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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING MODEL ON BUFFER SOLUTION AND HYDROLYSIS MATERIAL IN INCREASING OBESRVATION AND INTERPRETATION COMPETENCES suhendar, usep; diawati, chansyanah; fadiawati, noor
Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Kimia
Publisher : Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia FKIP Unila

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Abstract

The objectives of this research were to find out the effective learning model in increasing observation and interpretation competencies on buffer solution and hydrolysis subjects.  Observation and interpretation competencies were part of science process competency (SPC).  In line with the objectives of the research, problem colving learning model was applied in learning that is part of constructivism approach. The research method was experiment quasi with the non equivalence control group design.  By using purposive sampling technique the sample of this research was XI IPA 1 and XI IPA 3 class. Based on the calculation of hypotesis testing, the result of this research were; (1) problem solving learning model was effective in increasing observation competency (2) problem solving learning model was effective in increasing interpretation competency. Keywords  : observation competency, interpretation competency, problem solving                     model
GEOGRAPHYCAL EFFECT ON THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF Annona muricata L. LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST MCF7 CANCER CELL Suhendar, Usep
FITOFARMAKA | Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi Vol 8, No 2 (2018): Fitofarmaka Volume 8.2 2018
Publisher : Universitas Pakuan

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Abstract

Many studies have shown the anti-cancer activities of the chemical compounds extracted from the leaves of Annona muricata or soursop plant. Cianjur dan Sukabumi are quite large soursop producing area in Indonesia. This study was carried out to determine the difference of cytotoxic activity of soursop leaves ethanolic extract which were harvested from three different areas of Cianjur (I, II, III) dan Sukabumi (I, II, III). The Soursop leaves were macerated with 70% ethanol using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method. The extract was tested in vitro on breast cancer cell line MCF7 dan its constituent was identified using GC-MS apparatus. The results showed that the highest cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 9.12 µg ml-1 was determined on the extract of soursop leaves harvested from Cianjur III area. Qualitative identification of chemical constituent shows that the soursop leaves contain alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoid, tannin dan saponin compounds. No steroid compound was detected in the extract. It can be concluded that the geographical regions affected the biochemical properties of soursop leaves. Keyword : Anticancer, breast cancer, cytotoxic, MCF7, soursop leaf extract 
GEOGRAPHYCAL EFFECT ON THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF Annona muricata L. LEAVES ETHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST MCF-7 CANCER CELL Suhendar, Usep
FITOFARMAKA: Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi Vol 8, No 2 (2018): Fitofarmaka Volume 8 No. 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : Universitas Pakuan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (38.814 KB) | DOI: 10.33751/jf.v8i2.1065

Abstract

Many studies have shown the anti-cancer activities of the chemical compounds extracted from the leaves of Annona muricata or soursop plant. Cianjur and Sukabumi are quite large soursop producing area in Indonesia. This study was carried out to determine the difference of cytotoxic activity of soursop leaves ethanolic extract which were harvested from three different areas of Cianjur (I, II, III) and Sukabumi (I, II, III). The Soursop leaves were macerated with 70% ethanol using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method. The extract was tested in vitro on breast cancer cell line MCF7 and its constituent was identified using GC-MS apparatus. The results showed that the highest cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 9.12 µg ml-1 was determined on the extract of soursop leaves harvested from Cianjur III area. Qualitative identification of chemical constituent shows that the soursop leaves contain alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoid, tannin and saponin compounds. No steroid compound was detected in the extract. It can be concluded that the geographical regions affected the biochemical properties of soursop leaves.
IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN CENGKEH (Syzygium aromaticum) SEBAGAI INHIBITOR Streptococcus mutans Suhendar, Usep; Sogandi, Sogandi
Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi Vol 12, No 2 (2019): Al-Kauniyah Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islami

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15408/kauniyah.v12i2.12251

Abstract

AbstrakKaries gigi adalah penyakit yang umum dialami oleh masyarakat yang terjadi karena buruknya kebersihan mulut. Kebiasaan masyarakat yang kurang menjaga kebersihan mulut mengakibatkan terbentuknya plak. Plak pada gigi terbentuk karena aktivitas dari berbagai macam mikroorganisme di mulut. Mikroorganisme yang diketahui terlibat dalam pembentukan karies gigi adalah Streptococcus mutans. Salah satu bahan alternatif sebagai antibakteri adalah daun cengkeh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa bioaktif daun cengkeh dan mengetahui mekanisme aksinya dalam menghambat pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Daun cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum) yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini dimaserasi menggunakan metanol 96%. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar, senyawa bioaktif diidentifikasi menggunakan gas chromatography mass spectrometry dan perubahan membran sel bakteri diamati dengan scanning electron microscopy. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak metanol daun cengkeh memiliki aktivitas penghambatan terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans dengan zona hambat sebesar ±32 mm serta nilai konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) 20% ekstrak. Mekanisme aksi penghambatan ekstrak daun cengkeh terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri diduga dengan membuat lubang pada membran sel bakteri. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa daun cengkeh memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol-eugenol, caryophyllene 1,4,7,-cycloundecatriene, 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl, phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl), dan eugenol acetate yang dapat menjadi kandidat penghasil senyawa aktif untuk mengatasi karies gigi.Abstract Dental caries is a common disease experienced by people who do not maintain oral hygiene. Habits of not maintain oral hygiene result in the formation of plaque. The microorganism known to be involved in the formation of dental caries is Streptococcus mutans. Plants that have antibacterial properties, such as clove (Syzygium aromaticum) leaf, can be an alternative for carrying this problem. This study aims to identify the bioactive compounds of clove leaves and to determine the mechanism of its action in inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Clove leaves were macerated using 96% methanol for the extraction. Antibacterial activity was examined by agar diffusion method, bioactive compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and bacterial cell membrane changes were observed by an image captured using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the methanol extract of clove leaf had inhibitory activity on Streptococcus mutans growth, with inhibitory zones of ±32 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20% extract. It was suspected that the mechanism of inhibitory action is by making pores in the bacterial cell membrane. The results also showed that the clove leaves contain bioactive compounds of 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol-eugenol, caryophyllene, 1,4,7, -cycloundecatriene, 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl, phenol, 2 -methoxy-4- (2-propenyl), and eugenol acetate which can be candidates for producing active compounds to overcome dental caries.