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Farm Scale Nitrogen Balances For Terraced Paddy Field Systems SUKRISTIYONUBOWO, .; LIANG, GIJS DU
Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 4, No 02 (2010): Desember 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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Abstract

Nitrogen balance at farm scale is not only important to refine the site specific nitrogen fertiliser application rate, but also to estimate how much nitrogen fertiliser should be provided every planting season at district level. The nitrogen fertiliser stock for the district can be calculated by multiplying the total planting areas with nitrogen fertiliser rate per hectare. The aims were to evaluate the nitrogen balance of terraced paddy field systems under conventional farmer practices and improved technologies during the wet season 2003-04 and dry season 2004 and to predict how much nitrogen fertiliser should be provided in every planting season for wetland cultivation in the Semarang district. The nitrogen input-output assessments were carried out in terraced paddy fields for the conventional farmer practices (CFP), conventional farmer practices + rice straw (CFP+RS), improved technology (IT), and improved technology + rice straw (IT+RS) treatments. Balances were computed based on the differences between input and output. Nitrogen originating from fertiliser (IN-1), recycled rice straw (IN-2), irrigation (IN-3), and precipitation (IN-4) were grouped as input. Nitrogen removal by rice grains (OUT-1) and rice straw (OUT-2) was considered as output. The input-output analyses showed negative nitrogen balances for all the treatments, both in the wet season 2003-04 and the dry season 2004. The more nitrogen deficit was observed when the nitrogen volatilisation was considered. The nutrient inputs, particularly coming from inorganic fertilisers, were not sufficient to replace the nitrogen removed by rice grains and straw. The application of only 50 kg of urea/ha/season with and without returning rice straw was not enough to reach the optimal yield and should be left out. To balance the nitrogen deficit and to improve cultural practices in wetland rice farming especially terraced paddy field system, about 200 -250 kg urea/ha/season is recommended when the ammonia volatilisation is not considered, where as when the ammonia volatilisation is taken into account about 250-300 kg urea/ha should be added. When the rice yield of 5.73 t/ha is targeted as reached in the IT+RS treatment even higher and the planting areas in the Semarang district is about 24.833 ha for the wet season, the amount of urea should be provided will be about 4.97-6.21 million tons/season/district, meanwhile for the dry season when about 18,440 ha wetland rice is expected to be cultivated is about 4.61 to 5.53 million tons urea/season/district should be available.
Sediment and Nutrient Mobility in Terraced Paddy Fields under Traditional Irrigation System SUKRISTIYONUBOWO, .
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 28 (2008): Desember 2008
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.2017/jti.v0i28.233

Abstract

Sediment and nutrient mobility in terraced paddy fields under traditional irrigation system have been investigated in Keji Village, the Semarang District during the Wet Season 2003-2004. The aims were to evaluate the incoming and outgoing sediment and nutrient during rice growth cycle and to study the mobility of sediment and nutrient in the wet season. The treatments included Farmer Practices, Farmer Practices + Rice Straw, Improved Technology, and Improved Technology + Rice Straw. The discharge of irrigation water during puddling was the greatest varying between 2.55 ± 1.23 and 3.10 ± 0.55 l second-1, while during the vegetative phase was the lowest ranging from 0.33 ± 0.15 to 0.54 ± 0.15 l second-1. At the generative stage was about 1.38 ± 0.28 to 1.60 ± 0.06 l second-1. Furthermore, the discharge of suspended sediment during puddling varied between 0.89 ± 0.20 and 1.31 ± 0.34 l second-1, while atvegetative phase was the lowest ranging from 0.21 ± 0.07 to 0.78 ± 0.52 l second-1. At generative stage was about 1.13 ± 0.06 to 1.32 ± 0.09 l second-1. Only during the puddling that the incoming sediment was lower than outgoing sediment. The total amount of deposited sediment varied between 647 and 1,589 kg ha-1 season-1 from the total incoming sediment of 2,715 to 5,521 kg ha-1 season-1. In contrast, the incoming dissolved nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) was trapped in the paddy field areas, varying between 7.20 and 13.62 kg N; 0.13 and0.20 kg P; and from 7.25 to 13.42 kg K ha-1 season-1. There were no significantly different among treatments, both for sediment and nutrient deposited. These results demonstrate that terraced paddy field system is not only place for producing rice, but also providing an environmental services, like nutrient and sediment conserving.
The Effect of Silvy Pastural Systems on Carrying Capacity and Soil Property of Grass Land SUKRISTIYONUBOWO, .; WIGENA, I GEDE PUTU; TUHERKIH, E.; MARYAM, .; SANTOSO, D.
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 18 (2000): Desember 2000
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.2017/jti.v0i18.309

