Nobuo Sugiyama
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan

Published : 12 Documents
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Journal : Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy)

Effect of Sector (Position in Canopy) on Allocation of 13 C-photosynthates in Mangosteen Setiawan, Eko; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Fukuda, Fumio; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Saitoh, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Naohiro
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

We investigated the effect of sector (position in canopy) on translocation and distribution of 13C-photosynthates in  mangosteen trees and related the findings to previous analyses of fruit quality. Our experiment was conducted on three 25-year-old mangosteen trees. Tree canopies were divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top) and width (inner, center, outer). One branch from each sector was labeled with 13CO2 in December 2003. Immediately after labeling, 13C concentration in leaves from middle sectors was higher than that in leaves from other positions. 13C concentration in all leaves decreased rapidly for 24 h after 13C feeding, followed by a gradual decrease. In contrast, 13C concentration increased over time in the pericarp and aril of fruits. Translocation of 13C-photosynthates into fruit was high in Sectors 4 and 5, and in top positions (Sectors 7 to 9). At 96 h after 13C feeding, the highest distribution ratio of 13C-photosynthates was observed in stems, followed in descending order by pericarp, leaf, and aril. 13C distribution ratio in the aril was generally highest in fruits from inner and center positions. The relationship between partitioning of photosynthates and quality of mangosteen fruit, which differs among sectors, has been discussed. Keywords: fruiting positions, Garcinia mangostanaL., photosynthate partitioning, 13C, tree branches
Nitrogen and Potassium Applications on the Growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Santosa, Edi; Setiasih, Ika; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Productivity of Amorphophallus muelleri is considered low. Thus, pot experiment was conducted at the Cikabayan Experimental Farm, Bogor Indonesia during rainy season November 2007 to July 2008, in order to determine the optimum fertilizer dose for A. muelleri under 50% shading net. Treatments consisted of four doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N) and three doses of potassium (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 K2O). The results showed that application of N and K fertilizers significantly increased vegetative growth, i.e., number of leaves, number of leaflets and second leaf size, but did not affect harvesting time. Fresh weight and dry matter content of daughter corm were significantly affected by N and K applications. Combination of 50 kg ha-1 N and 100 kg ha-1 K2O resulted in higher corm weight than other treatments. It is evident that the application of nitrogen and potassium is important in A. muelleri.   Keywords: disease infection, iles-iles, Indonesian konjac, nitrogen, potassium
Effects of Pot Sizes and the Number of Plants per Pot on the Growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Mine, Yoko; Santosa, Edi; Amaki, Wakanori; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

