Sukar Sukar
Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan, Badan Litbang Kesehatan

Published : 15 Documents
Articles

Found 15 Documents
Search

RADIASI MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN KEJADIAN HIPERTENSI DAN DISTRES DI LINGKUNGAN KERJA Sukar, Sukar; Riyadina, Woro
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 7, No 3 Des (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/jek/article/view/1661

Abstract

The Correlation Between Electric and Magnetic Radiation With The Occurence of Hypertension And Distress in Occupational Field.The Aim of this study was to know between correlation of electric and magnetic radiation with the occurence of hypertension. The study conducted in the seven industries in industrial estate pulogadung (JIEP) Jakarta in 2007. The study desain was cross-sectional. The measurement of the electric and magnetic field near of the equipment were use the strength meter. The hypertension measure of the Hg-tension meter and the distress was use general health quesionaire (GHQ). The result show that 950 participants from seven industries which are followed the study, clasified by activities of industries that 26.2% steel, 22.5% chemical and drug, 21.7% spare part, 13.9% garmen, 7.9% food; 5.7% printing and 2.1% construction. The result of measurement of electric field show 1.57 KV/m higher in the chemical and drug industries and 0.032 KV/m lower in the printing industries. The standard of electric field in the occupational health is 10 KV/m for along term work activities. The magnetic field show the construction industries is higer 16.8 µT and the printing industries lower 1.04 µT. However the standard of the magnetic field the in occupational health for along term work activities is 500 µT. The result of the tension show the proporsion of hypertension was 8.7%, with clasification 20.5% of hypersistolic and 11.1% hyperdiastolic. Analysis statistic the correlation kind of industries and the hypertention is significant diffrenly (P<0.05). The occurence of distress show the construction industries is 50.0%. followed by garmen 46,2% and steel 44.6%. Analysis statistic correlation kind of the industries and the distress is not significant diffrenly (P>0.05).Keywords: Occupational health, electric and magnetic field, hypertension, distress
RISIKO KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT AKIBAT KONSUMSI AIR BERSIH DAN HASIL LAUT YANG MENGANDUNG KADMIUM (CD) DI KEPULAUAN SERIBU Athena, Athena; Musadad, Anwar; Sukar, Sukar
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 7, No 1 Apr (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/jek/article/view/1644

Abstract

The Risk of Public Health Impact of Cadmium (Cd) Contaminated Drinking Water and Marine products in Kepulauan Seribu.Study on the risk assessment of public health impact of Cadmium contaminated drinking waterand marine products (fish and shellfish) was conducted on Lancang, Panggang, Untung Jawa and TidungIs land Kepulauan Seribu District, OK! Jakarta in 2006. The aim of this research was to predict risk due tothe consumption of drinking water and marine products. Forty three samples of drinking the water and 110 samples of marine products were taken. Samples were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), with air-acetylene flame method. One hundred and fifty two respondents who have dietary habits (including marine products consumption) were interviewed to study consumption pattern of drinking water and marine products. The results were: Soil water, rain water, and reverse osmosis product were used as drinking water resources in Kepulauan Seribu which has below detection limit up to 0.021 ppm level of cadmium concentration. More than 30% drinking water samples were exceeding the cadmium concentration standard (regulation of the Ministry of Health, Permenkes no.416/1990). The highest concentration of cadmium was detected in Tidung island (7 times higher than permissible standard levels). The result of marine products sample analysis showed that Cadmium concentration was in the range of 0.024-0.795 part per million (ppm). Risk assessment showed that detected Cd in drinking water and marine products in all area did not have significant impact to its public health (RQ<1).Keywords: Cadmium, risk asssessment, drinking water, marine products
KADAR LOGAM BERAT DI LINGKUNGAN WILAYAH TAMBANG, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT (Heavy Metals Concentration In Mining Area At West Nusa Tenggara) Inswiasri, Inswiasri; Sukar, Sukar; Cahyorini, Cahyorini
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 7, No 1 Apr (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/jek/article/view/1642

Abstract

The aim of research on heavy metals concentration in mining area at West Nusa Tenggara is to find out about environmental pollution caused by the mining activities. The research was done by analyzing heavy metals, such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn in river water, sediment, drinking water, fish, oyster, com, and vegetables using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result shows that heavy metals concentration in river water and sediment are still in normal range according to River Quality class D on PP 20/1990. Heavy metals concentration in drinldng water is at normal range according to Regulation of the Ministry of Health (Permenkes) 907/2002 except for Mn from Sekongkang and Benette. Heavymetals in fish are normal according to regulation of the ministry of health specifically on Food and Drug No. 03725/B/SK/VII/89 except for As. Mean rate of As in fish and oyster around the mine is 0.959 mg/kg and 53.278 mg/kg. From the control area, mean rate for As is 1.666 mg/kg (Regulation of the Ministry of Health special on Food and Drug standard is 1.0 mg/kg). Heavy metals in rice, com, and vegetables are stillin normal range except for Cu in vegetables. Mean rate for Cu in vegetables at mining and control area are 6.116 mg/kg and 6.000 mg/kg (Regulation of the Ministry of Health specifically on Food and Drug standard is 5.0 mg/kg). Further research in heavy metals monitoring, especially in water and fish is needed.Keywords: heavy metals, environment, mining
DAMPAK PERUBAHAN MUSIM TERHADAP KADAR DEBU PM10 LOKASI TRANSPORTASI, INDUSTRI DAN PERMUKIMAN Sukar, Sukar; A., Athena; Hananto, Miko; Zahra, Zahra
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 5, No 2 Agt (2006)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/jek/article/view/1611

