Mohammad Sulchan
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro

Published : 12 Documents
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Food Safety of Plastic and Styrofoam Packaging Sulchan, Mohammad; Nur W, Endang
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 57 No. 2 February 2007
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

During the last two decades the use of plastic and styrofoam for food packaging hasdominated the market share of replacing tin and glass. In Indonesia, plastic packaging hasdominated around 80 persen of the food industry and flexible packaging. The material of plasticand styrofoam packaging consists of polymere, originated from monomers of the raw material, plus additive. The negative aspects of plastic packaging for food is that its monomere will stick tothe food. Monomers are carcinogens, thus they are harmful to health.Keyword: Plastic packaging, food industry, polymere, carcinogens.
Nutrional Value and Amino Acid Composition of Tempe Gembus and Its Effect on Growth of Rats Sulchan, Mohammad; W, Endang Nur
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 57 No. 3 March 2007
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

It has recently been proven that soybean “tempe” can improve the blood lipid profile inhuman as well as in animal. People in Central Java also consume another traditionally fermented food called “tempe gembus” which is made from soybean solid waste of soya-curd factory fermented by tempe mold Rhizopus sp. The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional value, amino-acid composition and its effect of some various concentration of “tempe gembus” on growth of rats. The concentrations of tempe gembus used in this study were 0%, 4%, 8%, and12% (w/w basic). All diets were isocaloric and isoprotein based on the AIN 93M purified diet standard formula. Twenty eight male Spague Dawley rats 10 weeks old with normal body weight were housed in individual stainless-steel cage for acclimatization. Animal were then assigned toone of four dietary treatment groups by randomization (n=7). Dietary treatment (G-0, G-1, G-2 and G-3) was given for 5 weeks. At all steps of the experiments, diet and water were offered adlibitum. Body weight were recorded weekly, while food intake was recorded daily. Data collected were then analyzed using the paired t-test and oneway Anova, followed by Least Significant Difference at 95% confidence level. The result of study revealed that tempe gembus are not composed of high value energy and protein, but contains essential amino acid. The effect of three dietary treatment groups of tempe gembus are not different compared to standard dietary treatament (G-0, 0% tempe gembus).Keywords: isocaloric isoprotein, Sprague Dawley rats
KONTRIBUSI MAKANAN JAJAN DAN AKTIVITAS FISIK TERHADAP KEJADIAN OBESITAS PADA REMAJA DI KOTA SEMARANG Pramono, Adriyan; Sulchan, Mohammad
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 37, No 2 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (253.566 KB)

Abstract

Kejadian obesitas pada remaja meningkat di Indonesia. Peningkatan derajat kemakmuran berkorelasi dengan perubahan gaya hidup. Remaja lebih gemar jajan diluar rumah dan tidak banyak melakukan aktivitas fisik rutin seperti olah raga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kontribusi makanan dan aktivitas fisik terhadap kejadian obesitas pada remaja di Semarang. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional dengan pendekatan kasus kontrol (1:1). Dengan teknik acak sederhana, sejumlah 148 remaja usia 12 – 15 tahun menjadi subjek penelitian setelah melalui screening status gizi. Penentuan obesitas didasarkan pada persentil IMT/U > 95 persentil. Data asupan makanan jajanan dan aktivitas fisik diperoleh melalui wawancara kuesioner terstruktur. Uji hubungan dua variabel dilakukan dengan chi square. Uji regresi logistik dilakukan untuk mengetahui variabel paling berpengaruh terhadap kejadian obesitas Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kontribusi makanan western fast food, makanan jajanan lokal dan tingkat aktivitas fisik terhadap obesitas (P< 0,05). Model akhir regresi logistic menunjukkan kontribusi makanan jajan lokal yang mengandung lebih dari  300 kkal dan aktivitas fisik ringan memberi risiko masing masing sebesar 3,2 kali dan 5,1 kali menyebabkan obesitas pada remaja. Dapat disimpulankan bahwa makanan jajan yang mengandung lebih dari  300 kkal dan aktivitas fisik ringan berkontribusi terhadap kejadian obesitas remaja ABSTRACT CONTRIBUTIONS OF STREET FOOD AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TO ADOLESCENT OBESITY IN SEMARANG CITY The prevalence of adolescents obesity increased from time to time in Indonesia. Increasing of prosperity is correlated with changes in lifestyle. The lifestyles adopted among adolescents are interested  to buy eating street foods outside home and lack of physical activity as a result of high techology and spend more time outside home. The objective of the study is to study the contribution of street foods and physical activity to adolescents obesity in Semarang. This study is an observational study with case-control design (1case and 1 control). Simple random sampling was applied  after screening of nutritional status. A number of 148 adolescents aged 12-15 years became subjects of the study. Determination of obesity based on BMI percentile by age > 95 percentile. Dietary intake of western fast foods, street foods and physical activity was obtained through interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Chi square test was performed to analyzed association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most influential variables on adolescents obesity. The results showed that there is a significant association between dietary western fast foods, local street foods and physical activity levels to adolescents obesity (P <0.05). Logistic regression showed that local street foods > 300 kcal and light physical activity contributed 3.2 times and 5.1 times  to adolescents obesity. In conclusion, street foods contained more than  300 kcal and light physical activity contributed to adolescent obesityKeywords:  street foods, adolescents obesity, physical activity
Effect of tempe gembus on cholesterol profile in hyperlipidemic rats Sulchan, Mohammad; Rukmi, MG I.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 16, No 4 (2007): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (165.704 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v16i4.281

