrak etanol batang Binahong terhadap C. albicans dan mengetahui kandungan kimia dalam ekstrak etanol batang Binahong. Serbuk batang Binahong diekstraksi dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut etanol 70%.Uji antifungi dilakukan dengan metode dilusi cair dengan berbagai konsentrasi ekstrak (85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 90% b/v). Ekstrak dicampur dengan suspensi jamur dalam media CYG dan diinkubasi pada suhu 37ºC selama 18-24 jam untuk menentukan Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM). Cairan kultur hasil inkubasi digoreskan pada media SDA (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) untuk menentukan Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM). Uji tabung dan kromatografi lapis tipis dilakukan untuk mengetahui golongan senyawa yang terdapat dalam ekstrak etanol batang Binahong. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa KHM tidak dapat ditentukan karena ekstrak etanol keruh dan berwarna hijau pekat, sedangkan KBM ekstrak etanol batang Binahong terhadap C. albicans adalah 86% b/v. Hasil uji skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung dan uji kromatografi lapis tipis menunjukkan bahwa batang Binahong mengandung saponin, flavonoid, dan polifenol.

AKTIVITAS CAIRAN KULTUR 12 ISOLAT ACTINOMYCETES TERHADAP BAKTERI RESISTEN

Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (Journal of Public Health) Vol 7, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Kes Mas FKM UAD September 2013
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Latar Belakang : Munculnya berbagai patogen yang multiresisten memicu  pencarian antibiotik baru. Secara historis, Actinomycetes adalah penghasil terbesar  antibiotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji aktivitas 12 isolat Actinomycetes terhadap bakteri Staphyllococcus aureus ATCC 25923 dan Eschericia coli 25922Metode : Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengkultur isolat Actinomycetes pada media Starch Nitrate Broth pada suhu kamar dengan penggojokan selama 14 hari. Uji aktivitas cairan kultur dilakukan dengan metode difusi sumuran terhadap S. aureus dan E.  coli.Hasil : Pertumbuhan bakteri S. aureus dapat dihambat oleh cairan kultur isolat-isolat Actinomycetes yaitu TL, T18, T19, T24, T37, T41, T43, P301, dan P302 berdasarkan munculnya  diameter zone hambat  pada pertumbuhan S. aureus.  Adapun pertumbuhan E. coli dapat dihambat oleh TL, T18, T19, T24, T25, T41, T43, dan P301. Isolat P104 dan T34 tidak menghambat baik terhadap S. aureus maupun E. coli.Kesimpulan :  Aktivitas antibakteri dihasilkan oleh isolat TL, T18, T19, T24,  T41, T43  dan P301 terhadap S. aureus dan E. coli, isolat T37 dan P302 terhadap S. aureus dan isolat T25 terhadap E. coli.  Kata Kunci :  Actinomycetes, aktivitas, S. aureus, E. coli  ABSTRACTBackground : The emergence of various multiresistant pathogens to antibiotics stimulate the search of new antibiotics. Historically, actinomycetes are the largest producer of antibiotics. This study aimed to examine the activity of the 12 isolates of  Actinomycetes against Staphylococcus aureus 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Methods : The study was conducted by culturing isolates of Actinomycetes on Starch Nitrate Broth media at room temperature with shaking for 14 days. The activity of the filtrate was tested against bacteria using diffusion method against S. aureus and E.  coli.Results : The bacterial growth of S. aureus can be inhibited by fluid culture broth of Actinomycetes isolates namely TL, T18, T19, T24, T37, T41, T43, P301, and P302 based on the appearance of the growth inhibition zone diameter of S. aureus. The growth of E. coli can be inhibited by isolates TL, T18, T19, T24, T25, T41, T43, and P301. Isolates P104 and T34 did not inhibit either the S. aureus and E. coli.Conclusion : The antibacterial activity was produced by isolates TL, T18, T19, T24, T41, T43 and P301 against S. aureus and E. coli, by isolates T37 and P302 inhibit only S. aureus as well as by isolate T25 inhibits only E. coli.  Keywords : Actinomycetes, activity, S. aureus, E. coli