Abstract

This experiment was the last activity of soil-crop management experiment to improve quantity and quality of fodder of grass land. This experiment has been carried out since 1994/1995 cropping season in Selengen Village, Lombok 8arat District, West Nusa Tenggara. In 1998/1999 the observation was focused on carrying capacity and soil properties. Feeding through grazing and cut and carry was applied to measure the carrying capacity. The experiment used randomized complete block design and the treatments  were arranged to split split plot design replicated four times. The main-plot treatments were (1) with wind breaker and (2) without wind breaker. The sub-plot treatments were four combinations of native grass land, introduced grass, and introduced legume: (A) native grass land, (B) native grass land + Paspalum sp.,(C) native grass land + Arachis gambrara, and (D) native grass land + Paspalum sp. + Arachis gambrara. The sub-sub-plot treatments were (a) grazing and (b) cut and carry. Furthermore the combination between treatments with wind breaker (1) and native grass land +Paspalum sp. +Arachis gambrata (D) was called silvy-pasture system, while the combination between treatments without wind breaker (2) and native grass land (A) was named native grass land. The results indicated that the highest fresh fodder production and carrying capacity both for the first and second harvesting were shown by the silvy-pasture system. The yields were 35.01 and 28.47 t/ha for the first and second harvesting, respectively. Meanwhile, the carrying capacity of the first harvesting using grazing and cut and carry were 1.47 and 1.75 cattle/ha/year with increasing life weights were 0.46 and 0.29 kg/day, respectively. For the second harvesting, the carrying capacities were 1.10 and 1.16 cattle/ha/year with increasing life weight about 0.28 kg/day, respectively. Introduction of Paspalum sp. and Arachis gambrata significantly improved carrying capacity of native grass land.
Temporal and Seasonal Variation of Sediment Movement in the Terraced Paddy Fields System SUKRISTIYONUBOWO, .; SETYORINI, D
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 31 (2010): Juli 2010
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.2017/jti.v0i31.218

Abstract

Temporal and seasonal variation of sediment movement in terraced paddy fields has been studied at Keji Village, in Semarang District for the Wet Season 2003-04 and the Dry Season 2004. Twelve terraced paddy fields with different number and size of terraces were used in this research,corresponding to four treatments and three replications. Terraces were flat, different in size, and descending to the river. The objective was to study the temporal and seasonal variations of sediment movement during rice growth in the wet season and the dry season. Measurements were conducted in the four treatments being tested including Farmer Practices, Farmer Practices + Rice Straw, Improved Technology, and Improved Technology + Rice Straw. Sampling and measuring of irrigation water discharge and suspended sediment were carried out at puddling, before planting, vegetative stage, and at generative stage. The highest temporal discharge as well as sediment concentration of irrigation water and suspended sediment both in wet and dry seasons were observed at the puddling stage and significantly different with the following rice growth stages. In contrast, the lowest temporal discharge and sediment concentration were found at the vegetative stage. Seasonal discharge and sediment concentration of irrigation water and suspended sediment in wet season were higher than in dry season. The highest incoming and outgoing sediments both in wet and dry season were observed at the vegetative stage and significantly different at generative stage, planting and puddling. The amount of seasonal incoming sediment were 4,422 ± 361 and 1,779 ± 126 kg ha-1 and the outgoing sediment were 3,345 ± 258 and 1,400 ± 113 kg ha-1 for the wet season 2003-04 and dry season 2004, respectively. The surplus of incoming sediment by outgoing sediment demonstrates the environmental services provided by terraced paddy fields system.
Management of Phosphorus and Organic Matter on an Acid Soil in Jambi, Indonesia D, SANTOSO; PURNOMO, J.; WIGENA, I GEDE PUTU; SUKRISTIYONUBOWO, .; LEFROY, R.D.B
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 18 (2000): Desember 2000
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.2017/jti.v0i18.310