Abstract

The Impact of Climate Change to Dust PM10 Concentration on the Transportation, Industrial and Rural Area.Potential sources of dust pollution are common of three major factors (traffic flows, climate variability, land use change) influencing the inter annual variability and long trends of dust pollution. Study was conducted about PM10 pollution in ambient air at traffic loaded, industries and rural in year 2005. The aim of the study was want to know the impact of climate to decrease PM10. The design of study was crosssectional and the gravimetric analysis of PM10 on the environmental laboratory of physical and chemical, health, Centre of Ecology and Health Status Research and Development, NIHRD. The result show the average precentage of impact of climate change to PM10 concentration on transportation, industrial and rural area eachs was 29.9%, 22.2%, and 17.3%. The statistical analysis showed the average of ± standard deviation (SD) concentration from 15 samples was 77.5 ± 23.8 ug/m3 and significantly (95% CI) p value was 0.025 (3.17-44.4). If the comparation of national standard the result of the measurement was not meet standard, however with international standard was meet, especially the European standard.Keywords: Air pollution, PM10, climate change
EVALUASI PENCEMARAN NITRAT-NITRIT PADA AIR MINUM PDAM DI DKI JAKARTA Sukar, Sukar; Tugaswati, A. Tri; Inswiasri, Inswiasri
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 19, No 2 Jun (1991)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/487

Abstract

A survey on drinking water quality was conducted in 1990/1991 to evaluate the impact of organic matters particularly of nitrate-nitrite contamination in raw water. Water samples were taken from Water Supply Enterprices (WSE) in Jakarta, i.e Pejompongan WSE and Pulogadung WSE. The results showed that the treatment efficiency of Pejompongan WSE to reduce nitrate and nitrite concentration was 5% and 82.1% respectively, and that of Pulogadung WSE were 50.0% and 63.2%. The concentration of nitrate in water the supply from Pejompongan WSE and Pulogadung WSE in general is in accordance with the water quality standard. The nitrite level in the water supply from Pejompongan also met the standard, while from Pulogadung did not. It has been observed that the nitrite concentration in water from Pejompongan distribution pipe is increasing with the distance from water treatment installation.
PENURUNAN KADAR KHROM DALAM AIR MENGGUNAKAN CARA PENUKAR ION Sukar, Sukar; Tugaswati, Tri; Suhanda, Suhanda
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 16, No 3 Sept (1988)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/442

Abstract

Chromium hexavalent compound, Cr (VI) are irritant and corrosive, and are absorbed by ingestion through the skin and by inhalation. The extensive use of Cr (VI) compounds in many industrial processes makes those compounds exist in the industrial effluent and may contaminate the rivers. To minimize water pollution, the effluent should be treated first before discharged to rivers. The chromates ion-exchange recovery processes are usualy carried out at an acidic pH. This study was carried out to provide a better process of chromate removal capacity than another process including precipitation, extraction, absorption, and adsorption. Twenty minutes contact time at pH 2 was the optimum recovery by the constant Reynold number.
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN PENYAKIT BATUK DENGAN NAFAS CEPAT PADA BALITA Lubis, Agustina; Soesanto, Sri Soewasti; Kusnindar, Kusnindar; Nainggolan, Riris; Djarismawati, Djarismawati; Sukar, Sukar
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 24, No 2&3 Sept (1996)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/418