Abstract

Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease has become a prominent health problem in Indonesia. High blood lipid level is considered to be among the risk factors, that can be controlled by dietary treatment. Like tempe kedele, tempe gembus, a nutritious food, is known to contain many substances that is able to influence blood lipid level. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of various concentrations of tempe gembus on blood lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats. Tempe gembus were given in variations of 0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% (w/w). The result of this study showed that 0% tempe gembus decreased triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol level, and cholesterol HDL/LDL ratio, and increased LDL cholesterol level. Four percent tempe gembus increased triglyceride level, decreased total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol level, and increased HDL/LDL ratio; 8% tempe gembus increased triglyceride level, decreased total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL cholesterol level, and increased HDL/LDL ratio; 12% tempe gembus increased triglyceride level, decreased total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL cholesterol level, and increased HDL/LDL ratio. However, a significant effect of tempe gembus were only the decrease in total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (8% and 12% treatment), and increase in cholesterol HDL/ LDL ratio only happend in 8 % treatment. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:205-11)Keywords: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride
Kontribusi makanan jajan dan aktivitas fisik terhadap kejadian obesitas pada remaja di kota Semarang Pramono, Adriyan; Sulchan, Mohammad
JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (69.296 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jgi.2.2.59-65

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of adolescents obesity increased in Indonesia. Increasing of prosperity is correlated with changes in lifestyle. Adolescents are interseted of eating street foods outside and lack of physical activity. Objective: To determine the contribution of snack foods and physical activity into adolescents obesity in Semarang Methods: This study was an observational study with case-control design (1: 1). Simple random sampling was conducted after screening of nutritional status. A number of 148 adolescents aged 12-15 years became subjects. Determination of obesity based on BMI percentile by age > 95 percentile. Dietary intake of western fast foods, street foods and physical activity was obtained through a structured questionnaire interviewed. Chi square test was performed to analyzed association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the most influential variables on adolescents obesity. Results: There is a significant association between dietary western fast foods, local street foods and physical activity levels into adolescents obesity (P <0.05). Logistic regression showed that local street foods > 300 kcal and light physical activity contributed 3.2 times and 5.1 times into adolescents obesity. Conclusion: Street foods > 300 kcal and light physical activity contributed to adolescent obesity.
Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java Sulchan, Mohammad; Satoto, Satoto
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 15, No 4 (2006): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (215.019 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v15i4.247

Abstract

For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L) was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration &gt; observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L) included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] ). Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] ) and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] ). Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66)Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia
HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK KITOSAN DENGAN KOMBINASI ENZIM ENDO-GLUCANASE DAN CELLOBIOHYDROLASE Rokhati, Nur; Pramudono, Bambang; Istirokhatun, Titik; Sulchan, Mohammad; Kresnianingrum, Dyah Ayu; Dewi, Luthfi Kurnia
REAKTOR Volume 15 No.4 Oktober 2015
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.15.4.261-267