 To determine the effects of pot sizes and the number of plants per pot on the growth of Amorphophallus muelleri, seed corms weighing 100-125 g were planted in polyethylene pots.  In the first experiment, a corm was planted in pots containing various amounts of growth media: i.e., 0.25, 0.40, 0.50, 1.00, 1.33, 2.00 and 4.00 kg.  In the second experiment, different numbers of plants, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, were grown in pots containing 4.00 kg of growth media.  When plants were grown in pots containing a small amount of media (1.33 kg pot–1 or less), they produced small daughter corms and entered dormancy earlier than usual.  The number of plants per pot had little effect on corm weight if the amount of growth media per plant was 0.80 kg or greater.  As a result, corm yield increased with an increase in the number of plants per pot.  The period from corm planting to harvest was slightly longer when only 1 plant was grown in a pot than when 2–5 plants were grown in the same-sized pot.  This study suggested that the low productivity of A. muelleri in shallow soil was associated not only with a small amount of soil per plant but also with limited rooting volume.   Keywords: available water, competition, dormancy, plant density, soil depth
Genetic variations of Amorphophallus variabilisBlume (Araceae) in Java using AFLP Santosa, Edi; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Hikosaka, Shoko
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Amorphophallus variabilisBlume, a member of Araceae, is a native tuber crop in Java, Madura and Kangean Islands, Indonesia. The plant showed high variations in morphology. However, genetic variations at molecular level have not been well studied. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was carried out using 8 primers combination of EcoRI and MseI on 78 accessions collected from 28 sites in Java, Indonesia. Results showed that AFLP markers able to generate polymorphism among accessions. A total of 220 polymorphisms were found. The differences among accessions at the genetic level were high, and 5 clusters were constructed. Grouping was independent of geographical origin, similar to clustering of morphological characteristic of flowers as in the previous report. Accessions from one site composed of one to four different cluster groups, showed that variation in single site was observed. Regarding conservation program of the A. variabilisin natural population, it is reasonable to protect one bigger site rather than many small sites, but it should be recommended to maintain conservation areas in several districts. Further study on population structure should be carried out to explain such variability. Keywords: genetic diversity, iles-iles, molecular marker, morphology, tuber crop
Growth and Production of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Dennst. Nicolson from Different Corm Weights Santosa, Edi; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The effect of different seed corm weight on the growth and production of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeonifolius Dennst. Nicolson) were studied. Two forms of corm with same weight were prepared, i.e., whole corm and vertically sectioned by 1/2. The fresh mass of each whole corm and corm section was the same. Six different corm weights were compared, i.e., 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 g. Growth and development of  elephant foot yam were determined by corm weigth, large seed corm produced larger leaf and fresh mass of daughter corms. On the contrary, number of leaf decreased with increasing seed corm weight. Plants from whole seed corms emerged earlier and they were larger than those from the sectioned corms, irrespective of weight. Plants from small sized whole corm emerged earlier than the larger ones. Dissecting the main bud caused the development of lateral buds, resulted in a delay of leaf emergence. The lower yield obtained by the use of sections might be related to the late emergence leading to shorter vegetative period in the field. In the cultivation, it is recommended to use whole seed corms of 100 or 200 g.   Key words :  Elephant foot yams, tuber crop, Araceae, corm weight, tuberization rate
KNO 3 Application Affect Growth and Production of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Santosa, Edi; Halimah, Siti; Susila, Anas D.; Lonto, Adolf P.; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 41, No 3 (2013): JURNAL AGRONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPemberian larutan KNO3 diduga dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleriBlume). Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh pemberian larutan KNO terhadap produktivitas A. muelleri. Umbiutuh umur satu tahun dengan bobot 100-125 g ditanam dalam polibag yang ditempatkan di bawah naungan paranet 50%pada musim hujan (September 2010-April 2011) di Bogor, Indonesia. Lima taraf larutan KNO3 yaitu 0, 2, 4, 6 dan 8% (b/v)diberikan melalui daun dan melalui tanah. Larutan diberikan 2 kali sebulan mulai 12 minggu setelah tanam (MST). Hasilmenunjukkan bahwa pemberian KNO3-13 nyata mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman, khususnya meningkatkan jumlah daundan memperpanjang masa vegetatif. Pemberian KNO pada taraf 4% memberikan pengaruh tertinggi jika diberikan melaluidaun. Pemberian KNO33 taraf 4% memberikan pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi jika diberikan melalui daun dibandingkanmelalui tanah. Secara umum, tidak ada pengaruh nyata pada pertumbuhan tanaman akibat pemberian dosis KNO yangdiberikan melalui tanah. Penelitian berimplikasi bahwa pemberian pupuk KNO melalui daun pada taraf 4% dapatditingkatkan efektivitasnya jika kerusakan pada anak daun dapat diminimalkan. Kerusakan daun cenderung meningkat padadaun tua, oleh karena itu, studi lanjut perlu dilakukan terkait waktu aplikasi yang tepat.Kata kunci: iles-iles, kalium nitrat, pupuk daun, pertumbuhan vegetatif
Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Development of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. Santosa, Edi; Pramono, Sigit; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 42, No 2 (2014): Jurnal agronomi indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) produces apomictic seeds lead to low genetic variation. In order to induce genetic variation, germinated seeds were exposed to Gamma irradiation (Co-60) at doses of 10 to 100 Gy. Seed irradiation was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Irradiation Technology -National Nuclear Energy Agency (CAIRT), Indonesia. Morphology and yield of M1 generation were observed. Results showed that irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy close to LD50 with survival rate 56%. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy delayed seeds germination.  Germination rates gradually increased and reached maximum at 4 weeks after planting (WAP) for control plants, and 14 WAP of irradiated plants. At 16 WAP, germination rate of 10 Gy irradiated plants was 56% and 84% for those of control plants. Irradiation induced chimera as indicated by short petiole, variegated and abnornal shape of leaflets. Some irradiated plants entered dormancy at 8-10 weeks later than control ones. Prolong vegetative periode lead the plants to produce heavier corms. This study revealed the possibility to induce variation of A. muelleri by using gamma irradition. Keywords: Amorphophallus muelleri, gamma irradiation (Co-60), morphological variation, mutation breeding