Abstract

Acute respiratory infection primarily cough and rapid breathing is a common cause of morbidity and death among children under five years of age. According to The Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health, incidence of acute respiratory infection is 10%. The National Household Health Survey indicated that 25.2% of infant deaths were caused by this disease. The objective of this analysis was to identify the determinant factors related to the occurence of cough with rapid breathing among children under five years of age. Data were taken from Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 1994. The dependent variable was children of under five years of age who were suffering from cough with rapid breathing and as independent variables were mothers education and activities, overcrowding of household occupants, houses wall materials, roof materials and use of kerosene stove. The result showed that among social factors, mothers education and participation in social organization were significantly associated with the morbidity of cough with rapid breathing . The risk of having cough with rapid breathing was 0.7 less likely to occur among children born to mothers who participated in the social organization activities (OR=0.7) compared to mothers who did not participate in those activities. While, among environmental factors: overcrowding of household occupant, housess wall material, use of kerosene stove were significantly associated with the occurance of cough with rapid breathing among children under 5 years of age. The overall analysis of environmental and social factors analysis showed that the risk of children whose mothers have low education and do not participate in social organization activity was 2 times higher than those born to mothers with higher education and participation in social organization activities. The risk of children who lived in houses with floor space less than 10 sq.m/capita and use kerosene stove was 1.7 times higher than children who lived in houses with larger floor space and use other than kerosene stove.
KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT (Hg, Cd, dan Pb) DALAM AIR TANAH PADA PERUMAHAN TIPE KECIL DI JABOTABEK Athena, Athena; Tugaswati, A. Tri; Sukar, Sukar
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 24, No 4 Des (1996)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/331

Abstract

A survey of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) in drinking water at small and very small houses was conducted in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi (Jabotabek), in 1992. The purpose of this study was to get information about water quality and environmental condition of water sources at low cost housing and very low cost housing in Jabotabek. Forty to sixty water samples were taken from each location and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mercury concentration was analyzed using Cold Vapor Technique, whereas Cd and Pb were analized using The Air-acetylene method. Water samples were collected in dry season and rainy season. Interview of the owners of the house and of environmental observation of the water sources were done to get information about the condition of drinking water sources. The highest concentration of mercury detected in Jakarta was in the rainy season (2.50 mg/l). Cadmium and Lead were detected in Bogor, (Cd: 0.26 mg/l) in the rainy season and Pb : 0.16 mg/l in dry season). However 41.5% water samples from Jakarta were exceeding the mercury concentration standard, 25.4% water samples from Bogor were exceeding cadmium concentration standard, and 41.1% water samples from Bogor were exceeding lead concentration standard Heavy metals concentration in drinking water at Bekasi and Tangerang were relatively lower than Bogor and Jakarta. The environmental condition of shallow wells in Bekasi and Tangerang were also better than Bogor and Jakarta.
KUAT MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET PADA PERALATAN RUMAH TANGGA DAN KANTOR Athena, Athena; Tugaswati, Tri; Sukar, Sukar; Soesanto, Sri Soewasti
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 27, No 1 Mar (1999)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/267

Abstract

Measurements of electric and magnetic fields strength of electronic household appliances and office equipments were conducted in Jakarta (Duren Sawit and Paseban sub-districts). Samples of home appliances include television, radio, electric bulb, refrigerator, microwave oven, iron, washing machine, heating jar, AC, and fan. The only samples of office equipment are computers. In addition to home appliances and office equipment, electric and magnetic fields strength were also measured in living rooms, and in office working rooms. The instrument used for the electric and magnetic fields strength measurement is Holaday portable field strength meters model HI 3604. Among all the household samples, television (310 V/m in 100 cm from the source), and iron (1680 V/m in 3 cm from the source) exposed the highest electric field. While the highest magnetic field exposure is from microwave oven (8,25 µT in 3 cm from the source; 4,45 µT in 30 cm from the source; 0,72 µT in 100 cm from the source). The highest electric field exposure of the living room was detected in Paseban district (44,6 V/m) and the higest magnetic field exposure was detected in the working rooms (0,073 µT).In this study the electric and magnetic fields exposures measured from various home appliances, office equipments, and office working rooms were still under the value of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)ZWorld Health Organization (WHO) recommendation in 1990.
PENGARUH PENCEMARAN GAS KHLORIN (CI2) TERHADAP KESEHATAN PENDUDUK JAKARTA SELATAN Sukar, Sukar; Lubis, Agustina; Anwar, Athena; Inswiasri, Inswiasri; Palupi, Kumoro
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 20, No 1 Mar (1992)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/255

Abstract

A survey for determining the health impact of chlorine gas to the community was carried out in Karet Kuningan, South Jakarta from March till September 1991. Health impact of chlorine gas are respiratory, eye and skin disease. Interviews were conducted by propulsive sampling method. The result showed that 43.3% of the respondents living in the study area can smell the chlorine gas pollution but in the control area they could not. In the study area 73.3% and in the control area 90% knew about healthy environment. It is estimated that there was a relationship between chlorine gas pollution with Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI). The report from the same Health Center (H.C) showed that ARI cases were the highest among other diseases in this research area. Through the study it was found that there were 12 cases (8.1%) of ARI consisting of 3 cases of cough, 3 children, 4 adults and 2 elderlies with breathing problems. It was not proven that there was any relation between the chlorine gas pollution and ARI, eye and skin diseases, but since chlorine gas was detected in this area there is an indication that chlorine gas pollution has already occured. It is suggested that the monitoring of chlorine gas should be carried out not only in the study area, but also in similar areas where there are concentrations of industries with chlorine gas emission.