TLC-Bioautography Profile of Ethyl Acetate Extract of 5 Bacteria Isolated from Ficus carica L Rhizosphere

International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS) Vol 4, No 2: June 2015
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

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Abstract

Research has been conducted on the 5 isolates of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Ficus carica L as a producer of antibiotics. The previous study showed they have NRPS gene profiles that differ from each other. This study aims to determine the TLC Rf spots having inhibition activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted using the 5 bacteria isolates, namely T19, T24, T25, T37 and T41. All isolates were fermented at room temperature for 14 days. Further the each broth culture was filtered and extracted using ethyl acetate. Components in the extract were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with the mobile phase of chloroform-methanol (7: 3), followed by bioautography test against the S. aureus and E. coli to determine the chromatogram spots containing antibiotics. TLC results showed all isolates had different chromatogram profiles. The bioautography results showed that only isolate T25 can produce antibiotics against S. aureus. The antibiotic spot was at Rf 0.9 in the use of chloroform-methanol (7: 3) solvent system.

The antiviral activity of srikaya seed (Annona squamosa L.) ethanolic extract against newcastle disease virus in chicken embryo

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 20 No 2, 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

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Abstract

Srikaya (A. squamosa L.) is a plant containing polyphenol, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid and saponin compounds. These compounds could be extracted by ethanol solvent. Previous study shown that infuse of Srikaya seed had antiviral activity with value of IC50 3,236 g/mL against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Therefore, the aim of research is to know the potency of ethanolic extract of Srikaya seed as antiviral against Newcastle Disease Virus.The 28 chicken embryos at age of 9-11 days were classified into 7 groups, i.e. : control of virus, control of solvent ethanol : aquadest (1:10) and treatment groups were given ethanolic extract of Srikaya seed with concentration 0.1 g/mL; 0.15 g/mL; 0.2 g/mL; 0.25 g/mL; dan 0.3 g/mL. NDV was inoculated into allantoic cavity intermediate after inoculated of extract and then incubated for 2 days. Antiviral activity were observed by hemaglutination method. The value of IC50 was calculated by probit analysis.The result showed that ethanol extract of srikaya seed (A. squamosa L.) had antiviral activity because of increasing concentration caused the higher inhibition percentage of hemaglutination. The value of IC50 is 0.152 g/mL.Key words: Antiviral, Annona squamosa, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV).

THE CLEAVING ACTIVITY ASSAY ON SUPERCOILED DNA BY PROTEIN FRACTIONS FROM Morinda citrifolia LEAVES

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 13 No 4, 2002
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

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Abstract

Study on supercoiled DNA cleaving activity assay of protein fraction from Morinda citrifolia leaf had been done. The aim of this research is to compare the supercoiled DNA cleaving abilities among the fractions. This is a preliminary screening to find RIP from Morinda citrifolia Fractionation of protein was done by adding Ammonium Sulphate up to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% in the crude extract, saturated solution was then centifugated to get the pellet fractions and coded as F-20, F-40, F-60, F-80 and F-100. The mixture of pUC19 plasmid and protein fractions, in the same protein concentration were incubated at room temperature for one hour, the cleaving ability of protein fraction on supercoiled DNA.was investigated. The results indicated that protein fractions, of F-80 had the highest cleaving activity to supercoiled DNA.Key words : Ribosome-Inactivating Protein (RIP), supercoiled DNA , protein fraction, Morinda citrifolia.

Antibacterial Compound Identification of Cayenne Pepper Leaf Extract (Capsicum frutescens L.) against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Cell Leakage Mechanism

Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 22, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma that can be caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study aims to determine the active fraction of cayenne pepper leaves on the growth of K. pneumoniae. Cayenne pepper leaf which previously defatted using n-hexane was macerated with 95% ethanol, then fractionated successively with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Ethanol extract and each fraction with concentration of 40% were tested for their antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae using disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). 1% amoxicillin was used as positive control and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the most active fraction was then determined. Determination of antibacterial compound in the most active fraction was carried out by TLC-bioautography and followed by Gass Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry. Cell leakage analysis was performed using UV spectrophotometry to detect the release of protein and nucleic acid, as well as Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used to detect ion release of K+ and Ca2+. The results showed that the most active fraction against K. pneumoniae was the ethyl acetate fraction with MIC value of 10% and inhibition zone of 7.25±0.25 mm. TLC-Bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction with eluen n-hexane: ethyl acetate (6:4) obtained an active stain at Rf 0.12. Compounds having 94% similarity with 1-propanol, 2-amino was predicted as the active compound.

