Mohamad Rahmad Suhartanto
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian IPB Jl. Meranti Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680

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Metode Pengusangan Cepat untuk Pengujian Vigor Daya Simpan Benih Cabai (Capsicum annuumL.)

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The ability of seed to maintain seed quality during storage is called seed vigor. Accurate method for seed vigor testing of pepper seeds is necessary to accurately determine seed storability during seed distribution. The aim of this research was to determine the best accelerated aging method (AAM) of pepper seed. Freshly harvested seeds of Capsicum annuumL., IPB C9 genotype were used in this study. The experiment used randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experimental treatments were seed vigor testing methods i.e. natural deterioration test at room temperature in controlled humidity (RH 90-95%), and four AAM (hot water 60 ºC, methanol 20%, ethanol 20%, and high temperature at 40 ºC). The best method was selected using analysis of variance, coeficient of variance, regresion dan t student analysis. AAM using 20% methanol at periods of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours was the best method of seed vigor testing for pepper seed. Keywords: accelerated aging, deterioration, ethanol, methanol, high temperature

Fluoresen Klorofil Benih: Parameter Baru dalam Penentuan Mutu Benih

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 31, No 1 (2003): Buletin Agronomi
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

It has been shown that chlorophyll content of seeds was negatively correlated with germinability towards the end of maturation.  Physiological maturity was achieved when the chlorophyll fluorescence reached a minimum.  The presence of chlorophyll in seeds and its relation with the progress of seed maturation has gained renewed interest after the development of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF).  This equipment is able to measure and analyze chlorophyll fluorescence in the seed instantaneously and non-destructively.  The use of LIF makes it possible to perform physiological and biochemical assays after chlorophyll fluorescence measurement in the same seeds.  Based on the results from some experiments as well as the literature, the role of chlorophyll in developing seeds is presented.  The overall conclusion is that chlorophyll is required during seed development, but undesirable during maturation.  We hypothesize that the presence of chlorophyll during seed maturation is undesirable since it is associated with lower quality, particularly lower seed longevity.  Chlorophyll may also be a primary source of free radicals.  Seed chlorophyll fluorescence was affected by endogenous abscisic acid, gibberellins and phytochrome. Light, temperature and relative humidity may also influence the chlorophyll fluorescence of seeds.   Key words: Chlorophyl, Fluorescence,  Parameter, Seed testing

Optimasi Pengeringan Benih Jagung dengan Perlakuan Prapengeringan dan Suhu Udara Pengeringan

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 41, No 3 (2013): JURNAL AGRONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pengeringan benih jagung melalui pengembangan rancangan sistempengeringan dan melakukan kombinasi perlakuan prapengeringan dengan suhu udara pengeringan untuk mendapatkan mutubenih yang maksimum. Prapengeringan dapat dilakukan dengan cara menghembuskan udara suhu kamar menggunakanmesin blower dan dilakukan sebelum benih jagung diberikan perlakuan udara panas. Penelitian terdiri atas 3 tahap, yaitu(1) Perancangan sistem pengeringan, (2) Optimasi pengeringan benih jagung, dan (3) Analisis ekonomi. Kegiatan pertamaterdiri atas 2 tahap, yaitu pembuatan dan pengujian mini box dryer. Optimasi pengeringan benih jagung terdiri atas 2 faktorperlakuan, yaitu prapengeringan (0, 12, 24, dan 36 jam), dan suhu udara pengeringan (40, 45, 50, dan 55 °C), menggunakanrancangan kelompok lengkap teracak dengan 3 ulangan. Analisis mutu fisik dan fisiologis dilakukan untuk mendapatkanperlakuan yang mampu menghasilkan benih dengan kualitas baik. Analisis ekonomi dilakukan untuk mengetahui perlakuanyang memiliki B/C Ratio paling tinggi. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan prapengeringan 36jam dan suhu udara pengeringan 50 °C merupakan perlakuan optimum pada pengeringan benih jagung, karena mampu menghasilkan benih dengan kualitas baik dan memiliki B/C Ratio paling tinggi.Kata kunci: mini box dryer, optimasi pengeringan benih, prapengeringan, suhu udara pengeringan