Abstract

Abstract CHITOSAN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS USING A COMBINATION OF ENDO-GLUCANASE AND CELLOBIOHYDROLASE. Chitosan is very promising in various fields including medicine, pharmacology, and the food industry. However, the application of this polysaccharide is limited by its high molecular weight resulting in its low solubility in aqueous media. In this respect, the chitosan with shorter chain length, display a reduced viscosity and are soluble in aqueous media at pH values close to neutrality. The aim of this study is the hydrolysis of chitosan to obtain a low molecular weight chitosan using enzymes endo-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase. The hydrolysis of chitosan was carried out under a temperature of 40° C and pH 5. Chitosan degradation was monitored by the analysis of reducing sugars and viscosity, whereas the chemical characterization of chitosan is done by using test FTIR (infrared spectroscopy). The results showed that enzyme treatment resulted in a substantial loss in viscosity of the chitosan solution shows depolymerization. Depolymerization using endo-glucanase took place very quickly during the initial 15 minutes. The rate of viscosity decrease on chitosan degradation using cellobiohydrolase is lower than using endo-glucanase. When the reaction time was 4 h, the lowest  viscosity is showed by cellobiohydrolase, and the highest solubility is showed by combination of endo-glucanase and cellobiohydrolase. Keywords: endo-glucanase; cellobiohydrolase; chitosan; hydrolysis Abstrak Kitosan dapat dimanfaatkan di berbagai bidang seperti kedokteran, farmasi dan industri makanan. Aplikasi kitosan sering dibatasi oleh berat molekul kitosan yang tinggi sehingga viskositasnya tinggi dan kelarutannya rendah. Kitosan dengan rantai polimer pendek, akan mempunyai viskositas rendah, dan mudah larut pada larutan/air dengan pH mendekati netral. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghidrolisis kitosan secara enzimatis menggunakan enzim endo-glucanase dan cellobiohydrolase. Hidrolisis kitosan dilakukan pada suhu 40 °C dan pH 5. Degradasi kitosan dipantau melalui analisa gula reduksi dan viskositas, sedangkan karakterisasi kimia kitosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji FTIR (infra red spectroscopy). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hidrolisis enzimatis kitosan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan berat molekul yang ditandai dengan adanya penurunan viscositas larutan kitosan. Pada 15 menit awal hidrolisis terjadi penurunan viskositas yang sangat besar. Laju penurunan viskositas enzim cellobiohydrolase lebih rendah dibanding dengan enzime endo-glucanase. Setelah waktu reaksi 4 jam, viskositas terendah diperoleh pada enzime cellobiohydrolase, sedangkan kelarutan tertinggi diperoleh pada kombinasi enzime endo-glucanase dan cellobiohydrolase. Kata kunci: endo-glucanase; cellobiohydrolase; kitosan; hidrolisis  
KONTRIBUSI MAKANAN JAJAN DAN AKTIVITAS FISIK TERHADAP KEJADIAN OBESITAS PADA REMAJA DI KOTA SEMARANG Pramono, Adriyan; Sulchan, Mohammad
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 37, No 2 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Kejadian obesitas pada remaja meningkat di Indonesia. Peningkatan derajat kemakmuran berkorelasi dengan perubahan gaya hidup. Remaja lebih gemar jajan diluar rumah dan tidak banyak melakukan aktivitas fisik rutin seperti olah raga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kontribusi makanan dan aktivitas fisik terhadap kejadian obesitas pada remaja di Semarang. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional dengan pendekatan kasus kontrol (1:1). Dengan teknik acak sederhana, sejumlah 148 remaja usia 12 – 15 tahun menjadi subjek penelitian setelah melalui screening status gizi. Penentuan obesitas didasarkan pada persentil IMT/U > 95 persentil. Data asupan makanan jajanan dan aktivitas fisik diperoleh melalui wawancara kuesioner terstruktur. Uji hubungan dua variabel dilakukan dengan chi square. Uji regresi logistik dilakukan untuk mengetahui variabel paling berpengaruh terhadap kejadian obesitas Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara kontribusi makanan western fast food, makanan jajanan lokal dan tingkat aktivitas fisik terhadap obesitas (P< 0,05). Model akhir regresi logistic menunjukkan kontribusi makanan jajan lokal yang mengandung lebih dari  300 kkal dan aktivitas fisik ringan memberi risiko masing masing sebesar 3,2 kali dan 5,1 kali menyebabkan obesitas pada remaja. Dapat disimpulankan bahwa makanan jajan yang mengandung lebih dari  300 kkal dan aktivitas fisik ringan berkontribusi terhadap kejadian obesitas remaja ABSTRACT CONTRIBUTIONS OF STREET FOOD AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TO ADOLESCENT OBESITY IN SEMARANG CITY The prevalence of adolescents obesity increased from time to time in Indonesia. Increasing of prosperity is correlated with changes in lifestyle. The lifestyles adopted among adolescents are interested  to buy eating street foods outside home and lack of physical activity as a result of high techology and spend more time outside home. The objective of the study is to study the contribution of street foods and physical activity to adolescents obesity in Semarang. This study is an observational study with case-control design (1case and 1 control). Simple random sampling was applied  after screening of nutritional status. A number of 148 adolescents aged 12-15 years became subjects of the study. Determination of obesity based on BMI percentile by age > 95 percentile. Dietary intake of western fast foods, street foods and physical activity was obtained through interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Chi square test was performed to analyzed association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most influential variables on adolescents obesity. The results showed that there is a significant association between dietary western fast foods, local street foods and physical activity levels to adolescents obesity (P <0.05). Logistic regression showed that local street foods > 300 kcal and light physical activity contributed 3.2 times and 5.1 times  to adolescents obesity. In conclusion, street foods contained more than  300 kcal and light physical activity contributed to adolescent obesityKeywords:  street foods, adolescents obesity, physical activity
Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and hypertension in obese children Sulchan, Mohammad
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 54 No 4 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (117.407 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi54.4.2014.236-44