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Pauh Menang village, Jambi province, to assess crop and soil response to P fertilization, compare inorganic and organic sources of P, and assess the interactions between these sources. The experiment employed an incomplete factorial combination of six levels of inorganic P (0, 19, 38, 57, 76 and 95 kg P ha-1 as SP-6), two organic matters (FYM and stylo), and lime, laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The experiment was carried out over four seasons, from rainy season 1997/1998 until dry season 1999, however, the second crop failed due to severe drought. Under limed conditions, application of SP-36 at 38-kg P ha-1crop-1 increased soil P content. Repeated application of SP-36 resulted in accumulation of residual P and built up the P status of the soil well above 100 mg P kg-1 soil. The application of SP-36 in combination with OM, stylo or FYM, did not produce higher Colwell P contents in the soil compared with application of inorganic P alone. Grain yields of all corn crops increased significantly from about 0.5 to 3.5 t ha-1 with application of inorganic P at about 57 kg P ha-1. The amount of P fertilizer required to obtain 85% relative yield decreased from about 62 to 40 to 28 kg P ha-1 for crop 1 to crop 3 and to crop 4, providing evidence of the residual effect of P fertilization. The direct use of RP at 42.6 kg P ha-1crop-1 was less effective than the readily soluble inorganic SP-36 at 38 kg P ha-1 crop-1. Liming increased and maintained corn grain yields significantly. Application of OM as FYM or stylo in combination with SP-36 or RP did not resulted in synergistic interactions, with greater increases in yields. The introduction of an erect and fast growing stylo, Stylosanthes guyanensis cultivar CIAT 184, in the cropping system offers a good opportunity to improve fertility of acid soils. The high biomass yield of stylo, ranging from 0.8 to 4.9 t ha-1 per cutting, can be fed directly to cattle or sun-dried, ground and mixed with other materials to enrich feed concentrate. Widespread adoption of this legume would enhance cattle rearing, which in turn would produce more FYM as a source of organic P fertilizer .
Soil Fertility Properties and Rice Biomass Production Under Three Rice Farming Systems at Vertisols Sambung Macan Sub District, Sragen Regency Sukristiyonubowo, .; Riyanto, Damasus; Widodo, Sugeng
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 24, No 1: January 2019
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (367.904 KB) | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2019.v24i1.%p

Abstract

The farmers realize that green revolution technology with high inputs is no longer sustainable. They want to move to other rice farming systems. The aim of research was to study soil chemical-physical characteristics and rice productions under  three  rice farming systems. This study was conducted in Vertisols at Sambung Macan Sub District, Sragen Regency, arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and as the treatments was an organic, semi organic and conventional rice systems. One kilo gram composites soil  samples of 0-20 cm in depth were collected from five random sampling points of every site and taken in March 2017, before soil preparation. Rice biomass productions namely rice grains, rice straw and rice residues were harvested in the end of June 2017. The results indicated that in organic field, the soil chemical-physical fertility was superior to that of in semi organic and conventional and semi organic system was better than conventional in terms of soil pH, organic C and total N, P and K total, soil bulk density, particle density, soil porosity and permeability. Similar finding was observed for rice biomass productions. The rice grains yields were 7.53 ± 0.85, 6.60 ± 0.15 and 5.77 ± 0.71, rice straw were 7.97 ± 0.47, 7.63 ± 0.21 and 6.93 ± 0.25 and forrice residues were 4.20 ± 0.10, 3.30 ± 0.20 and 3.25 ± 0.35 Mgs ha-1 season-1 in organic, semi organic and conventional systems, respectively.Compared to the conventional system, the organic increased about 31 %, 15% and 29 % for rice grains, rice straw and rice residues, respectively. Comparing semi organic to conventional, the improvement was 14 %, 10 % and 2 % for rice grains, rice straw and rice residues, respectively. This short term research concluded that organic rice farming was superior to both semi organic and conventional systems, but the long term effect of organic need to be further evaluated.
Plot Scale Phosphorous and Potassium Balances of Newly Opened Wetland Rice Farming Originated from Wetland Sukristiyonubowo, .; Nugroho, Kusumo; Ritung, Sofyan
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 17, No 3: September 2012
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (80.179 KB) | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2012.v17i3.227-237