EVALUASI VIGOR DAYA SIMPAN BENIH PADA BERBAGAI GENOTIPE CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) DENGAN METODE PENGUSANGAN CEPAT

E-Journal Widya Kesehatan dan Lingkungan Vol 1 No 1 (2014)
Publisher : E-Journal Widya Kesehatan dan Lingkungan

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Abstract

Abstrak:       Percobaan ini bertujuan mengevaluasi metode pengusangan cepat methanol 20% selama 0, 2, 4, 6 dan 8 jam pada benih cabai hibrida, non hibrida, lokal, introduksi, rawit dan besar yang diproduksi pada tahun 2009 dan 2010. Jumlah genotipe benih non hibrida 4 (2009) dan 4 (2010). Jumlah genotipe benih hibrida 10 (2009) dan 8 (2010). Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis sudut kemiringan garis regressi yang merupakan sudut  perbandingan ordinat dan axis. Rekapitulasi hasil evaluasi vigor daya simpan benih cabai menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan antara benih produksi tahun 2009 dan 2010, dan benih cabai hibrida dan  non hibrida, serta benih cabai lokal dan introduksi. Perbedaan terdapat pada benih cabai rawit dan besar dan laju penurunannya cabai besar lebih cepat dibandingkan benih cabai rawit.  Hal ini terjadi juga pada tolok ukur daya hantar listrik yang merupakan tolok ukur terbaik untuk vigor daya simpan benih. Hal ini menunjukkan besarnya pengaruh lingkungan terhadap vigor daya simpan benih cabai. Kata kunci: deteriorasi alami, laju kemiringan vigor daya simpan benih cabai. Abstract    The experiment was designed to evaluate the accelerated aging method with 20% methanol for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours which is the first stage of the experimental results at several pepper seed genotypes including hybrid seeds, non hybrid, local, introduction, pepper and great pepper produced in 2009 and 2010. The seeds used are non-hybrid seed as much as 4 genotype seed production in 2009 and 4 genotype seed production in 2010. Hybrid seeds used were 10 genotypes of production in 2009 and 8 genotypes of production in 2010. Data analysis done is the analysis of the slope angle of regression line slope which is resulting from the comparison of the ordinate and the axis. Recapitulation of the pepper seeds vigor storage evaluation results showed that the seed production in 2009 and 2010 there was no difference between the hybrid and non-hybrid pepper seeds and the local and introduction pepper seeds, but there are consistent differences between great chili and chili pepper seeds, the rate of decline of the great chili is greater than the chili pepper. This shows the magnitude of environmental influences on seed pepper seeds vigor storage. Exclusively in electrical conductivity benchmark, which is one of the pepper seeds vigor storage best benchmark shows that the rate of decline in seed vigor between the hybrid and non hybrid seeds and the local and introduction pepper seeds.. Key words: natural deterioration, the rate of decline seed pepper vigor test in relation  to storability

ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI CENDAWAN TERBAWA BENIH KAKAO HIBRIDA

Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri Vol 18, No 1 (2012): Maret 2012
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