Abstract

Background Obesity has become an increasingly important medicalproblem in children. Obesity-induced hypertension in childhoodshould be considered as a chronic medical condition that is likelyto require long-term management of dietary patterns, especially forenergy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption.Objective To examine the contribution ofEDNP foods to dailyenergy and macronutrient intakes and to examine the relationshipbetween intake of EDN P foods and the prevalence of hypertensionin children.Methods Four hundred and forty children were randomly selectedto participate. Weight and height were measured with precisionelectronic scales and fixed microtoise, respectively. Blood pressure(BP) measurements were performed by standard procedure. A24-hour dietary recall was obtained by a trained interviewer todetermine the intake of EDNP foods, which were clas sified to 4major groups: visible fat, sweeteners, desserts, or salty snacks.The difference in mean was evaluated using paired Ttest.Logistic models were fitted to assess for an association betweenhypertension and the various characteristics.Results The proportion of children who were overweight (includingobese) was 23 .2%. The prevalence of elevated BP was 10.5%, similarin boys and girls, with most of them having isolated elevated sys to lieBP. There was a relationship between BP and body mass index(BMI) in all children. Approximately 27% of total daily energyintake was contributed by all EDNP foods. Of the EDNP foodsubgroups examined, dessert and sweeteners contributed nearly20% of total daily energy intake. In the highest one-third of subjectswho consumed EDNP food, these foods provided 49% of total dailycarbohydrate intake and 34% of total daily fat intake.Conclusion Eating patterns ofEDNP foods provide 49% of totaldaily carbohydrate intake and 34% of total daily fat intake. ThisEDNP food is independently associated with hypertension inchildren.
Kadar Serum Selenium Pada Remaja Akhir Usia 17-19 Tahun Berdasarkan Status Obesitas dan Stunting Hidayat, Yusuf; Sulchan, Mohammad; Panunggal, Binar
Journal of Nutrition College Vol 7, No 4 (2018): Oktober 2018
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (559.268 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jnc.v7i4.22279

Abstract

Latar Belakang : Remaja yang obesitas dan stunting ditemukan mengalami penurunan kadar selenium di tubuh. Penurunan kadar selenium berdampak terhadap kejadian stress oksidatif yang merupakan prekursor berbagai masalah kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan perbedaan kadar serum selenium pada remaja akhir usia 17-19 tahun berdasarkan status obesitas dan stunting.Metode : Penelitian cross-sectional ini dilakukan pada 88  remaja usia 17-19 tahun yang dibagi dalam 4 kelompok berdasarkan status obesitas dan stunting. Obesitas ditentukan dengan nilai WHtR >0.5 untuk perempuan dan >0.51 untuk laki-laki. Stunting ditentukan dengan TB/U >-2 SD. Kadar serum selenium ditentukan menggunakan ICP-OES. Perbedaan kadar serum selenium dianalisis dengan uji Annova.Hasil : Rerata kadar serum selenium pada kelompok stunted-obesity sebesar 277,5±96,4, stunted-non obesity 418±93,4, non stunted-obesity 304±64,9, dan non stunted-non obesity 330±112,2. Terdapat perbedaan signifikan kadar serum selenium pada kelompok.Simpulan : Kadar serum selenium pada seluruh kelompok tergolong lebih tinggi dibanding nilai normal. Kelompok stunted-obesity dan non stunted-obesity memiliki kadar serum selenium yang lebih rendah dibanding kelompok non stunted-non obesity, sedangkan kelompok stunted-non obesity memiliki kadar selenium serum yang lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok non stunted-non obesity.