Uji sitotoksisitas dan antiproliferatif ekstrak etanol daun leunca (Solanum Nigrum,L) terhadap sel raji

Pharmaciana Vol 6, No 2 (2016): Pharmaciana
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

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Abstract

Leunca (Solanum nigrum,L.) is one of the medicinal plant which used society for traditional medication as antipyretic, hypotensive and anticancer. The aim of  this research was to know an anticancer activity of ethanol extract of leunca leaves, emphasized on an ability to inhibit the growth Raji cell. Ethanol extract took from leunca leaf powder that epitomized using ethanol solvent by Soxhlet instrument. Citotoxicity test was done by incubating Raji cell at a density of 2x104 with treatment using ethanol extract from leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) leaf in several concentration 500; 250; 125; 62,5; 31,25; 15,62; 7,81 and 3,90 µg/ml. A test was done by MTT method and the percent of cell mortality was calculated. The LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. The research continued with antiproliferation test on treatment sample concentration 50; 25 µg/ml with cell control for 24, 48, and 72 hours.The result of research indicate that ethanol extract of leunca leaves had cytotoxic effect towards Raji cell with LC50 values 59,22 µg/ml. The result of  antiproliferation test showed that there were the growth of inhibitation on treatment sample with doubling time values 69,56 hour at concentration 50 µg/ml; 60,00 hour at concentration 25 µg/ml, and doubling time cell control is 44,98 hour.

PELATIHAN PERAN SERTA KADER POSYANDU DALAM PEMBERIAN EDUKASI KEPADA MASYARAKAT

Jurnal Pemberdayaan: Publikasi Hasil Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Posyandu merupakan wadah yang dapat digunakan untuk upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan masalah kesehatan baik gizi, kesehatan ibu dan anak, Pola hidup bersih sehat, imunisasi dan sebagainya.  Lewat model penimbangan dan pemantauan gizi tiap bulan juga dapat dijadikan sebagai alat surveilans gizi yang tujuan akhirnya adalah upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan masalah gizi balita. Jika pelaksanaan Posyandu baik maka target pragram akan terpenuhi, akan tetapi jika pelaksanaan posyandu kurang lancar maka target tidak akan bisa terpenuhi. Dalam praktek di masyarakat pelaksanaan Posyandu masih mengalami beberapa kendala antara lain kemampuan kader yang masih kurang dalam kegiatan penyuluhan kesehatan kepada masyarakat. Tujuan pengabdian ini yaitu untuk meningkatkan kemampuan kader posyandu dalam pengukuran dan penimbangan balita serta status gizi ibu dan balita. Perlu juga peningkatan kemampuan penyuluhan kader, mengingat keterbatasan tenaga penyuluh di puskesmas Depok 3. Hal ini berimplikasi pada penanganan permasalahan kesehatan ibu dan balita lebih cepat. Metode yang digunakan dalam pelatihan ini yaitu dengan pemberian kegiatan pelatihan-pelatihan untuk peningkatan skill kader Posyandu disertai dengan mengadakan lomba penyuluhan kepada masyarakat dan  pemberian hadiah berupa ung pembinaan untuk melengkapi melengkapi sarana pra sarana yang menunjang kegiatan Posyandu. Melalui kegiatan ini diharapkan peran Posyandu sebagai ujung tombak pemantauan status gizi di masyarakat dapat lebih optimal. Hasil dari kegiatan ini meningkatkan kemampuan kader dalam memberikan penyuluhan kepada masyarakat dengan metode ang lebih menarik sehingga meningkatkan kepercayaan diri kader untuk bisa berbagi kepada masyarakat tentang kesehatan. Pelatihan ini meluas karena juga diberikan kepada kader posyandu lansia dan juga posbindu.