ABSTRAKBenih merupakan komponen dasar dalam menentukan produktivitastanaman kakao. Benih yang sehat dapat merupakan faktor penting dalammenentukan keberhasilan produktivitas kakao. Benih kakao mempunyaikadar air cukup tinggi sehingga berpotensi terinfeksi cendawan, yangdapat menurunkan mutu benih dan produksi kakao. Penelitian bertujuanuntuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi beberapa cendawan terbawa benihpada kakao hibrida. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Induk Benih PusatPenelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, Jember, Laboratorium Mikro-biologi, Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, danLaboratorium Pengendalian Hayati IPB Bogor pada bulan Juni sampaiOktober 2008. Penelitian menggunakan benih kakao hibrida dari hasilpersilangan buatan antar TSH 858 dengan Sca 6, dan percobaan disusundengan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Benih ditumbuhkanpada 3 media, yaitu water agar (WA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), dankertas saring (KS). Tingkat infeksi pada benih diamati setiap hari dandianalisis dengan analisis sidik ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji selangberganda Duncan. Cendawan diisolasi, dibiakkan, dimurnikan, dandiidentifikasi dengan menggunakan buku kunci identifikasi. Tingkatinfeksi cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida tertinggi terdapat pada harikeempat (35,00%) dan kelima (51,67%) pada media PDA. Sebanyak 13spesies cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida berhasil diidentifikasidengan menggunakan media WA dan PDA, serta 8 spesies cendawandengan media KS. Ke-13 cendawan terbawa benih yang ditemukan sangatberpotensi menurunkan mutu fisiologis benih dan produktivitas kakao.Cendawan tersebut perlu diuji lebih lanjut karena masing-masing memilikisifat-sifat patogenik, saprofitik, atau antagonistis terhadap cendawan lainpada benih kakao. Cendawan terbawa benih kakao hibrida paling dominanadalah Aspergillus spp., Penicillium chrysogenium, Coletotrichumacutatum, Curvularia geniculata, dan Fusarium spp. Cendawan-cendawanyang diduga berbahaya adalah Aspergillus spp., Coletotrichum acutatum,Curvularia  geniculata,  Fusarium  spp.,  Phoma  glomerata,  danMacrophoma sp., dan yang diduga bersifat patogenik adalah Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium herbanum, Curvulariageniculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma glomerata, dan Macrophoma sp.Kata kunci : Theobroma cacao, benih hibrida, infeksi cendawan, mediatanamIsolation and Identification of Fungi on Hybrid Cacao SeedsABSTRACTSeed is the basic component influencing the productivity of cacaoplantation. Healthy seed is the most important factor in determining thesuccess of cacao productivity. Moisture content of cacao seeds is quitehigh potentially to cause fungi infection, which can further reduce seedquality and cacao production. The research aimed at isolating andidentifying several seedborne fungi on hybrid cacao. The study wasconducted at main nursery of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa ResearchInstitute Jember, Laboratory of Microbiology, Indonesian BiotechnologyResearch Institute for Estate Crops, and the Laboratory for BiologicalControl of IPB Bogor from June to October 2008. Research used hybridcacao seeds derived from crossing between TSH 858 x SCA 6, and theexperiment was arranged using completely randomized design with threereplicates. Cacao seeds were grown on three media, i.e. water agar (WA),potato dextrose agar (PDA), and filter paper (KS). Infection rates on theseedlings were observed every day and analyzed using ANOVA followedby Duncans multiple regression test (DMRT). Fungi were isolated,cultured, purified, and identified using the identification keys. The highestrate of seedborn fungal infection occured on fourth (35.00%) and fifth(51.67%) days on PDA media. A total of 13 species of seedborn fungi onhybrid cocoa were identified by using WA and PDA media, as well as 8other species by using KS. The 13 seedborne fungi potentially reduce seedphysiological quality and cacao productivity. These fungi need to befurther tested because each has its own pathogenic, saprophytic, orantagonistic properties towards other fungi on cacao seeds. Predominantseedborn fungi on hybrid cacao were Aspergillus spp., Penicilliumchrysogenium, Coletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia geniculata, andFusarium spp. The fungi suspected harmful were Aspergillus spp.,Coletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia geniculata, Fusarium spp., Phomaglomerata, and Macrophoma sp., and those suspected pathogenic wereAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium herbanum,Curvularia geniculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma glomerata, andMacrophoma sp.Key words : Theobroma cacao, fungi infection, hybrid seed, growingmedia