Abstract

Development of newly opened wetland rice fields both from dry land and wetland in Indonesia are important to meetrice growing demand, increase soil productivity, keep rural food security and provide jobs as well as generateincome. Most soils of newly opened rice fields are low in P and K contents, but the farmers do not apply P and Krecommended fertilisers. The study was conducted on newly opened wetland rice farming in Panca Agung village,Bulungan District, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia in 2009. The aims were to evaluate phosphorous andpotassium input ? out of newly opened wetland rice and to validate the P and K recommendation. Six treatmentswere tested including farmers practices (as control), farmer practices + straw compost + dolomite, NPK withrecommendation rate in which N and K was split in two applications, NPK with recommendation rate in which N andK was split three applications, NPK with recommendation rate + straw compost + Dolomite , in which N and K wassplit three applications, and NPK with recommendation rate + straw compost + dolomite, in which N and K weresplit two applications. The N, P and K rates were 250 kg urea, 100 kg SP-36 and 100 kg KCl ha-1 season-1, while thefarmer practices 100 kg urea and 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 season-1. Parameters to be measured were concentration P andK in mineral fertilizer, compost, irrigation water and grains as well as straw. The results showed that surplus Pranged from 5.75 to 12.85 kg P ha-1 season-1, meaning that SP-36 application rate was more than enough to replace Premoved by harvest product. In contrast, potassium application rate should be increased from 100 to 200 kg KClha-1 season-1 to fix K removed by harvest product. However, when the compost will also be increased to 3 Mg ha-1season-1 K fertilizer can be increased to 150 kg KCl ha-1 season-1 to substitute K taken away by rice harvest productand to keep higher rice grain yield. These P and K recommendation rate imply that total SP-36 and KCl should beavailable at district level will be about 984.9 Mg SP-36 and 1.477 Mg KCl district -1 season -1, respectively.Keywords: Newly opened wetland rice; nutrient balance; nutrient input; nutrient losses; plot scale wetland[How to Cite: Sukristiyonubowo, K Nugroho and S Ritung. 2012. Plot Scale Phosphorous and Potassium Balances of Newly Opened Wetland Rice Farming Originated from Wetland. J Trop Soils 17 (3): 227-237. doi: 10.5400/jts.2012.17.3.227][Permalink/DOI: www.dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2012.17.3.227] 
Nutrient Removal by Rice Cultivated in Newly Opened Wetland Rice in Bulungan District, East Kalimantan Sukristiyonubowo, .; Nugroho, Kusumo; Vadari, Tagus
Journal of Tropical Soils Vol 17, No 2: May 2012
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (53.353 KB) | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2012.v17i2.115-120

Abstract

Highly weathered Indonesian soils and potential acid sulphate soils are mainly granted for developing newlyopened wetland rice field to meet rice growing demand in Indonesia. Nutrient removal by rice harvest product ofCiliwung variety planted in newly opened wetland rice was studied in Bulungan District, in 2009. The aims were toexamine the nutrient taken out by rice harvest product and to properly manage its fertility status to sustain ricefarming. Six treatments were studied including T0: farmers practices, T1: farmer practices + compost + dolomite, T2:NPK recommended rate, N and K were split two times, T3: NPK recommended rate, N and K were split three times,T4: NPK recommended rate, N and K were split three times + compost + dolomite and T5: NPK recommended rate,N and K were split two times + compost + dolomite. The results indicated that the highest concentrations of N, P,and K in rice grain and rice straw were observed at NPK with recommendation rate in which N and K were split threetimes + straw compost + dolomite (T4). The T4 (NPK with recommendation rate in which N and K were split threetimes + straw compost + dolomite) also showed the highest nutrient removal by harvest product. Depending on thetreatments, total nutrients removal through rice grains and rice straw varied from 61.81 to 101.71 kg N, 4.31 to13.69 kg P and from 95.77 to 171.16 kg K ha-1 season-1, meaning that at least about 137 to 225 kg urea, 50 to 160kg SP-36 and 190 to 339 kg KCl ha-1 season-1 should be given to replace nutrient removed by harvest product andto avoid any nutrients depletion. When all rice straws were returned to the field as compost, about 55 to 133 kg urea,25 to 110 kg SP-36 and 10 to 19 kg KCl ha-1 season-1 should be added to substitute nutrient removed by rice grain.[How to Cite: Sukristiyonubowo, K Nugroho and T Vadari. 2012. Nutrient Removal by Rice Cultivated in Newly Opened Wetland Rice in Bulungan District, East Kalimantan. J Trop Soils 17: 115-120. Doi: 10.5400/jts.2012.17.2.115] [Permalink/DOI: www.dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2012.17.2.115]